Martyr Justin.

The first apology of Justin Martyr, addressed to the Emperor Antoninus Pius : prefaced by some account of the writings and opinions of Justin Martyr online

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Ineffable, the Maker and Creator of all things.^ He says ^

^ So I translate ayzviinro?. Waterland, in all these passages, would sub-
stitute ayivnroi for aysvvjjraj, vol. iii. p. 248, ed. Oxon. 1823. 'iri TrpcaroroKo;
rai ayivvrirw @iZ Iffri. " That He is the first-begotten of the unbegotten
Ood. Apol. ], p. 88 A (64). 'T'ov yccf u.'JTo ayiw^rou kcx.) app^rov Qiou
Xoyov y,irex, rov &iov ^poirKvvov/u,iv x.cii uyocToif/Av. "We Worship and love

the Word of the unbegotten God, together with God." Apol ii. p. 51 D.

bee also p. 50 C. yap ccjpnros 'Pfa.rvip kdu Kvpio; ruv 'ffa.vTuv ovrs ^01
cc(p7xrcii ovn 'Tripi'^ard, ovn Kinhvtu, ovn avtirrccrad, «XX' Iv r^ a-vrov x^?"^
o-rou -TToTi fiivti, X. T. i. *' The ineffable Father and Lord of the whole
world neither comes to any place, nor walks about, nor sleeps, nor rises
up, but remains in His own country wherever that may be." Dial. p.
356 E. 70V f^'ovov Kou ayivvriTou x.u.\ apprirou %iov viov. " The Son of the
only and unbegotten ineffable God." P. 355 D. rf ayiyvvTM @iu 5;a
Tou XpiffTov. "To the unbegotten God through Christ." A^o/. i. p. 85
B (60). fiira rev uTpi-ffrov ko.) aii ovra. &iov, "The next place to the
immutable eternal God." P. 61 A (18). @'.m li f^ovu rZ uyiw/iTM ^/a roZ vloZ
iToi/.iSa. " We come over to the obedience of the only unbegotten God
through His Son," P. 61 B (18). Justin, as we have already seen, says
that God has no proper name — no name expressive of His essence :
the names which we apply to Him are expressive only of His attributes.
Thus Apol. i. p. 94 -D (76). ovof/.ci ykp rZ app^TM 0s» ol/'Sui 'i^n il<n7v,
"Because we have not any appellation for the ineffable majesty of God."
P- 95 C (79)' "^^'^ avuvQ/jiyaffrov &iov XtXeik'/ixivect rZ Mu(nT. "It was the
unnameable God Who thus conversed with Moses." Apo/. ii. p. 45 D. See
p. 9> f'* !• ovofjicc. dl TO) ^rccvTuv 9rarp) CiToVy ocyivvviTCt) ovn, oIk 'iffTiv. Dial. p.
277 B. ', rov voovfMvov ToiriTyiv ruv oXav. A doubt, however, may
arise whether in some cases Justin does not use the word God absolutely,
not with reference to the Father, as distinct from the Son and Holy

^ Thus He is called -reivTeov '^ccrhp xou ^'/i/^iovpyos. Apol. i. p. 57 A (10).
'TfoiTtTni rov'hi rov tccvtos, p. 70 B (35)- }'/]f/.iovpyo; tov^s rod -^ravros,
pp. 60 C (16), 92 A (70). 'tiff'^'or'/is -zavrm kou ^arhp &ios, pp. 76 E (45),
81 C (52), 83 D (57)' ° 'Tor/irhs ruv oXuv &ios x.a) -Tra-rnp. Dial. p. 225 A.
' kou -pror^rhs ruv oXuv Qios, pp. 234 B, 3 10 A. ';r«r'/;p rZv
oXojv KO.) uyivvr,ro; &ios, p. 342 A.

vTo aXXov rov Iv roic v'Tipovprxvioit «•/ fjcivovro;, xcc.) ovhiv) o(phvro;, n of/.tXvi-
travro; 0/ iccvrov trurs, ov Toirrrhv rov oXov ko.) Turipa, voov/Mv. "By Him
Who remains always in the highest heaven, and is seen of none, neither

Writings of Justin Martyr. 43

also that the Father never descended on earth or appeared to
man, but remamed always in the highest heaven.

