engine or train.
Upon a double track road, when a portion of
a train is left upon the main line, from accident
or inability of the engine to take the whole for-
ward, the engineman must not return for it on
the same line except by written instructions
from the conductor, but must go on the proper
line and cross at the nearest point behind
the part left (unless there is a crossing in its
immediate front), which he must push before
him till convenient to go in front again with
the engine. If the engineman finds it necessary
to return to the rear portion of his train on the
122 Railway Service :
same line, he must, before starting with the
front portion, send his fireman back to the con-
ductor to obtain the necessary written instruc-
tions authorizing him to do so, and. if he give
such instructions, the conductor must continue
to protect his train in the rear and prevent a
following train pushing it ahead, except upon
inclines worked under special rules. 1
I. " In the event of an accident occurring, whereby one of the
main lines is obstructed, the traffic in both directions must be
carried on by the other line ; but this must not be done until
the following rule is rigidly put in force :
" A pilot engine must at once be procured, and in the event
of there not being a pilot at hand, the engine of a goods or
coal train must be taken temporarily for the purpose, and
written orders having been given, at both ends of the single
line, by the chief officer on the spot, that no engine or train be
allowed to go on to it without the pilot engine is at the end
from which the train is about to start, the district agent, clerk
in charge of the principal station near which the obstruction
has taken place, or other officer, will proceed to pass the traffic
on one line, accompanying the pilot engine backwards and for-
wards, and directing the arrangements at both ends of the
single line. If no pilot engine can be procured, one man,
whose name must be given to the person in charge of such
contiguous stations or crossings, must be appointed, in writing,
to act as pilptman, and he must ride on every train or engine
in both directions, and no train or engine must move from the
said stations or crossings unless this man is riding with it : and
this one man must continue riding to and fro between the afore-
said places until relieved, and a successor named in writing, at
the two ends of the single line then being worked." Gt, Nor.
"In case of accident blocking or breaking one track and
requiring a train to pass along the wrong track, the utmost
caution must be exercised, and no train or engine must be per-
mitted to proceed on the wrong line without a memorandum in
writing from the person in authority at the spot where the
accident had happened, and station agents must be satisfied
that such orders have been given and received, that all trains
have been stopped until the arrival of the one they dispatched
on the wrong track." N. Y. Road, 1854.
Trains and Stations. 123
THIRD TRACK, OR MIDDLE SIDINGS. 1
The middle sidings, or third track, must be
used by trains (in either direction) whenever it
is necessary to turn out to allow trains of a su-
perior class running in the same direction to
A half-way post will be placed in the center
of each middle siding ; trains in either direction
may run to the half-way post at a speed not
exceeding six miles per hour, but must not run
beyond it, except under the protection of dan-
When trains pass the half-way post, they
must run at a speed not exceeding four miles
per hour, to enable the signalman to keep not
less than six hundred yards in advance of the
When two trains meet on a middle siding, the
train nearest the switch shall be backed, keeping
a flagman not less than six hundred yards in
advance ; but when there are crossing-switches
in the center of a middle siding, they must be
used in all cases when the backing of either
train from the siding on to the main track can
All trains are required to use middle sidings
I. No changes whatever have been made by me in the regu-
lations governing the use of the third track. I have accepted
them just as I find them in operation on one of our greatest as
well as one of our most carefully managed roads. M. M. K.
124 Railway Service :
with great care ; they must invariably run
expecting to meet an opposing train, whether
opposing trains are due or not.
Care must be exercised by persons when
The coupling apparatus of cars or engines is
not always uniform in style, size or strength,
and is liable to be broken.
It is, therefore, dangerous to expose the hands,
arms or persons of those engaged in coupling
Employe's are, therefore, directed to examine,
so as to know beforehand, the kind and condi-
tion of the drawhead, drawbar, link and coup-
ling apparatus, and are prohibited from placing
in the trains any car with a defective coupling.
