Martyr Justin.

The first apology of Justin Martyr, addressed to the Emperor Antoninus Pius : prefaced by some account of the writings and opinions of Justin Martyr online

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Theophilus appears to have been a stranger.

P. 55. The opinion of Athenagoras respecting the in-

^ x«) aToppoiCt, a; (puj ocvo ^vpo;, to ^viv/!/.et. Leg, p. 27 A.

- See p. 50. ^ See p. 114.

* ovTWi h Toi(rcc xritni "^ipti^^irai vTo <ffvivfJt,tx,70i ®iov, xa] to Tvivy.a to
<ripiix,°v trhv t55 xTia-ti Tspii^zTas v^o ^iipos 0£oy, L. i. p. 72 C.

5 <7Cvivy.u. Ti TO iTi(f)tpo/:^ivov Ittccvco tou SdccTOSy 'iduxiv %ioi u; ^uoyovriffiv tyi
xTitru, xaioL-TTip a,v6pu-7ru -^v^nv, L. ii. p. 92 C. Compare p. 74 A. 6iy-i-
Xtuffoci Ttiv yriv Itt) tuv v^ktcov, xk) oov; <7rviVf^oi, to Tpi<pov uvTm' ov vt fvon
l^uoyovu TO 'TTo.v. In p. no B, Theophilus calls God Tpo^ioc 'Tfi.aini -rvoyis.
<rnvf/,a QioZ in p. 78 D, corresponds to to Tviuf^oe. to e/yiov, "the Holy
Spirit," in p. 106 C.

6 See p. 41.

Writings of Justin Martyr. 1 3 1

spiration of the prophets, was that the Spirit from God moved
their mouths like instruments ; 1 or, as he expresses himself in
another place, that the Spirit made use of the prophet as a
player on the pipe does of the pipe.^

The language of Theophilus on this subject differs not
widely from that of Athenagoras. He speaks of the prophets
as inspired by the Holy Spirit, or by God Himself ;3 so that,
being holy and just, they were deemed worthy to be made the
instruments of God, and to partake of His wisdom.^

^X"/^-" T^poip'/irecs fiaprvpa.?, o'i Tvivf/,a,Tt Iv^iw iK'^n^uv'/iKa.ffi ko.) Tipli rod &iou
KO.) 'Tipi TMV Tciu @iov, u'-roiTi V civ KcCi vfAiis, ffvviffii xu,] Tri Tip} TO ovTOj; h7ov
ivffifhiiK Tovs aXXov; -^rpov^ovTis, u? 'iffriv aXoyov, TocpocXtTovTO,; TiffTivuv rZ Tctpce.
Tov Siov -rviVficcri, us opyuvce. xsx.ivy,KOTt rot, ruv 'n.po(pYiruv tir'o[j(.a,ro!,, -Trpoffi^'^iv
%'olce.i{ iv^pu-rtvcn?. Legatio^ p. 8 A. Tatian's description of the prophetic
writings, p. 165 B, deserves attention.

" Ka,t ruv XofTcuv Tpoipn^rMv, 01 x,a.r 'iKarocinv ruv Iv avroT; Xo'yiir//.cuv, xtv^ffctvro;
ctvrous rov hiov 7rviu/u,aro;, cchnpyovvro i^Kpuiv'/jffccv' a-vy^pno'c&^ivou rov •TtviVfJi.ot.roi,
utru xec) alXnrris otlxov, ly,Tvivtroii, p. 9 D. Here Athenagoras says that the
prophets spoke »eir ina-rcca-iv, in a state of rapture or ecstasy. On this
point he agreed with Montanus, though I see no reason for suspecting, with
Tillemont, that he ever attached himself to the Montanists. See the
Preface of the Benedictine editors, part iii. c. 14. Justin, speaking of the

prophet Zechariah, says, rovrov ^l colrov olx. Iv rr dToKOcXv-^n oclrou iMpatcii
Tpo(prir'/is, cua'Tip ovos rov dixfioAov ko.) rov rod Kupiou ciyytXov oIk cchro'^iot,, Iv
xoi.ret.ffroe.a'U euv, iMpo(.Kii, ocXX iv iKaraffii oi'ToxocXvypta; oclrS yiyiv'/jf^t-iv'/n.
Dial. p. 343 A, quoted in p. 56, note I. The difference between the two
representations seems to be that, according to Justin, the prophet was in a
state of rapture when he saw the vision which he recorded : according to
Athenagoras, when he dehvered or wrote the prophecy,