With respect to the second Person in the Trinity, Justin
says that in the beginning, before all created things, God begat
from Himself a certain Rational Power, Who is called by the
Holy Spirit the Glory of the Lord, sometimes the Son, some-
times the Wisdom ; and he illustrates the mode of genera-
tion by a comparison borrowed from a fire, which does not
diminish the fire from which it is lighted.^ So this Rational
Power was generated without any abscission or division of the
essence or substance of the Father. Sometimes instead of
the word generation, Justin uses emission or prolation.^ The

holds converse with any except by another's agency, Whom we recognise
as the Father and Creator of the universe." Dial. p. 275 A. oh rh
ToiYiTViv ruv oXuv Kou 'ffa.r'ipa,^ KO.ra.Xt'Ji'ovra rot, WTtif oupxvov uTuvra, iv oXtyui
yTiS u,opitt) <7ri(pa,vSai <rx; offrtfovv^ xav //.iKpov vovv SX"^^) ToXf/,'/jffii uTiTv. ** No
one even with little sense will dare to say that the Father and Creator of
the universe left the highest heaven, and showed Himself to any one in a
small part of the earth." P. 283 B. See also p. 356 E, quoted in note i,
p. 56, 357 B.

1 apx/iv -rpo ToivTuv tmv x.ri/rf4a.Te>JV &ios 'yiyivv/jx.i ^vvocf^lv rtvoc s| lavroZ
Xoytxvv, vris xa) §a|« Kvp'iov vTo roZ 'rviVf/.ex.ros tov ocyiov xa'kura.i, To-ri d\ vlo;,
Tori 5s ffo(plci — xx) OTToTov i^r) ^upos op&i/xiv aXXo ytyvof^ivov, olx IXarrouf^ivov ixitvov
l^ oS h civo^l/ii yiyoviv, aXXa, rou avrov f^tivovro;. Dial. p. 284 A. u-ttui
rm 'huvxf/.iv raur'/jv ysyivvyjo'^ai bctto rou -^ocrpog ^vvdf^ii xcc) ^ovX^ avrov, ccXX
oh xocrot, a.Torofji.hv, us uTo/i^npi^o/^sv/iS rra rou ^rarpo; ohffia,;, o-TTola, ra aXXu.
'Ta.vroi (A.ipiXJifji.i'iot, xoCi riy-voyAva, oh ra, cchru, Iffnv a. xcc) •yrp^v rf^'/,6riva,i' xa)
•TTapoHhuyyaros Xi^-piv '?ra,piiXrt(piiv ra. u; (f. u; ra) octto Ttipo; ava7frof/.iva Tvpa
'inpa opuyiv, evTiv IXarrovy-'ivov Ixitvov, s| ov ava{p^?ivai -TroXXa ^vvavrai, aXXa

rahrov f^ivovrot, p. 35" -f^*

2 aXXa rovro ro rZ ovrt a-ro rod Trarph "TTpopiX'/iClv yivvyif^a, Tpo -ravruv rut
Totvifiaruv ffw^v ru Tarpt. xa) rourw Tarhp 'Tepoffof/.tXii, f. 7rpoffuf^.iXu.
" And this Product being truly prolated by the Father was one with the
Father before all created things. And the Father held intercourse with
Him." P. 285 E. vivo'/txafMV ovra, xa) '^po -ravruv Tor/ifidruv, a-TTo rou Trarpo;
luvafj^u ahroZ xa) (houXy^ vpoiX^ovra. "We knew that He was begotten
before all created things by the power and will of the Father." P. 327 B.

ort olx Urtv av^pu^ivov spyov, aXXa rni ^ouXy,; rod ■7rpo^a^\ovro; avrov 'Tarpoi

44 So)?ie Account of the

general opinion of the Ante-Nicene Fathers appears to have been
that, previously to this generation or emission, the Logos sub-
sisted from eternity in a state of most intimate union with the
Father, though personally distinct from Him, being His Intelli-
gence and His Counsellor in devising the plan of creation.
But though we find in Justin's writings nothing decidedly at
variance with this opinion, he nowhere expresses it in clear
and explicit terms. For most of the passages, quoted by Bull
and Grabe,^ in order to prove that Justin held the doctrine of
the coeternity of the Logos with the Father, are capable of a
different interpretation, and may be understood merely of an

rm oXav @iov. "That He is not made by man but by the will of Him
Who made Him, God the Father of the universe." P. 301 B.