Sufficient time is allowed and may be taken by
employes to make the examination required.
Coupling by hand is prohibited in all cases
where a stick can be used to guide the link or
shackle ; and each switchman, brakeman or
other employ^ who may be expected to couple
cars, is required to provide himself with a stick
for that purpose.
Uncoupling cars while in motion should also
Trains and Stations. 125
MISCELLANEOUS ORDERS RELATIVE TO TRAINS.
Regular trains will be run in accordance with
the schedule, except when otherwise ordered
by the Superintendent.
No passenger train must be stopped at a sta-
tion where it is not timed to call, for the pur-
pose of taking up or setting down passengers,
without special authority. 1
The time indicated in the schedule is the
arriving time of trains, except when the time
of departure is expressly stated.
Large, full-faced figures upon the schedule,
opposite a station, indicate that other trains are
met or passed at that station.
Trains shall be run uniformly and steadily
between stations, and delayed as little as pos-
sible for fuel and water, and for the transaction
of station business.
Passenger trains shall be drawn, not pushed,
except in case of accident or other emergency. 2
When express or freight cars are hauled in a
1. "All passenger trains are to stop at the stations men-
tioned on the time bills, whether there be passengers to alight
from the carriages or not." Gt. Northern Ry. Eng.
2. " No engine must be allowed to push a train of carriages
or wagons on the main line, unless within station limits, but
must in all cases draw it, except under special regulations when
assisting up inclines, or when required to start a train from a
station. In case of an engine being disabled on the road, the
succeeding engine may push the train slowly to the next siding,
or cross-over road, at which place the pushing engine must take
the lead." English Standard.
126 Railway Service :
passenger train, they must be placed next to the
No train shall start without a signal from its
conductor, and conductors must not give the
signal until they know that the cars, including
the air brake hose, are properly coupled.
At points where registers are kept, or where
train boards or indicators are located, it is the
duty of those in charge to see that the arrival
and departure of trains are accurately and
promptly noted thereon, the grade of the train
being given in each instance.
When the track is clear, a white signal
must be displayed from stations where trains
pass without stopping.
Pieces of wood or coal must not be thrown
from an engine or train when in motion, lest sec-
tionmen or others be injured thereby.
Flying switches must not be made, except
at places or by persons authorized by the
Superintendent. In the absence of such
authority a switch rope must be used. 1
No person will be permitted to ride on the
engine or tender without an order from the
Superintendent, except the engineman, fireman,
inspector of engines, and road masters in the
i. " Double shunting is strictly prohibited, except when
done by engines specially used for the purpose of shunting,
and attended by experienced shunters. Fly shunting of empty
vehicles against loaded passenger trains, and of vehicles con-
taining passengers or live stock is strictly prohibited." Eng-
Trains and Stations. 127
discharge of their duties on their respective
divisions, and trainmen, in cases of accident,
or whenever necessary.
Employes, when on duty in connection with
the train service, will be under the authority,
and conform to the orders, of the Superin-
tendent of the division upon which they may
happen to be at work.
Mail agents, messengers of express compa-
nies, sleeping car conductors and porters, news
agents, and individuals in charge of private
cars, must consider themselves as employe's in
all matters connected with the movement and
government of trains, and must conform to the
directions of the conductors of the trains upon
which they may be employed.
Conductors and enginemen are required to
compare time daily with the standard time of
In order to insure uniform time being kept
at all the stations on the line, to which time
is not telegraphed, the following regulations
should be strictly observed :
Each conductor must, before starting on his
journey, satisfy himself that his watch is cor-
rect with the standard clock, and must again
compare it, and regulate it, if necessary, at
the end of his journey, before commencing his
The conductor in charge of the first passen-
128 Railway Service :
ger train (starting after 8 A. M.), stopping at
all stations on the portion of the main line, or
branch over which it runs, must, on his arrival
at each station at which there is no telegraph
office, give the agent or other person in charge
the precise time, in order that the station clock
may be regulated accordingly ; and, in the event
of the time given by the conductor differing
from that of the station clock, the latter must
be altered to agree.