3 L. i. p. 78 D ; 1. ii. pp. 106 C, no A, in C, 128 B. See also
p. 88 C, quoted in p. 123, note i, and %Z D. MiwirJj? 1\ — (jmXXov 1\ x'oyo;
rov Osov, us ^i opydvov, h' avrov (fitio-tv, ** For Moses spoke — or rather the
word of God through him as by an instrument." In these passages the in-
spiration of the prophets is attributed to the koyos. Tcivris ol Tviv['opoi,
" All they who were inspired," p. 100 C. L. iii. p. 125 A.

ol oi rov Qiov Siv^pwroi, '^rviv/u.os.roipopot -rvivficcros ocytov scoci <^po<p^ra,i yivo/mvoi,
iiT^ civrov rod @iov i/u.'ZViva'^ivris x,a] (ro<pio'0ivris, iyivovro hoVi%cx,x.rot ko.) ortot KOt,)
dixutoi, oto KO.) K0i,rYi^iu6viffBt,v rviv uvTifAiff^leiv roivryiv XetfosTv, opyavu Biou yivo'

132 Some Account of the

The account of the prophets given by Justin, or rather by
the old man who converted him to Christianity, is that " long
before all those who are deemed philosophers, lived blessed
and just men, lovers of God, who spake by the Holy Spirit,
and foretold future things, which are now happening. They
are called prophets. They alone saw the truth, and told it to
men ; neither respecting nor fearing any one, nor influenced
by the love of glory, but speaking those things only which
they heard and saw, being filled with the Holy Spirit." ^

The author of the Hortatory Address to the Greeks says
that " it was only necessary for the prophets to surrender them-
selves entirely to the operation of the Divine Spirit ; that the
divine quill descending from heaven, and using the instru-
mentality of just men, as of a harp or lyre, should reveal to
us the knowledge of divine and heavenly things." ^

P. 56. Tatian gives the following account of the creation
and fall of angels and men.^ " The heavenly Aoyo?, being a
Spirit from the Father, and the Aoyos from the rational power,
in imitation of the Father Who begat Him, made man the
image of immortality; that, as incorruption is wath God, so
man, partaking of a portion of God, might also have im-
mortality. The Aoyos, before the creation of man, was the

(jk'.toi, Koc) ^copyitTocvri; <ro(p'tix,v t'/jv -rap al/rou, ^/ >)? ffotp'oc; li-zov ku.) to. -npt ty,:
KTtffius nrov x'o(Tfji.ov kou ruv Xoicruv ocpruvTMV, L, ii. p. 87 D.

^ iyivovTO Tivi; 'Tfpo 'ffoX'kov ^povov vtUvreov tovtuv tuv vof/,i'^of/,'ivuv ^iXoiro<puv
TccXecioTipoi, f/,ctKeipiot, k«) oiKCiitu, Ko) hoipiXiTs, h'lu "TTviviMirt 7-uXYi(T(X.vris, xai to,
/nik^ovrec (ktv'ktccvti:, a. o-/i vvv yiyviTCCr Tpo(pri'ras %\ alrov? x,a,Xov(nv' ovTot //.ovoi
TO iXnfi; KO.) udov KO.) i^sT-PTov ocvSpufoi?, ii'n'T ivXccfi'/i^'ivrs; fivn ^vtrwrrifivra
TivK, /bcri firrny-ivoi 'ho^yj;, aXXoc /jt-'ova, voZto, tiTovng a f^KoviTKv ko.) a, u^ov, uyiw
-rXv^pufi'iyiTii 'rviv/jia.ri. Dial, p. 224 D.