ovoy,a, 01 Ta> ^kvtmv ^ccrpi ffsroVy ayivvriTM ovri, ova Jitt/v. m yccp av 7(.ce,t
ovof/,ex,Tt (f. ovof^ciTi Tis) <7rpoira,yopivnroe,i, ^rpitr^vTipov 'i^n tov ^s^svsv to ovofji^u,.
TO Oi 9recT7ip, Kcci @ioSy xut xnirr'A?, act) Kvpios, y-a) ^iffTrorn? ov» ovof^ara, iffriv,
uXX iK Tuv iv-Troiiuv KKi Tuv ipycov 'ffpoffp'/iffii;. "Si vios ijiiivov, fJt,ovo; \iyo'
.uivo; Kvpiu; vio;, Aoyos ^po nrut foiyi[ji,a,rcov x,a,] crvvuv koc) yivveufzivo?, on tyiV
xpX/A'i Oi ahrov TTuvrot, 'ixritrs xa) ixofffA'/itrt, "Kpiff-ros f/Av Ko^ra. to x,i^pt(r6ui kcc)
KOiTf^nffoci TOi TccvToe, oi' ahrov rov &:ov, kiyiTcn' ovoua. xcc) ocuro Tspis^ov ayvuxTTov
7yif/,ce.(Tta,v' ov TpoTov xk) to Qio; "Trpoffocyopwfji^ot,, ovk o\o^u. IffTiv, aXXa Tpdyf/^ciTo;
Ivtri^^Yjy'/irav sf/,(pvTos t"^ (^vffn tuJv aySpu'TiJv Vo^oi., Apol. ii. p. 44 D, translated
in p. 6^'of this work. On this passage Bull remarks : " In his verbis docet
Justinus Deo Patri et Filio nullum proprie nomen competere, sed tantum
appellationes quasdam, ab ipsorum beneficiis et operibus petitas, ipsis a
nobis tribui. PIujus autem assertionis rationem banc affert : quod Deus
Pater ingenitus atque seternus sit ; Filius vero ut Verbum ejus ipsi co-
existat ; ac proinde uterque neminem habeat se antiquiorem, qui ipsi
nomen imponeret. Quin et Christi nomen ejus Divinitati tribuit Justinus,
quasi scilicet Aoyos et Filius Dei Deo Patri coexistens et ex ipso ab
aterno nascens (tanquam scilicet seternse lucis aeternus splendor) tum
Christi nomen sortitus fuerit, quum Pater per ipsum cuncta conformaverit
ornaveritque." Def. Fid. Nic. sect. iii. c. 2, sub in. With respect to
this comment, we may observe, in the first place, that Justin does not
assert that no name can properly and essentially be given to the Son, but
to the Father of all things, an appellation uniformly applied by Him to the
Father, as distinct from the Son ; in the next place, that Justin does not
say that the Son existed together wiih the Father from eternity, but before
all created things, Tpo tuv -Tr^tny-Kruv ; and thirdly, that Justin does not

Writino-s of Justin Martyr. 45

existence prior to the creation of all things. The expression
which is in appearance most opposed to the doctrine of the
coeternity of the Son with the Father is in a passage of the
Dialogue with Trypho, p. 358 E, where Justin quotes Gen.
xix. 24 to prove that the Old Testament recognises two dis-
tinct Lords, — One Who descended on earth to hear the cry of
Sodom ; the Other Who remained in heaven, "Who," Justin goes
on to say, "is the Lord of the Lord on earth, as being Father
and God, and is the cause of His (the Lord on earth) being
both powerful, and Lord, and God : " os koX rov iirl yrj^ Kvplov
Kvpcos icTTLv, ws irarrjp kol ©cos, atrios re aiiro) rov etrai kol
Swarw, Kal Kvptw, Koi 0€o). See Bull's remarks on this passage,

