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The first apology of Justin Martyr, addressed to the Emperor Antoninus Pius : prefaced by some account of the writings and opinions of Justin Martyr online

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Gentile converts in Justin's age, and the Jewish in the apostolic
times, appear to have been equally ready to act on the prin-
ciple of exclusion. On the other hand,^ we learn that the
Rabbis forbade their hearers to hold any intercourse with the
Christians; 2 that they pronounced curses against them in
the synagogues ; ^ and that they sent persons into every part of
the civilised world with directions to denounce Christianity as
a pestilent heresy, and to misrepresent the conduct and morals
of its professors."^ Justin speaks of the proselytes as animated
by a more bitter spirit of hostility than the Jews themselves. '

1 See Wilson's Illustration, etc., c. xi. ^ Pp. 256 C, 339 D.

3 Pp. 234 B, 266 E, 321 D, 323 D, 345 A, 363 D, 366 E. From the
last passage it appears that the curse was pronounced after the conclusion
of the prayers. See Jerome in Esaiam v. 18, xlix. 7, lii. 4, and in Amos
i. II, where he says that the Jews cursed the Christians under the name of
Nazarenes. See Apol. i. p. ^'J A (45).

* Pp. 234 E, 335 C, where the charges against the Christians are men-
tioned more in detail.

^P. 350 E.



32 Some Acco7mt of the

He ridicules the trivial questions on which the Jews wasted
their time and labour,^ and censures their cavilling temper.^
He charges them with denying Christ through fear of perse-
cution,^ with entertaining low and unworthy notions of God,*
and with corrupting the Septuagint version.^ With respect,
however, to the last charge, the Christians appear to have been
more justly liable to it than the Jews.^ Justin further affirms
that the Jews were allowed by their Rabbis to have a plurality

' Pp. 339 D, 340 B. 2 p, 343 c. 3 Pp. 258 C, 262 E.

* P. 341 E, Justin accuses them of anthropomorphism. See p. 364 A.
^ Pp. 297 C, 349 A. . See also p. 343 D. Justin's specific charges against
the Jews were —

I. That they had suppressed a passage in Ezra, in which the Passover
was represented as a type of the Redeemer ; but this passage is not now
extant in any either of the Greek or Hebrew copies. Lactantius quotes it.
Institut. iv. 18.

II. That they had suppressed a passage in Jeremiah, which, however,
is now extant in every copy, both Greek and Hebrew, xi. 19. Justin
admits that in his day it was found in some of the copies used in the
synagogues.

III. That they had suppressed another passage in Jeremiah, which is
not now found in any copy, either Greek or Hebrew. This passage is
cited more than once by Irenaeus, who in one instance ascribes it to
Isaiah. L. iii. c. 23 ; 1. iv. c. 39, 56, 66 ; 1. v. c. 31.

IV. That they have suppressed the words ctvo rod l,6xov ("from the
cross ") in the 96th Psalm, ver. 10. In the Epistle of Barnabas, chap, viii.,
we find the following passage: "that the kingdom of Jesus from the
cross " {oTi -A ficKTiXita. rod 'l^ffov Wi tm ^vXm), from which w^e may infer that
the author had cctto rov ^Cxov in his copy ; but there is nothing correspond-
ing to the passage in the old Latin version. The reading was known to
Tertullian and many of the Fathers ; and Le Nourry says that it is found
in some manuscript psalters of great antiquity. See Apol. i. p. 80 B (50),
and Dr. Bernard's Note on Cotelerii Pair. A postal.

Justin further charges the Jews with having erased a passage containing
an account of the mode of Isaiah's death, p. 349 B.

*5 Some writers have thought that Justin himself was the guilty party.
See Thirlby's note on p. 297 B, and Pearson O71 the Creed, Article v.
p. 242, 5th ed. The Jews asserted that the version of the Septuagint was
in some places incorect. P. 294 B.



Wj 2 tings ofjztstiii Martyr. ^sZ

of wives, and that the polygamy of the patriarchs was alleged
in defence of the practice.^

There is in p. 307 A an enumeration of Jewish sects, in
which the names of the Genistse, Meristse, and Helleniani
occur; of the former two, Isidorus, Origin, viii. 4, p. 63,
has given some, though not a satisfactory account; of the
Helleniani, no trace, I believe, is to be found in any other
writer.