aXXa, Kccfupou; icturov; tJi tou hiou fvivfji.a.roi '^ih ivipyiict, Vv' euro
TO hTov i£, ohpavov koctiov -TrXYDirpov, axr^rip opyavu xi^upac; rivos r, Xvpu;, rot;
iiKaiois uv'^pecff'i ^pu/Aivovy rhv tuv hiwv rifi7v kou ovpccvtcov KToxccXi^ri yjuffiv,

p. 9 B.
' P. 146 15.

Writings of J test in Martyr. 133

Creator of angels. Each species was created free, not being
good in its own nature, which is the property of God alone ;
but capable, in the case of man, of perfection through freedom
of choice, — so that the wicked might be justly punished, being
wicked through their own fault ; and the good might be justly
praised on account of their good deeds, — not having, in the
exercise of their freedom, transgressed the will of God. Such
was the case w^ith respect to angels and men."

" But the power of the Word, possessing within Himself a
prescience of futurity, not by any fatal necessity, but by (fore-
seeing) the determination of those who were free to choose,
predicted future events ; restraining men from wickedness by
prohibitions, and praising those who persevered in goodness.
And when men followed one who, on account of the priority
of his birth, was more subtle than the rest, and set him up as
God, though he opposed himself to the law of God, the power
of the Word excluded both the author of this madness and
all his followers from intercourse with Himself. And he
who was made in the image of God, the more powerful Spirit
being withdrawn from him, became mortal ; and the first-born
angel, through his transgression and ignorance, was manifested
as a demon; and they who imitated his phantasms became
aVost of demons, and through (the abuse of) their freedom
were delivered over to their own folly." He then proceeds
to say that the demons introduced the doctrine of fate, and
connected it with astrology.

In order that we may understand what Tatian means by
the withdrawing of the more powerful Spirit, we must turn to
another passage,^ in which he says, " We recognise two different

1 P. 150 D. Tatian, on one occasion, says that " God is a Spirit ; not
the spirit pervading matter, but the preparer of the spirits in matter and
of its forms," p. 144 C; in another, that "the spirit pervading matter is
inferior to the diviner Spirit," p. 144 D- Compare what is said in my

134 Some Account of the

spirits — one, which is called the soul ; the other, greater than
the soul, the image and likeness of God. Both those spirits
were united in the first men (di/^pwTrots rots Trpwrots), so that in
one respect they were material ; in another, superior to matter."
He then goes on to say, that the universe is material ; and
though its parts differ, according to their different degrees of
beauty, yet the whole is pervaded by a material spirit. There
is a spirit in the stars, in angels, in plants and water, in men,
in animals, which, though one and the same, is thus variously
modified.^ As, then, the soul partakes of this material spirit,
it is not immortal in its own nature, but mortal. It may,
however, not die. It dies, and is dissolved with the body,
when it knows not the truth ; again, it does not die, although
it is dissolved for a time, when it has acquired the knowledge
of God. "The soul, therefore," Tatian proceeds,^ "did not
save the spirit, but was saved by it ; and the light compre-
hended the darkness. The Word is the light of God; and

work on Clement of Alexandria, respecting the principal and subject
spirit, p. 225. To those who are devoid of the Spirit, Tatian gives the
title of -^^vxiKoi, p. 154 C. See p. 155 B.

^ P. 152 A. The soul is called ^oXvf^^tpvs, "consisting of many parts,"
p. 153 B.