say that the Son received the name of Christ, when the Father made all
things by Him. Grabe accordingly seems not to have been satisfied with
Bull's interpretation, though he contends that the word trwuv, "being in
company with," iynplies the eternal existence of the Son with the Father ;
referring in support of his opinion to the Dialogue witli, Trypho, p. 267 B ;
'^fou'xa.f^nv &iov ovra. ^rpo ecluvuv rovrov Xpurrov, " Christ to have been God
before all ages," p. 276 D ; tov kou -rpo Toiva-iu; 7c'osy.ov ovra &iov, " He
was God before the foundation of the world," and to p. 285 E, quoted in
note 2, p. 43, of which passages, as well as of p. 264 A — Ss x-a.) crpo
iMir<popov Koc) ffiXmri; «v, " Who existed before the morning star and the
moon," it may still be said that they are not decisive ; for Arius appears
to have been willing to call Christ, rh \k '^rccrpos Tpo 'rccvruv tuv u.\uvc>jy
ysyivr,f/.ivov, @sov x'oyov, " God the Word, begotten of the Father before
all worlds." Socrates, Hist. Eccl. 1. i. c. 26. Waterland also classes
Justin among the writers who make the generation of the Son temporary,
vol. i. p. 104. Observe, too, what he says respecting Bishop Bull in p.
105. There is in p. 302 B a very remarkable passage : ««/ Aa^G/B §s 'xpl

h^iov Kou ffiX'AV'/i; l» yaffrpo; yivvn^'hffKTSa.i kvtov xocroc mv tov 'Trex.rpog [oovX'/iv

iKYipvli, "And David proclaimed that He was begotten from the womb
of the sun "and the moon, according to the will of the Fatlier." The

reference is to Ps. ex. 3 : b tou? XKy.'^poTTifft tuv a,yiuv ffou, ix yaa-rpos Tpo

iucnpopou iy'ivv'/ttra, ffi, " In the beauties of holiness from the womb before
the morning star have I begotten Thee." Commentators generally under-
stand this verse of the generation of the Son to create the universe ;
but in p. 286 E, Justin refers it to His birth from the Virgin. See
pp. 82 E (56), 250 C, 310 A. In p. 309 C, the words la yutr-rpo; are

46 Some Account of the

sect. iv. c. I, Def. Fid. Nic. Again, p. 311 B, Justin says : os
IdTi Kvptos Twj/ 8wa//,€a>v 8ia to Ok\y]\xa rov Swtos avrw Trar/oo?,
"Who is the Lord of hosts by the will of the Father Who
gave Him the dominion." When, however, we find it ex-
pressly stated that it was Christ who appeared to Moses, and
described Himself as the Necessarily Existing " I am that I
am," we must conceive Justin to have maintained the perfect
divinity of Christ, and consequently His coeternity with the
Father. 1

This Rational Power, according to Justin, was begotten or
emitted, that He might be the minister^ of the Father in
creating the universe,^ and conducting what the Fathers term
the Economy.^ Hence we find Him present at the creation

1 Apo/. i. p. 95 E (80).

ToZ i'tvKi rixvav TpuToroxov tuv oXcov kt kt (jlolt wk Dial. p. 354 ^' Compare
pp. 279 A, 280 D, 283 B, 284 A, 356 C, 357 C.