Without meaning to lay any particular stress upon the

authority of Justin in such matters, I will observe that he

appears not to have recognised any other than circumcised
proselytes.^



CHAPTER II.

THE OPINIONS OF JUSTIN RESPECTING THE A0r03
AND THE TRINITY.

Having given the above short account of the genuine works
of Justin which have descended to our times, we will proceed

1 P ^.6^ E According to Justin, a great mystery was concealed under
the polygamy of the patHarchs : "And David's one act of transgressK-n

vkh the wife of Uriah shows, O men, I say, that the patnarchs had many
:tes without committing fornications, but they had a certam arrangemen
and practised many mysteries." .«- ^ .]; ^l - ^^[^'^^2^1

/,.« ^«VT« 2; «iT^v ^Tsrsxsrr.. P. 371 A. See p. 364 ti.

2 p. 351 D.



34 Souie Account of the

to the examination of his opinions; and will in the first place
consider what he has delivered respecting the Aoyos, and the
doctrine of the Trinity. That he asserted the divinity of the
Aoyos, and a real Trinity, is admitted even by those who are
most anxious to prove that the early Christians were Unitarians ;
but they endeavour to invalidate his testimony by contending
that he was the first who openly maintained these doctrines,
which were suggested to him by the writings of Plato — in
other words, that he was the first who corrupted the Gospel,
by endeavouring to engraft the notions of Gentile philosophy
upon its sublime but simple truths. That Justin had studied
and admired the Platonic philosophy we know from himself,
but that he was indebted to it for the doctrines of the divinity
of the Aoyo?, and of the Trinity, is a position to which we
cannot yield our assent ; because, in the first place, no
sufficient proof has yet been produced- that even the germ
of those doctrines exists in the writings of Plato ; and because,
in the next place, his own references to those writings are
wholly at variance with the position.

The design of his two Apologies is to give an accurate
description of the faith of the Christians, and to remove the
prejudices which existed against them in the minds of the
heathen. One of these prejudices was that they worshipped
a crucified man.^ Not so, he replies; the object of our wor-
ship is the Divine Aoyo?, who was content to become incarnate,
and to die on the Cross for the sake of mankind. Now a^

^ "For here they look upon it as downright madness to assign to a
crucified man the next place to the immutable, eternal God, parent of all
things, being entirely in the dark, as to the mystery of this order ; and
therefore I advise you to give diligent attention while I expound it to

VOU." ivTav0x yap fiaviocv rif/.uv x,X7U(paUovTa.i, diVTipocv ^eopetv, fiiTK tov
ocrpi'TTTOv KCii a.i) ovto. &tov xcc] yivv/iTopa, tmv aTavr&iv, at^pca-Ttu ffTavpuditTi
^i^nvai rif/.0L5 Xiyovris, ccyMOovvriS ro Iv toutm f^u(rTr,piov cu Tpo(ri^iiv Vfun;,

\lnyov,uivuv rtf^Mv, -Trporpi-Tr'oy.'Jcc. P. 6i A (i8). Compare p. 68 A (31),
90 B (68).



Writmgs of Justin Martyr. 35

Justin's wish was to render the doctrines of Christianity as
acceptable as possible to the Gentiles, by pointing out features
of resemblance between them and the tenets of the philo-
sophers,! it is reasonable to suppose that he would not fail to
allege those passages of Plato's writings which he conceived to
afford the strongest confirmation of his opinions respecting the
Aoyos and the Trinity. What, then, are the passages which he
produces ? One from the Titncens,'^ to prove that when Plato,
speaking of the Person who is second to the Supreme God,
said, " He expressed Him in the universe in the figure of the
letter X," he alluded to the brazen serpent set up by Moses in
the wilderness, but did not understand that the serpent was
typical of the Cross of Christ. Another passage^ quoted by



' "Not that the doctrines of Plato are alien to those of Christ, but that
they are not wholly the same, as is also the case with those of others, as
the Stoics, poets, and historians." ol^if^ on uXXoTpid, lim rk UXkth/vo;
^thoiyfjcara rov T^pitfrov, aXX' oti olx strri TKvr/i ofioix, ufforip o\jh\ to. tuv
eiWuv, IruiKMy ts, Kai ttoivituv, tta) ffvyyputp'iuv. P. ^1 B. Compare