^ P. 152 C. leaf luvThv yap (Tkoto; IctIv (^ ypv^h) x«i ouolv Iv kIt^
(pctiTiivov. xk; rovr'o Iffriv oipa to iip'/',f/,ivoy, 'A tx-otiu. to (poo; ov »aTCcXoe.f/,[ictvu.
\}/v^h yap ovx. avTV) to <7rvivfjt,a 'iffaxTiv, Xtru^n os v'tt avTov, x,a) to <pu; ttjv
cncoTiav xaTikafosv, o Xoyo; f^iv Ictti to tov @iou (pus, ffx.0To; 01 vi aviTKTT'^fjt-ojv
•^v^"^. ^la, TovTo fiov'/j (ttev ^laiTuf^ivti ^pog T>jv uXjjv viVii KaTu, ffwa-ffohriff-
Kovffa tIt, ffapy/t. ffvZ,vy'tav %i xiXTny-ivv) tviv tov hiov 'jrvivfJt.aTOi ovk i(rTiv
a(30^^-/}Tos' uvip^iTai Ti ^pos a-TTip avTYiv odyiysT ^a>pia to <x\ivfji,a. tov (liv
yap \(fTii a\w to oiK'/]T!^piov. Tiis ^i KaTcofiv IffTiv h yiviiri?' (See p. 151 A,
u; thai xoivhv ToivToov yivsiTiv.) yiyovi f/,\v ovv ffvvoiaiTov ap^^ihv to <gvivy.a Tn

•v/zy^J}' TO 1\ 'TTViVy.a TUVTm 'i-TTiff^ai fJlZ/l (iovXo//,iv>}V CCVTU xxTukikoi^iv, h ^s

uff'TCip 'i\av(Tf/.a Tru dvvdf/.ict); avTov x,iKT7)fji.'ivyi x,a) oia tov p^wptfffiov to, TtXiia
xa^opav fm ^vtafjbivn^ Z,Y,Tov(ra tov ©sav, xaTa <vXot,vyiv rroXXov? 6iovi aviTv^uin,
ToTs avTieroipio'Tivovffi ^atf^offi KKTaxo'kovSrtiTaffa. <7fviv[Jia ^s tov ®iov •, VKtriv
(Mtv ovK iffTi' "Tfapa oi tkti tc7; ^iKaioo; ToXiTivof^ivois xaTayo/u.ivov, xa) ffv/^Tki-
Kofji-ivov Tjj '^v^^, oia 'prpoayopivo'iuv Ta7s Xo/TTaii '4^v^ais to KiKpvfx,f/,ivov
av^yytiXt, xa) al f/,\v TuSoy-ivat ffo^iet ff(pia'iv uutuTs i^iiXxovro tviv/uei trvyyivi;.

Writings of Jttstin Ma7-tyr. 135

the ignorant soul, darkness. On which account, when it is
alone, it bends downwards towards matter, dying together with
the flesh. But having obtained an union with the Divine
Spirit, it is no longer destitute of aid, but ascends to the
places to which the Spirit conducts it. For the dwelling-
place of the Spirit is above ; the origin of the soul from below.
In the beginning, then, the Spirit dwelt with the soul, but
quitted it, because it refused to follow the Spirit. But the