^ aXX I'Tti.thn kvvo>i^iVTa tov &iov otci koyov t^v xocr/nov '!Toir,<Tai iyi^jTriv.
" Because they found that God reflecting upon Himself made the world
by His Logos or Wisdom." Apoi. i. p. 97 B (81). uim xiytu &ioZ Ik
Tcov VTroxiif^'ivuv xal '^pootjku^ivruv ^io, MMtTicij; yiyivTitrfoti tov rravTa xaa/xov
Kcc) HXaruv, xa) 01 rccvra Xiyevrii, xot.) hfjt,i7i \f/,ci6oy,iv. "And that this
chaos first mentioned by Moses was the subject-matter out of which the
Logos of God made the world, both Plato and his followers and we
are agreed." P. 92 D (71)' ioo^'^rip tcHxxo, Tizvra, Z^ua. Xoyu QioZ t'/iv up^h^
lyivvnh. "And all the other animals were made in the beginning by
the Word of God." Diai. p. 310 C. It has been already observed thai
Justin applies the expressions, Maker and Creator of all things, to the
Father exclusively : the A'oyo; was ministerial. Justin speaks of the
world as created out of matter without form : vXr,)/ ufM>p(pov oZcav sTpi-'^a.v'iu.
(1. rpi-^a-vToi) rav 0£ov xd(ry.ov •ttoiyi'tu.i. "God created the world out of a
chaos of rude matter." Apol. i. p. 92 C (71). Compare pp. 58 B (12),
99 A (94). We must not, however, thence infer that he maintained the
eternity of matter.

* By the word olxovof/.tct, I understand that dispensation which commenced
with the generation of the Son for the purpose of creating the universe,
and will end when " He shall deliver up the kingdom to God, even the

Writings of J7tstin Martyr. 47

of man ;i He it was Who appeared to Abraham/-^ who wrestled
with Jacob,^ Who conversed with Moses from the burning
bush/ Who announced the approaching fall of Jericho to
Joshua,^ Who inspired the prophets,^ Who in the fulness of time
condescended to be born of the Virgin/ to assume the human
form, and to suffer death on the Cross ; Who rose again from

Father" (i Cor. xv. 24). This is the meaning of the word in its fullest
acceptation : but it is also applied to any particular event or epoch in that
dispensation. Thus to the Passion of Christ, »«) t>5 toZ yivof/,ivov -jeaeovi
avTov oixovofiia, "And to the task of His completed Passion," Dial. pp. 247
D, 331 A ; to His assumption of our nature, p. 264 A ; to His compliance
with the Mosaic ordinances, p. 291 E ; to His ministry on earth, p. 315
A ; to His birth from the Virgin, p. 348 B. Sometimes the word appears
to be equivalent to mystery, and to signify that some hidden meaning is
couched under any action or event; for instance, under the polygamy of
the patriarchs, pp. 364 A, 371 A. So we find, p. 334 E, with reference to
Jonah's gourd, ^ta tTh olxovofAlas roZ \x Tijs yns u.^'kon alru aiKVuvx, " By
this mysterious arrangement a gourd arose for him out of the earth,"
Mosheim, Cent. ii. p. 2, c. 3, sect, viii., speaks of a mode of disputing kxt
oUovofii»v ; but there is no vestige of this use of the word in Justin or the
earlier Fathers. In my work on Clement of Alexandria, p. 398, 1 have
gone fully into this question.

1 Dial. p. 285 B.

^ on o(ph); tu ' K^fctafji. Tpo; rn ^pv'i r^ Ma^/?/)^ @iOi. *' That God appeared
to Abraham at the oak of Mamre." Dial. pp. 275 A, 276 E, 281 E. Sec
P- 34, n. 3.

^ Dm/, p. 281 E. See p. 25, n. 6.

* Iv i^ice. fvpo; \k fiuTOU 'fpo(r6oy,iXY\(nv kItm {ru '^lutTi7) hf^iripos XpicTTOf.
" Our Christ talked with him (Moses) out of the bush in the appearance of
fire." Apl. i. p. 95 B (79). Dia/. pp. 282 D, 340 D. See p. 25, n. 7.

^ Dial. p. 286 A.

^ koyos yap nv xai iffriv iv •ravr) Sjv, kcu "tuoc ruv <;rpo<P'/!ruv TposiTuv ret
f^ixXovTOi yiyviffSah " For the Word was and is and exists in all things,
Who also prophesied by the prophets who were to come." Apo/. ii.
p. 49 A.