66 C (28).

^ The passage in Justin runs thus : »«/ to Iv t« -rapa. Tixaruvt Ttfji.rx.'Ku
(pvfftoXoyovf/.ivov Tipi rou vtov tov @iou, on Xtyii, i^ikitiv avrov iv ru "^xvr),
'Trtx.pa. ^UxTiwi Xaj8&»v ofjco'iwi iIttiv. P. 92 E (72). But Plato in the place
alluded to is speaking of the creation of the soul of the universe.
TOivrviv ovv <rhv ^vtr-a.<nv •ffa.ira.v oi^Xm Kocvk fir,xo; ff^'icra,;, fz'-ff»iv •■rpo$ /niay,v
SKOiTipav ecXX^Xxii, oTov ^, Tf/xrIiKXav, xnTiza/u.-^piv lU xvkXov, P. 36, tom.
iii. ed. Serr.

3 "And finding by Moses that the Spirit of God moved upon the face of
the waters, he likewise mentions a third, for he gives the second place to the
Logos of God decussated upon the world, and the third place he assigns to
the Spirit which is said to move upon the face of the waters, thus expressing
himself; 'The Third about the Third.'" fcu) to sItsTv auTov TptTov, i-ruVn,

us TpoitTofz.it, l^civtu Tuv ti^drtuv aviyvcj VTO Mcoa-ius t'lp'/if^ivov STK^ipScrffoci to tou
@iov Tvsvficoi. ^suTipoiV filv yocp ^Mpa.v TOf 'ffctpu, &-0V Xoyai, ov Ki^iccffPai tv tm
<7ra.vri 'i<pn, Vt^uffr Tny ^l Tpirnv tm Xi^SUti l^np'-pitr^cci tm voccti TVfjf^ccTi, utmv,

TO, Ti TpiTo, Tip) Tov TpiTov. P. 93 B {'J2). Thc passagc in Plato runs thus :
"All things about the King of all and on account of Him, this is the
cause of all good ; the Second about the Second, and the Third about

the Third." Tip) tov To-vtuv fooanXia. vivT ierr), ku.\ Ixiivou 'iviKO. tu-vtu.' kol)



3



6 Some Account of the



Justin is from the Second Epistle, where he endeavours to
discover an allusion to the Trinity in the words, "The Third
about the Third," in which he supposes Plato to have referred
to the description of the Spirit moving on the face of the
waters, in the first chapter of Genesis. It is utterly impossible
that passages like these should have been the sources from
which Justin originally drew his notions respecting the Ao'yo?
and the Trinity.

If we turn to the Dialogue with Trypho, we learn that the
Jews as well as the Gentiles objected against the Christians
the divine honours paid by them to a crucified man. How
does Justin answer the objection ? By alleging passages from
the Old Testament, from which he proves that Christ, Who
preached and was crucified under the Emperor Tiberius, was
the Aoyos, made flesh, Who had before conversed with the
patriarchs ; and Whom, together with the Holy Spirit, the
Father addressed w^hen He created man. Are we, therefore,
to conclude that he was indebted solely to those passages for
his knowledge of the doctrines of the Divinity of the Aoyos and
the Trinity ? Yet this surely is as reasonable a conclusion as
to infer, from the passages before cited, that he borrowed them
from Plato. In both instances he used arguments which he

IztTvO a'lTlOV OiTUVTUV TUV KOCXUV. %iU7ip0V ^\ 9flfl, TU, ^iVTipX' Kx) TftTOV T-pi,

ra rpira. P. 312, tom. iii. Compare Dial. p. 220 C. "And to consider
this greatest and most noteworthy work, the remaining Second and
Third." ««/ tovto fxiyiarov xa) Tiy,tei>TCcrov ipyo)> Tiyilffioci, roc, oi 'koi'ffa. oivnpv,
xk) TptTtx. If the Hortatory Address to the Greeks was the composition of
Justin, the argument acquires still greater force ; for though the author of
that work mentions many of Plato's opinions respecting the nature of God,
the creation of the world, etc., which he supposes to have been borrowed
from the writers of the Old Testament, yet he is wholly silent concerning
the Aoya,-. Indeed, Justin's repeated assertion that Plato was indebted to
the writings of Moses and the prophets for whatever right notions he
possessed on the subject of religion, is incompatible with the supposition
that he would himself borrow doctrines horn Plato.