The agents will be held responsible for keep-
ing their clocks properly regulated in accordance
with this order, and must at once report to the
Superintendent any serious defects that may
occur in their working, in order that the neces-
sary steps may be taken for their immediate
Conductors of trains running at night, upon
a single track road, are required to report in
person to the operator at every night telegraph
office at which they stop.
At night the conductors of freight trains will
make and sign duplicate statements (memo-
randum cards) of the time of leaving each
station, and give such statements to the tele-
graph operator, or, in case there is no operator,
to the watchman. When the next train going
in the same direction arrives, the operator or
watchman will hand the copy to the engineman
of such train. Enginemen will be on the look-
Trains and Stations. 129
out to receive such notices as they pass stations.
At stations where train registers are kept for
the information of trainmen, this rule need not
All accidents, detention of trains, failure in
any way of engines, or defects in the road or
bridges, must be reported to the Superintendent
by telegraph from the next station. 1
THE TRACK. 3
" The laborers must be in squads of such num-
ber and force as the roadmaster may direct,
and to each squad there must be a foreman,
who must work constantly with his squad, and
be held responsible for the faithful and efficient
execution of the work under his care." 3
The safety of life and property requires that
sectionmen should be especially vigilant in foggy
weather and during and after storms. 4
1. "Conductors and engineers are required to report
promptly any defect they may discover in the track, to the
Superintendent of repairs of track." 1853.
2. Generally speaking, only those rules that immediately
affect the movement and safety of trains are embraced herein.
"THE ROAD-MASTER'S ASSISTANT," by Huntington, revised by
Latimer, C. E. A. A. G. W. R. W., and published under the
auspices of the Railroad Gazette, contains a very clear and
exhaustive statement of the duties and responsibilities of track-
men. It is worthy of the perusal of managers and trackmen.
3. "In each gang of platelayers or men repairing the per-
manent way, there shall be a foreman or ganger" Eng.
4. " They must see that after all heavy winds, rains, and
other storms, and during the same, the men are out on the road
130 Railway Service :
In no case, except in the most absolute
necessity, is a rail to be displaced or any other
work to be performed, by which an obstruction
may be made to the passage of the trains during
a fog or snow storm, and the times for effecting
repairs which involve the stopping of trains
must, as far as practicable, be so selected as to
interfere as little as possible with the passage
of the traffic. 1
" In case of accident to trains the nearest
section foreman will at once take his whole
ready to render such assistance as may be required, and to
give proper warning to the trains, and to repair such damages
and remove such obstructions as are necessary.
" In foggy weather, when a. train can not be seen at three
hundred yards, all the foremen and laborers must leave their
ordinary work, and the foreman must range them along his
portion of the line, over which they must walk up and down,
driving such spikes and keys, or doing such other work as needs
attention, and be ready to give notice of danger to the signal-
men or the trains.
" They must see that such buckets, axes, and other tools
are kept at the bridges and other structures, as to protect them
from fire and other damage ; and that each squad of laborers
is supplied with, and keeps ready for use when at work on the
road, white and red flags, lanterns, and torpedoes.
" They must see that all rocks, stones, earth, trees, stumps,
and other things that are likely and liable to fall on the track
or endanger the trains, be thrown down or removed, and such
other measures taken as to insure the safety of the road." 1854.
" Trackmen should appreciate the fact, that the safety of
the lives of passengers, and of the property transported over
the road, is largely dependent upon their watchfulness and
discretion, and that any failure to discharge their duties
promptly and thoroughly may result in the destruction of both."
I. " In all cases, before taking out a rail, the platelayer must
have at the spot a perfect rail in readiness to replace it." Eng.
Trains and Stations. 131
force to the assistance of the train, even if it is
not on his own section.