' Xoi-rov ouv kk) on ouro; ^/« rn; -TrapSUov oivSpwTtos yivvti^moci xara rtjv tou
-retrpos ccliTou fiovXTiffiv vTi/u.nviv, oc^ohii^ov, xu) (TTOt.vpuSrivai, xa.) ocToSccviiv' OriXov
(f. ^nXov) It xoA on fjt.sra, raZra. uvccffroii aviXriXvkv iU tov ovpavov. Dial.
p. 286 C. «XX' lU xTo^u^iv yiyovoc(Tiv o'l^i o'l Xoyoi, on v'los ©say xa) a9roiTro>^o;
'j'/](^/)v: Xpi(r-ro; ItTTi, -rportpov Xoyo; mv xcti iv lOio, ■TTvpo; Ton (pavu;' Ton di xa.i

48 Some Account of the

the dead, ascended into heaven, and shall come again to judge

Of the titles applied by Justin to the second Person in the
Trinity, some have reference to His nature ; some to the
relation in which He stands to the Father ; some to the part
which He bears in the gospel economy. In the first respect
He is repeatedly called God,^ and said to be the object of

In the second respect He is called the Son of God in a
peculiar sense,* or His only - begotten Son, His Reason or

Ev uxovi ao'iufidrav' vuv "hi ^;a hXyiy-ccro; @iov vTip rov avSpco'Tfuov yivous ecv^puTo;

yiVOf/.iVOS, VTfifMIVi Kk) 'TTU.hlv ». T. I. Apol , \, p. Q^ A (80),

■" xa/ avTos 7'Av Kpiffiv tov -ffavro; xv^puTTtvovyivovs croi^/riTdu " And that He
should come to be the Judge of all the world." Apol. i. p. 88 A (64).
See p. 57 B (10).

- OS KCt.) Xoyos (f, SUpplend. jckY) 'pfpuroroao; oov roiJ @iou, kcc) @ios v-Tfdp^ii.
Apol. i. p. 96 D (81), Dial. pp. 267 B, 276 D, quoted in note i, p. 44, p.
314 B. ouTos ecvTos &SOS uv (T'/if/,uivsi rct) M-uiru, p. 282 E. kcc) ccyyiXo; x,a.Xov-
yAvos x.a) ®ios v'ffapx'^v, p. 283 D. fjt,a,prvp'/i(Tu ^s [/.oi Aoyo; rns iropia;, auTo;
uv OUTOS ©£oj aTo Tov -prccrpos ruv oKmv yivv/i^zis, p. 284 C. 'iva koI 0sov civu-
^iv TfpoiXSovTa,, xcc) uv&puTov Iv ocvSpu'Pfois yivofjCivov, yvup'iff'/in, p. 288 E. fiiv
yap (Muffijs) TpixTKocipov 'i^uxiv uvToTs ^hv KX'/jpovof/.i'ccv, an oh "KpiffTos @-o; uv,

OvTi vloS ®10V, pp. 340 D, 354 ■^' '^^^ ^"^^ "^^"^ hf^iTipOV hpiuS, Xu) @i0V, KKl
'S.pKTTOV, v'iOV TOU TTUTpoS TUV o'^UV, yiyV-(T$ai fiiXXovruV, p. 343 B. XKI TO'J

'Xtt.hvs ^i'^ovh 5/' avTov @ios TOU &iou, fiifiV'/iTai, p. 345 A. @ios &iou vlo;,
p. 357 !)• oux av i^npviiah ocutov I'lvat @iov, tou //.ovou xu) aytvv^Tov xui appriTou
&iou Viov, p, 355 I-^' ^^^ ixiTvov TOV xocTci (iovKriv Triv Ixuvov xa) &iOV ovtcc,

P- 357 B.^

3 TOV ya,p acTo ayivvriTov xou a.ppy\Tou @iou Xoyov [/.ito, tov &iov 'prpco'xvvou^iv xui
uya.'Trcof^civ. Apol, \\. p. 5^ C. fiV; yovv xcu 'ffpoifxvvnTos icTi xcci Sios^xai

Xpia-Tos vTo TOU Tot-uTo, ^oij^tTctvTos f/.apTtjpou//,ivos. Dial, p. 287 B. See also
pp. 294 C, 302 B.