Beausobre has given the following translation of this passage, Histoire
du Manicheisme, 1. 4, c. 3 :— '' L'ame de sa nature," dit Tatien, " n'est
que tenebres, et n'a rien de la lumiere. De la ce mot de I'Ecriture, Les
tenures nynbrassmt point la liimih-e, car 1 'Esprit n'est pas sauve' par
I'ame, mais c'est lui qui sauve I'ame, et c'est la lumiere qui embrasse les
tenebres. La Raison est la lumiere de Dieu : les tenebres sont une ame
qui est dans I'ignorance. C'est pourquoi quand elle est seule, elle
s'abaisse aux choses materielles, et meurt avec la chair. Mais quand elle
est unie avec I'Esprit elle monte au lieu ou elle est conduite par I'Esprit.
En effet, le siege de I'Esprit est le Ciel, mais le siege de I'ame est la
nature materielle " (in the original, rTi-, Tt }ca.Tu6iv limv h yUi<r,?. Beausobre
defends his translation by a reference to Jas. iii. 6, <pXoylZ,ovffa Wv
rpoxov r^s yiv'tffico?, ''and setteth on fire the course of nature." But
yUiffis seems rather to mean in this place nature, as rendered in our
version. See Grotius in loco, and rh -raXociav yUiffiv, p. 150 D). "Au
commencement, I'Esprit etoit familierement uni avec I'ame, et vivoit,
nour ainsi dire, avec elle : mais n'ayant pas voulu suivre les lumieres de
lii^sprit, il la laissa. Cependant, elle conserva encore comme une etincelle
de feu cache sous la cendre ; mais a cause de la separation de I'Esprit,
elle n'a pas la force d'appercevoir les choses parfaites. En cherchant
Dieu, elle s'est egaree, et en a imagine plusieurs, seduite par la fraude
des Demons." Beausobre's comment on the passage is, " L'ame est done
I'ouvrage du Createur : I'Esprit est un don de Dieu. Voila les dififerens
genres, ou les difFerentes natures de Basilide. Le Createur ne connoissoit
que la premiere, et ne commenga a savoir, qu'il y en a une plus excellente
et plus parfaite, que lorsque I'Esprit descendit sur Jesus." In my work
on Clement of Alexandria, p. 272, note i, I have said, with reference to
this comment, that Beausobre appears to put interpretations on some of
the expressions which the words will not bear. On further consideration,
I do not change my opinion.

136 Some Accoimt of the

soul, retaining some spark, as it were, of the power of the
Spirit, being unable, through its separation from the Spirit, to
see that which is perfect, erring in its search after God, figured
to itself many gods, following the fraudulent devices of the
demons. But the Spirit of God is not with all ; sojourning
only with some who lived righteous lives, and united with
their souls, It declared, by means of predictions, secret things
to other souls ; some of them obeying wisdom, drew down to
themselves a kindred spirit ; ^ while those which did not obey,
but rejected the Minister of God Who suffered, proved rather
adversaries than worshippers of God."

" It is, then," he afterwards says,^ " our business to recover
that which we have lost, and to unite the soul to the Holy
Spirit, and earnestly to aim at an union with God." After
some other further remarks on the soul of man, Tatian pro-
ceeds : " Man alone is the image and likeness of God;^ that
man, I mean, who does not live like animals, but, raised far
above humanity, draws near to God Himself. The point to
which I must now address myself is, to explain of what kind
the image and likeness of God is. That which admits not
of comparison is nothing but the Self-existent itself; that which
is compared to the Self-existent is different from it, but like to
it. The perfect God is without flesh, but man is flesh. The
soul is the bond of the flesh, and the flesh holds together the
soul. Such is the form of the constitution (of man) if God
chooses to dwell in it by His ambassador, the Spirit, that it
may be His temple.* But if it is not so, man excels the beasts
only in uttering articulate sounds ; in all other respects he is

' As Tatian here speaks of a kindred spirit, so p. 145 D, he talks of a
kindred matter.

2 P. 153 D.

^ We have seen that in the passage quoted in p. 133, Tatian calls the
more powerful Spirit the image and likeness of God.
* J;a rou Tpurfiivovro; 'Tviv/, p. 1 54 B.

Writings of Justin Martyr.


of the same conversation as they, being no longer the hkeness
of God."

In another place 1 Tatian says, that "the perfect Spirit is, so
to speak, the wings of the soul, which the soul casting off
through sin, fluttered like a newly-fledged bird, and fell to the
ground. Passing from its heavenly society, it longed for an
intercourse with inferior things. The demons quitted their
original abode : the first created human beings were driven
out. The former were expelled from heaven ; the latter from
earth, not this earth, but one better than this. It is our duty,
then, henceforward to aspire to our ancient state, and to cast
down every obstacle which impedes our progress." And again : 2
"We have learned that, of which we were ignorant, through
the prophets, who, being persuaded that the spirit together
with the soul will receive immortality— the heavenly covering
of mortahty— foretold things which other souls knew not ;
and it is possible for every one that is naked to obtain this
covering, and to return to his ancient kindred."