Writings of Justin Martyr. t^^

deemed most likely to have weight with the persons whom
he was addressing. He was anxious to persuade both the
Gentiles and the Jews that the writings which they respec-
tively esteemed of the highest authority contained intimations,
however obscure, of those sublime doctrines ; but the sources
from which he himself derived the knowledge of them were
the rule of faith handed down in the Church, and the writings
of the New Testament. I mean not to affirm that the notions
which he imbibed in the schools of heathen philosophy have
not affected his language in speaking of the doctrines : I say
only that he did not derive the doctrines themselves from that
source.

Another circumstance well deserving consideration is the
manner in which Justin mentions these doctrines. He
uniformly speaks of them as held not by himself alone, or
the more enlightened few, but by all the members of the
Christian community. Had he been conscious that he was
broaching opinions either utterly unknown or not generally
received in the Church, he would surely have deemed it
necessary to allude to the fact ; and to anticipate the charge,
to which he obviously exposed himself, of misrepresenting the
tenets of the Christians. He has indeed been accused of
betraying this consciousness in a passage in the Dialogue ivith
Trypho^ where he admits, if we may believe the Unitarian

' Justin had been contending that, even if it could not be proved that
Christ was God, the Son of the Ruler of the universe, and born of a
virgin, yet it did not therefore follow that the Jews were justified in
rejecting Him ; since, though a man born of men, He might have been
elected to be the Messiah. He then goes on : ««' ya-f £'V' -r/i-sj, ^ <P''A.fl/^
j'Xsyov, a'xo toZ 'h/niripov yivovs ofAoXoyoZvn; tclrov ^piffrh iTvai, Kv^p^rav ll i>
KV&pMTcov yivofiivov cc-ro(peenofiiv6r of; oh trvvr'th[^ui. ovV uv TXiTtrroi rccura. ftot
lola.ira.vTi; u^ronv, IvitP/i oU a.v$pu-7ruo,s h^dyf^airi KiKiXii(ri^i6a. i-r avTod tov^
XpiffroV 'Tuha^xi, ocXXa. toTs ha, rZv /.taKapiuv 9epo(pnrZv x.yipv^6i7(n, ko.) ^/ c^.hrov
h'^axh7<r,. P. 267 E. This passage has exercised the ingenuity of the
commentators. The Latin translation in Thirlby's edition is as follows :



38 Some Accotmt of the

writers, that the majority of Christians in his day regarded
Christ as a mere man, born after the manner of men. The
passage is not without difficulty ; but the sense put upon it by
the Unitarians is at variance with every sound principle of
interpretation. The fact, moreover, that, among the other
charges urged against the early Christians, they were accused
of worshipping a crucified man, is scarcely compatible with the
supposition that the doctrine of the mere humanity of Christ
was the prevalent opinion among them. In a word, the whole
tenor of Justin's language is irreconcil cable with the theory
that he invented, or at least first published, the doctrines of
the Divinity of the Aoyos and of the Trinity.



"Sunt enirn nonnulli, o aniici, dixi, ex genere nostro profitentes ipsum
Christum esse, sed hominem ex hominibus genitum esse affirmant. Quibus
non assentior; neque id sane multi qui in eadem mecum sententia sunt "
(though ToZra, is in the text, the translator appears to have read ra.v7a.)
"dixerint. Siquidem jussi-sumus," etc. Bull, instead of hf^tripov, would
read vf^iripov, and understand the expression vy-iripov y'ivovs of the Jewish
Christians. This correction derives support from the expressions a.'^o tov
yivov? Tov vfiiTipov, avo rov yivov; vf^uv, which are frequently applied by
Justin to the Jews. I am inclined, however, to retain yifMTipov, and to
translate thus : "For there are some, my friends, of our race (Christians,
as opposed to Jews, v^ui-r-cpov yUo?) who confess that He was the Christ,
but affirm that He was a man born of human parents, with whom I do not
agree ; nor should I, even if very many of those who think as I do were
to say so, since we are commanded by Christ to attend, not to the doctrines
of men, but to that which was proclaimed by the blessed prophets and
taught by Himself;" where I understand the words ^Xua-roi ratlrx fioi
lo^dtTcivTis to mean those who agreed with Justin in professing Christianity.
But, whether this translation is correct or not, the word Tms, opposed as
it is to irXiTiTToi, is alone sufficient to prove that the doctrine of the mere
humanity of Christ was the opinion of the minority, and that a small
minority, in the time of Justin. Wilson, Illustration, etc., p. 152, trans-
lates the passage nearly as I do: "There are some of our race who
acknowledge Him to be Christ, yet maintain that He was a man born
of human parents ; with whom I do not agree, nor should I, if very many,
who entertain the same opinions with myself, were to declare " for this
doctrine.