" In case of a wreck, foremen must at once
appoint the necessary watchmen to prevent
freight or company's property from being stolen.
Said watchmen are to remain on duty until the
goods are removed.
" On receiving notice of a wreck or accident
they (roadmasters) must at once proceed to
the place and take full charge and control of all
track forces and construction trains ; put the
track in condition for the safe passage of trains ;
and remove the wreck with the quickest possi-
ble dispatch." 1
The gravel or ballast unloaded along the line
must be promptly spread upon the track, so as
not to endanger the safety of trains. 2
Fuel, ties, or material of any kind must not be
piled within six feet of the main track.
" In lifting the permanent way, no lift must
be greater than three inches at once, and then
it must be effected in a length of at least
twenty yards, in such a manner as not to occa-
sion any sudden change of gradient. Both
rails must be raised equally and at the same
1. Southern Line.
2. " No ballast must be thrown up to a higher level between
the rails than three inches, and it must be thrown as much as
possible on the outside of each line and between the two lines,
and be replaced as soon as possible. The rails must be kept
clear of gravel, ballast, or any other material." Eng, Standard.
132 Railway Service :
time, and the ascent must be made in the
direction in which the trains run." 1
When making repairs that obstruct the track,
or jeopardize the safety of passing trains, sec-
tionmen must place danger signals upon the
track, as required by rule " L," for the protec-
tion of trains. 2
If the track is in bad order, or if, for any
other reason, it is desired that trains should run
slowly, green signals must be used. 3
Sectionmen must keep the fences in good
order at crossings and at each side of the track ;
they must see that all breaks are repaired
1. English Standard.
2. " When repairing, lifting the line, or performing any ope-
ration so as to make it necessary for a train to proceed cau-
tiously, the foreman or ganger must send a man back at least
half a mile, and as much farther as the circumstances of the
case render necessary, who must exhibit the " caution" signal
so as to be plainly visible to the engine driver of the approach-
" Each gang of platelayers or laborers must be supplied
by the inspector of permanent way for the district with two sets
of day signals, two hand signal lamps, if working after dark,
and a proper number of detonators. Each ganger will be held
responsible for having his signals constantly in proper order
and ready for use." Eng. Standard.
3. " A green flag, or a green light, exhibited by platelayers,
indicates that trains and engines must reduce speed to fifteen
miles an hour over the portion of line protected by such green
signal. The " caution " signal must always be exhibited at a
distance of at least half a mile from the point where it is
required that the speed of trains and engines should be reduced
and as much further as the circumstances of the case render
necessary." English Standard.
Trains and Stations. 133
without delay j 1 that cattle guards are kept in
repair ; that all gates that are found open are
closed, and that all bars found down are put in
proper condition. 2
When watchmen are employed, they must
walk over the track and carefully inspect the
same, at intervals between the passage of
trains. 3 It is the duty of watchmen (and
switchmen and agents as well) to signal trains
that disregard the regulations prescribing the
1. " Surely, it is far better to stop a hand car and repair a
fence than to subject a company to damages for killing stock,
with the additional expense occasionally, of a wrecked train.
In a word, men, when passing over a road with a hand car,
should be prompt to remedy every defect they discover. It
should be a rule never to postpone any work of repairs that
can be done on the instant." The Roadmasters Assistant,
2. "Gangers must close and fasten all gates they find open,
and report the circumstances, in order that the persons who
are required to keep such gates closed and fastened may be
charged with the penalties."
"The gangers must take care to maintain proper scotches
on all sidings requiring them." English Standard.
3. " Whenever any person has occasion to walk on the rail-
way he must not walk on either line of rails, but on the right
hand side of the line, off the ballast, clear of passing engines
or trains." Great Northern Railway of England.
"Gangers must order off the railway all persons tres-
passing within the fences, and must do their best to obtain the
trespasser's name and address. If any trespasser persists in
remaining, they must take him to the nearest station and give
him in charge of the station master or police there ; or (if any
police constable be nearer than the nearest station) gangers
must give the trespasser in charge of such constable, and at
once report having done so to the nearest station," Great
Western Railway of England.