■* xoCi 'Ififfovs 'Kpia'Tos f/.ovos ih'ius vlos tm &im yiyivvs^To^t, Aoyo; uutou v-^ap^uv,

XC/A 'PTpuTOTOXOS, XCU l)UVa.lJ!.lS. Apol. i. p. 68 C (3l)' '''»'' a-UTOU (f. CiUTOv) TOU

ovTca; ®iou i/,a.SovTis, p. 60 D (16). Apol. ii. p. 44 D, quoted in note i, ]">. 44.
ju.ovoyivris yccp oti *iv tm <7tot.Tpi tuv oXmv ouro;, lolus 11, ocurou Aoyo; xoii ouvaui;
yiy-vrifiivos x. t. i. Dial. p. 332 C.


Writings of Jicstin Martyr, 49

Word,i His First-born or Begotten,2 His Power,^ His Ttiought
or Intelligence, if the received reading is correct,^ His Christ
or Anointed,^ His Glory, His Wisdom.^

1 According to the passage quoted from the First Apology in note 7,
p. 47. Christ was the Xoyoi before He was the Son and Messenger of
God. Ti^Zra, h K'oyos, QiTo? (f. @iis) ^v, -Jpyd^ccro, " The Reason that is Divine
would these things bring about effectually." Apol i. p. 58 D (13). J U
Aoyos rod @toZ \,rriv vlos cchroZ, " The Logos of God is His Son "
P- 95 D (79).^

^ y/ovrt? ccl^riv :TpcuroToxov [Av rod @ioZ, ku] ^pi ^<i,rm Tm KT,<Ty,^.rav ku]
ruv vaTp,rxp;^uv, vl'ov. Dial, p. 326 E. See pp. 310 B, 311 B, 367 D,
344 C. TM T% xcc) Tov Aoyov, Uti -^rpurov yivv/i/aa, roZ @ioZ, Apol. i. p.
66 E (29). voun, Z, z'l y. kcc) tov voZv ^po(Tixirt, ««) or, yiyivv^fffiot,
M roZ ^arpos rodro ro yivv'/,,ua. ^rpo -Ttdvrojv ^tXo^s r^v zr,fffzdra>y h A'oyo;
\MXoV Kcci ri yi,yi^^.i^ov roZ yivvmro; up,0f^Z 'irip'ov Uri,, -ttus ^(rnffoZv of^oXoyr,-
irn;. Dial. p. 359 B. Justin uses the word generation in speaking of
Christ both as begotten before all created things, and as born from the
Virgin. See the passages quoted in note i, p. 44, as instances of the
former use of this word, and the following examples of the latter : il Ti ko,)
IVus -^apa. rhv Koivh yiv-inv ysyiv^a-^eci aZrov Ik @ioZ kiyof^civ Xoyov @zoZ, z. r. I
^ff' \' ^]' ^^ -^ (30)- '-' ^* ^'a 9ra,p6'ivo'J y-y-vvr^tr^u, (pipofziv, p. 6S E (31).
i: h §' ciWUv ha. luvuf^ia,; roZ koyov Hard rh roZ ^ccrpl; -zdvruv Tta) ^iir-Trorou
BioZ [hovXhv, ^la. Tap^ivov uv^pa-ros ccffiKwhen, k. r. I., p. %T^ D (57). ltd yap
•TrapSivov rn-, aTTo roZ ff-ripf^aro; 'laKcifi, roZ yivo/xivou ^arpo; 'lou^a, roZ hh?ic^-
fiivou 'lov^a'tcdv -^arpo:, ltd, di^vajxius @ioZ d'TTiKunh, p. 74 D (41), \vhere ltd
Ivvdf^icoi e'.oZ, " by the power of God," is equivalent to hd lvvd[x,ico; roZXoyov,
"by the power of the Word, "in the passage before cited. See also ^/^/. ii.
p. 45 A. Dial. p. 241 B. In p. 316 E, the word yinfft? is used with
reference to the time when the Holy Spirit descended upon Christ at His
baptism, and the voice from heaven declared Him to be the Son of God,
roTi yivifftv alrou "Kiyuv ylyviaSat roT? uv$puToi;, i^orov h yvdia-t; alroZ iy,iXXi
yiynffSai, vlos y-ou u cv, \yu ffyifAtpov yiyiw/iKd (Ti.