Writings of Jitstiii Mm^tyr. 39

Some writers, in order to remove from the early Fathers the
charge of borrowing their doctrine respecting the Aoyos from
Plato, point out the Apocryphal Books of the Old Testament,
the works of Philo, and the traditional interpretations of
Scripture current among the Jews of our Saviour's time, and
preserved in the Chaldee Paraphrases, as the sources from
which the language of the early Fathers respecting it was
derived ; but they are not, as it appears to me, borne out in
their opinion by the works of Justin Martyr. A large portion
of his Dialogue with Trypho is occupied in proving that, when-
ever God is said in the Old Testament to have appeared to
the patriarchs, it was, in fact, the Aoyos Who appeared. How
greatly would he have added to the force of his arguments, if
he had shown that this interpretation of the passages in
Scripture to which he appealed was in strict conformity with
the tradition of the Jewish Church ! But neither he nor his
opponent seems to have entertained the slightest suspicion
that any such traditional interpretations existed. I mean not
to allege Justin's silence as a proof that they did not exist,
but that, even if they did exist, it is most improbable that he
derived his own opinions from them.

Having, as we think, satisfactorily replied to the charge
which has been brought against Justin of corrupting the gospel
by an admixture of philosophical notions derived from the
-writings of Plato, we will proceed to consider what he has
actually delivered respecting the Aoyos and the Trinity.

In the first Apology^ Justin, when defending the Christians

^ P. 60 (17). " Worshipping the Creator of all — we honour the Master
Who instructed us in this kind of worship, and Who was born for this very
purpose, and crucified under Pontius Pilate, Procurator of Judaea, in the
reign of Tiberius Csesar, even Jesus Christ, Whom we know to be the Son
of the true God, and therefore hold Him the second in order, and the
prophetic Spirit the third." rov "hyiy-iovpyh rovhi rov -rccvTos <rtfiouivoi~-Tof



40 Some Account of the

against the charge of atheism, says that they worshipped the
Creator of the universe, and placed next to Him His Son,
and honoured in the third place the prophetic Spirit. In
another place the same statement is made with reference to
the same charge.^ Again, speaking of the opinions of Plato,
Justin says : " For he gives the second place to the Logos of

^i^aff'xaXov tj tovtuv yivof^ivov hf^'iv koc) its rovro yivvyiSivra. Inffovv Xpia-roVy
<rov ffravpuSivrix. It) Xiovr'iov HiXurov rou yivoy-ivov Iv 'lov^oc'ta if) XP^^"''
Ttfiipiov Ka'ttrxpos \7r1rpo7rov, vlov ochrov rov ovru; @iou ^a^ovTii ko,) Iv ^ivripa
X^P'^ '^X"^"^^^} ^^^'^f^^ '■^ "^poiP'/sTtaov Iv Tpirn ra^s/ — Tty-cofjiiv. See, with
reference to the Aoyo;, p. 59 E (15). Apol. ii. p. 51 D.

1 "Him and His only-begotten Son Who has instructed us in what I
just now mentioned concerning these evil spirits, and likewise acquainted
us with another host of good and godlike ministering spirits, — both These,
I say, together with the Spirit, Who spake by the prophets, we worship
and adore." aXX' ixuvov rs, kk) rov 'Tta.p avrov vtov iXdovra, xa.) 'hi^a.^avra.
YlfiZs Tctvra, KO.) rov ruv ciXXuv i<^o/u,ivuv xcc) l^ofioiovfMvuv ocyocSuv uyyiXuv
(rrpxrov, 'ffvivf^a, n ro <Tpo(P'/iriKov irs/So^s^a xa) -prpoiTKuvovfiiv. P, 5^ C. This
passage has been alleged by the Roman Catholics to prove that, in the
earliest times of the Christian Church, worship was paid to angels. To
get rid of the inference, Protestant writers have had recourse to various
expedients. Grabe connects kcu rov — arpocrov with ^Sj, and supposes
Justin to have meant that " the Son of God communicated the truths (of
which Justin was speaking) to us (men) and to the host of good angels."
This interpretation he supports by referring to Eph. iii. 10 : "To the
intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places
might be known by the Church the manifold wisdom of God." 'iva, yvupiaf/)
vZv raJs u.px,^i ^^^ raui l^oufflcci; iv roT; ifoupKviois ^toi tsJj ixxX'/jirtcis h -ttoXu-
woUtXoi (ro(pioi rov ©soy. And to Irenseus, lib. ii. c. 55: "The ever co-
existing Son of the Father of old time, and from the beginning, ever
reveals the Father to the angels, and to the archangels, and to the princi-
palities and powers, and to all to whom God will reveal Him." "Semper
co-existens Filius Patri olim et ab initio, semper revelat Patrem et Angelis,
et Archangelis, et Potestatibus, et Virtutibus, et omnibus quibus vuli
revelare Deus." Others, and among them Le Nourry, though a Bene-
dictine, connect x.a.) rov — ffrparov with rccura, and Suppose Justin to mean
that the Son of God communicated to us these truths (viz. that the
demons were not gods), and also the knowledge of the existence of a host
of good angels. (We find '^I'^d^ecvros rocuru. Apol. ii. p. 49 A. ih'ilot.\%
riiurK. ApoJ. i. p. 99 B. ) Othei's, instead of crparov^ would read