134 Railway Service :
time and distance that must elapse between
trains that are following each other. 1
Trackmen must observe the condition of the
telegraph lines as they pass over their sections,
and in the event the line is broken or obstructed,
they will make such temporary repairs as may
be required, reporting the circumstances of the
case to the operator at the next telegraph sta-
" Each ganger is required, in the event of
storms or floods, to examine carefully the
action of the water through the culverts and
bridges on his length of line ; and should he
see any cause to apprehend danger to the
works, he must immediately exhibit the proper
signals for the trains to proceed cautiously, or
to stop, as necessity may require, and inform
the inspector thereof ; and until the inspector
arrives, he must take all the precautionary
measures necessary for securing the stability of
the line." 2
1. " The foreman and other men of the squads must look at
every passing train, and if they see a train running on the
same track, within ten minutes of another train, or anything
wrong, they must signal to the engineman with a red signal,
and they must report to the trackmaster when an engineman
does not obey the signals." 1854.
" Where the line is not worked under the block tele-
graph regulations, if a passenger train approach within ten
minutes of a goods, cattle, mineral, or ballast train, or light
engine, the men repairing the line must give the engine-driver
of such passenger train a signal to go slowly." Eng. Standard.
2. G. W. Ry., England.
Trains and Stations. 135
They must see that the ditches are kept
open, and that the water courses under the
bridges and culverts are not allowed to become
clogged or obstructed. 1
In wet weather, and during and after snow
storms, they must use every effort to prevent
delay or accident to trains. *
Track foremen must carefully inspect every
portion of the section under their charge at
least once each day. 3
"Each ganger must, when going over his
length of line to examine the keys and fasten-
ings of the rails, have with him a keying ham-
mer and spanners or nut keys, and be prepared
promptly to supply keys, nuts, packings, fast-
1. " They will be particular not to allow standing water
upon any part of their line, but keep the ditches open and
free at all times, and keep flood-wood away from the culverts,
bridges, and water-courses." 1853.
2. " Their whole time will be devoted to their duties in the
service of the company, and generally their services are more
urgently required in bad, inclement weather than at any other
" In winter, it is as much their duty to keep the track
clear from snow and ice, as far as it is possible, as to keep it
in repair. At this season every possible effort should be made
to keep the read open, and insure the regularity of trains."
3. " Each ganger must walk over his length of line every
morning and evening on week days (except where the engi-
neers consider once each day sufficient, and have laid down
such instructions in writing) and where passenger trains are
run, once on Sundays, and tighten up all keys and other fast-
enings that may be loose; and he must examine the line, level,
and gauge of the road, and the state of the joints, marking,
and if necessary, repairing such as are defective." G. W.
136 Railway Service :
enings, or other parts of the permanent way
that may be required." 1
" No Avagon or other vehicle employed in
the permanent way department must be left
in any siding without the wheels nearest to the
entrance into the main line being properly
scotched and secured." 2
No notice will be given trackmen of the pas-
sage of trains, and they must therefore govern
themselves accordingly. 3
Section foremen must report to the Superin-
tendent any neglect upon the part of trainmen
to properly regard danger or caution signals.
Old or unused material of every kind upon
the line of the road, or at stations or shops,
must be carefully collected and preserved. 4
1. G.W. Ry., England.
2. English Standard.
3. "On no occasion, except in cases of emergency or of
accident, and never at night, or in a fog, or when a train is
due, must a trolley be run in the wrong 'direction, and in such
cases the trolley must be preceded at a distance of not less
than a mile by a man with a red flag and detonators. In
tunnels a red light must always be used." Great Wes.Ry. Eng.
" In the case of a single line, the trolley must be so protected
in both directions. No trolley must, in any cas^ , be placed
on the line, except by the platelayers and with the knowledge