Tatian is particularly careful to guard against the notion
that man fell by any fatal necessity. " We were not created,'
he says, "to die; but we die through our own fault.^ Qur

1 P. 158 D.

^P. 159 B. The meaning ot this passage is not very clear, oinMi «>«
, -n ■4'VZ^ ^rfrutrf^ivoi on 9rvivficc. to ovpdviov l-7fivtvf/.a, r^; hnroTviTo;, rh
a.6a.vccff'ta.v, mx.ryKnra,i. The Benedictine editors wish to substitute o-^^«
for -TrnZf^u.. Tatian says in another place, "Men, after the loss of im-
mortality, have vanquished death by dying (to the world) through faith ;
and a calling has been given to them through repentance, according to
the words of Scripture, ' T/iey -were made a Utile lower than the angels '
(Ps. viii. 5). It is possible for the vanquished to vanquish in turn, by
renouncing the condition of death ; and what that is, they who wish for
immortality may easily see," p. 154 D. See also p. 155 C, eufa.x.1;
l-rovpciviou xa^u^^ifffiivos, " The heavenly Spirit arming itself with a

^P. 150 D.

138 Some Account of the

freedom has destroyed us. When we were free, we became
slaves : we were sold through sin. Nothing evil was made by
God : we brought forth wickedness ; and they who brought it
forth are able in turn to renounce it." In another passage he
says that " the sin of man was the cause of evil in the natural

The inference from these different passages seems to be
that, according to Tatian, in man were originally united a spirit
and a soul ; the former of purely celestial origin, the latter
material ; or, to speak perhaps more accurately, a portion of
that inferior spirit which pervades matter.^ Man being, with
reference to this material soul, peccable, abused the freedom
with which he was endowed, and listening to the suggestions
of wicked demons, refused to follow the guidance of the
heavenly Spirit, Which in consequence quitted him. Thus
deserted by the Divine Spirit, he became mortal ; and by his
sin all evil, moral and natural, was introduced into the world.
As, however, he fell by the abuse of his freedom, so by the
right use of it he may rise again, and reunite himself to the
heavenly Spirit, and thus replace himself in his original state
of innocence and happiness. It must be confessed that this
account of the original state, and of the fall of man, savours
more of the spirit of Gentile philosophy than of Scripture ; yet
m one respect it differs not greatly from that scheme, which
assigns as the cause of the fall, that God withdrew the special
influences of His presence from our first parents.

I find in Athenagoras little that has any direct bearing on
these subjects. On one occasion he is censuring those who

^ P. 158 D.

'^ See the passage p. 144 D, quoted in p, 133, note i. Tatian speaks
of the evaporation of this material spirit, when the flesh is annihilated
by fire, p. 146 A. kkv -rup £^«(pav<V>j to (rdpKiov, i^arfiiff^iiirciv rhv t/'X'/jv xoa-fioi

Writings of Jtistin Martyr. 139

thought that they sufficiently established the truth of a future
resurrection, by saying that it was necessary to the final
judgment of mankind.* "This argument," he says, "is
clearly shown to be inconclusive by the fact that, although all
rise again, all do not rise to judgment. For if to answer the
ends of justice is the sole cause of the resurrection, then they,
who have neither done good nor evil, that is, very young
children, need not rise." Here the future condemnation of
man is made to depend entirely on the commission of actual,
sin. In another place ^ he says that " man, according to the
design of his Maker, pursues a regular course with reference to
his nature by birth, which is common to all ; and the disposi-
tion of his members, which does not transgress its peculiar
law ; and the end of life, which is the same to all ; but, accord-
ing to the determinations of his own reason, and the operation
of the ruler who has obtained dominion over him, and of the
attendant demons, he is carried in different directions ; although
the power of reasoning is common to all." The ruler to
whom Athenagoras here alludes is a power or spirit,^ who is
conversant with and pervades matter, and being opposed to
God, induced man to abuse the freedom with which he was
endowed, and led him into transgression. On the subject of
the Divine Providence, Athenagoras says,* that "they who

De Mori. Res. p. 55 D. Athenagoras says that the soul is immortal.
f -eg. p. 30 D.