Writings of Justin Martyr. 41

God decussated upon the world, and the thud place he assigns
to the Spirit, which is said to move upon the face of the waters,
thus expressing himself, 'The Third about the Third.'" ^
And with reference to the rite of baptism : '' For they are
washed in the name of God the Father and Lord of all, and of
our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit." ^ And again :
" In every eucharistical sacrifice we bless the Maker of all
things through His Son Jesus Christ and through the Holy
Spirit." 3

When we proceed further to inquire into the manner in
which Justin distinguishes between the Persons of the Trinity,

e-rpxrvyov, and construct for Justin a sentence which, careless as he is, we
believe him to have been incapable of writing. One thing is certain — that
Justin, who expressly states that there were three objects of Christian
worship, the Creator of the universe, His Son, and the prophetic Spirit,
could not intend to represent the angelic host as a distinct object of wor-
ship. I have sometimes thought that in this passage xu) rov — trrparov is
equivalent to ^sra roj — a-rpxrov, and that Justin had in his mind the
glorified state of Christ, when He should come to judge the world, sur-
rounded by the host of heaven. Compare the Dialogue ivith Trypko, p.
247 E. *' For the Son of man will come upon the clouds, even as Daniel
foretold, the angels with Him." u$ vlos yxp uvSpu/Ttov Wuvu vKpiXav lxs6-
ffiTxi, us Aoivr/i^ if^Yivvffiv, ocyy'iXuv ffuv avTM ctipnivovfiivcuv, Apol. 1. p. 87 B
(63). "When encircled with heavenly glory and His host of angels."
oTccv fiira ^o^'/is l^ olpxvuv f/i.ira tTis uyysXiKiJs ulrov <rrpxria; k. t. t, oO
p. 71 B {■T,']). Justin, speaking of Satan, says: " Who together with all
his hosts of angels, and men like himself, shall be thrust into fire, there
to be tormented, world without end, as our Christ has foretold." h i]$ to
Tup Tif/,(pHffia-^a,t fjLira. rJjj alrou a-rpxria,; kx) tuv iTTofMvuv xv^pcoTwv, xoXxtr-
dnffoy,ivovs rov ocripavrov aiuvx, TpoifA-nvvtriv Xpto'To;. In the Dialogue, p. 204
A, we find, " that by this arrangement the serpent who has done evil from
the beginning, and his angels who are like him, may be destroyed." "v«
^/a rnt olx,ovofj(,la.s ravryis Trovijpsutrx/Mvo; rhv a.px,nv o^i; kx) 01 i^of^oiuhvrs;
aura! HyytXoi xxrxXvSucri. See also pp. 327 D, 360 D, and 284 B, wliere
Christ is said to have called Himself the Leader of the Heavenly Host.
Compare p. 286 A.

1 Apol. i. p. 93 B (72). ^ Apol. p. 94 A (74).

^ lb. p. 98 C (91).



42 Some Accottut of the

we find that there are certain epithets and expressions which
he appHes to the first Person alone, such as Unbegotten,i



Online LibraryMartyr JustinThe first apology of Justin Martyr, addressed to the Emperor Antoninus Pius : prefaced by some account of the writings and opinions of Justin Martyr → online text (page 4 of 24)