ov yap ffo(ptjr'/is v-ZTip^iv, dXXd Ivvafzti @ioZ A'oyo; alroZ -Jv. Apol. i.
p. 6l D (19). 'h 61 <ffpuirn 1vvc(,y,ts f/,ird rov -zar'ipa -Trdvruv }ca) '^icrwor'/iv 0iov,
xat vios, Aoyo; lo-rtv, os rma, rpo-^rov a-apxoTotrJus uv^paTo; yiyoviv, h ro7; il^jj
ipovfiiv, p. 74 B (41). scat dyyiXo; roZ @ioZ, rovriffriv 'h Ivvayug roZ SioZ 'h
'X%y.(^h'iira hf/-7v ltd ^IyktoZ Xpjffrov. Dial. p. 344 A.

KUi rovro avro, u (piXoi, i'lTTS xai lid Muffius roZ @ioZ Aoyog, y.'^vvuv yiinTv,
ov id'/iXua-i, rov &iov Xiyuv rovrt» alru ru vorif/.ari Im rm 'roiy,(rico; roZ dv^pd-^ov.
«. r. I. Dial. p. 285 A. But Thirlby suggests that we should read

50 So7ne Account of the

With reference to the part borne by Him in conducting the
gospel economy, He is styled, as we have already seen, the
Minister,^ and the Angel or Messenger of God.-

AVe have stated that Justin supposed the generation of the
Son to have taken place without any abscission or division of
the essence or substance of the Father ; and that he illustrated
his notion by referring to a fire, which suffers no diminution
though another fire is lighted from it. This comparison im-
plies that the Father and Son are distinct, though of one
substance. There were, however, in his day those who
contended that the power sent forth from the Father was
inseparable from Him,^ as the light of the sun on the earth is
inseparable from the sun in the heavens ; so that when the sun
sets, the light is withdrawn. In like manner the Father, when
He wills, causes a power to proceed from Himself, which He
also recalls at pleasure. Such was the power which appeared
to Moses, Abraham, and Jacob, and was called a messenger or
angel when it bore the commands of God to man ; the glory of
God, when it was seen under an incomprehensible appearance ; ^
a man, when it assumed the human form ; and the Aoyo5,
when it repeated the words of the Father to man. The angels

5 ««T« roZ Xpurrov tov @iov, " against the Christ of God." Dial. p. 322 C.
rov lavrou Xpitrrov, "this Christ." D.

^ tins xa) ^o^et Kvptou v^o rod •rviv/u.aro; tov ky\ov KccXiIrcct, "Xori oi vio;, toti
ll (To(P'kx,, X. r. i. Dial. p. 284 A, C. ^o^cc rod y-vvr.a-Kvro; . D.

^ See note 2, p. 46.

^ xa] olyyiXo; xa,Xt7rut y.ou ocToffroXos' uuros ykp k-rayyiXXtt offcc ou y';co(T-
^■/jvoci, xu) a-TfoffTiXXiTui iJt,nvv(ra)v offu, ayyiXXiTon. Apol, i. p. 95 -^ (79)'
See p. 60 A (15). Dial. pp. 275 C, 276 D, 283 C, D. y-iyaXvis ^ovXns
ayyiXov, pp. 301 C, 321 A, 355 B, 356 C. In p. 25 1 B, we find an
enumeration of the names given to Christ in Scripture. (ixiriXsvs, hptvs,
©sof, xuptos, ccyyiXos, av^pw^os, ap^KTrp^.r-Ay);, Xl6o?, tki^iov. See also pp. 3^3
C, 327 C, 355 B. aiuvto; riuTv vojuos xcci nXivrouog o XpiirTo; llii'vi, pp. 228 B,

242 A, 261 C, 271 C, 346 C.
■*' Dial. p. 358 A.

^ \v M^CtlpnTCMl TOTl ipCiVrKCTK/..

Writinos of Jitstin Martyr. 5 1

also were emanations from the Father of the same kind. In
opposition to this opinion, Justin maintains that the angels
have a distinct, and positive, and permanent existence, and are
not resolved into the substance from which they issued ; and
that the power to which the word of prophecy gives the titles
of God and angel is not merely the Father under a different
name, but is numerically distinct from Him.'^

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