"^ Legatio, p. 29 A.

^ P. 27 A, D. Athenagoras speaks of a material spirit. Legatio,
pp. 30 C, 27 B.

on oil rov; Tor/i-rhv rov hov rovdi roZ '^ra.v-ro; ^eipcc^-^a.ju.svt)v; tJJ rovrov (ro(piM
KU.) oiKUtoffw^ rhv Tuv yivofiiVMV uTciiircov aveiri^tvui (puXKKvv n koc) toovoiuv,
I'lyi roAi Idixi; up^uT; Tetpxf/.ivnv \6iXoiiv' tocZtoc §j -Trip) tovtuv (ppovouv-ra.; ^jj^sv
nyuff$cx,t [/.Yin tujv kutu. q/j^v fA'/;ri ruv Kar ovpxvov avi^iTpoTiurov f^^T aTpovoriTov,
arXX iTi Tccv a,(puvi; ojuoim; siou (pcttvofjcivov, fzixpov n xa.) f^sT^ov, "^irixouffocv yiyvaxr-
Kitv mv 'Tocpoc Tou TOiYKTOivro? iTiy-iXiiMv. ^UTeti yap Teivrx to. yivoy-iva, rii;
Tapa Tov TToi^ffavros I'^ny.iXuK;' loiu; Ti %x.a.(rrov h.oc$^ <ri<pu}ii na.) Tpo;
9riipvKiv. De Mort. Res. p. 60 B.

140 Some Account of t lie

admit God to be the Creator of the universe must, if they
mean to abide by their own principles, refer the custody and
providence over all things to His wisdom and justice. Under
this persuasion they must think that everything, both in earth
and heaven, is directed and governed by Providence ; and that
the care of the Creator extends to all things alike, whether
unseen or seen, whether small or great. For all created
things in ge?ieral stand in need of the care of the Creator ; and
each in pariicidar according to its nature and the end for
which it was created." He asserts the same doctrine in
another place ; ^ although, like Justin, he ascribes to God a
general superintendence over the universe, and says that the
angels were appointed to watch over the different parts.

Theophilus,^ speaking of wild beasts and noxious animals,
affirms that " nothing evil proceeded from God : all things
were originally good, very good. But man by his transgression
affected other living things with evil ; for when he transgressed,
they transgressed with him. — When, however, man shall
return to his original state, and cease to do evil, they also shall
return to their original gentleness." A considerable portion of
the second book consists of a comment on the account of the
creation given in the book of Genesis. Speaking of the
creation of man, Theophilus alleges,^ as a proof of his superior
dignity, that, whereas God created all other things by a word.
He considered the creation of man a work worthy of His own
hands ; and as if He even stood in need of assistance, said to
His Word and Wisdom, " Let us make man," etc. Man
after his creation was placed in Paradise,* the means of im-

^ LegatiOf pp. 29 A, 27 C.
2 L. ii. p. 96 B.

' P. 96 C. There is a description of Paradise, p. 97 D. Sec also
p. 10 1 B.

* P. lOi D. Theophilus says that Adam was rot forbidden to eat of
the fruit of the tree of life. He repeats his notion respecting this inter-

Writings of J2istin Martyr. 141

provement being afforded him, so that he might go on to
perfection ; and being at length declared a god, might ascend
into heaven. 1 For he was created in a sort of intermediate
state ; neither wholly mortal, nor wholly immortal, but capable
of both conditions. Adam was forbidden to eat of the fruit of
the tree of knowledge, because, being yet in a state of infancy,
he could not worthily receive knowledge.^ Some appear to have
thought that the fruit of the tree of knowledge was evil in
itself, and therefore productive of death. This Theophilus
denies, and says that knowledge is in itself good. " It was
not, therefore, the fruit of the tree which brought pain, and

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