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Martyr Justin.

The first apology of Justin Martyr, addressed to the Emperor Antoninus Pius : prefaced by some account of the writings and opinions of Justin Martyr online

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With respect to the human nature of Christ, Justin uniformly
speaks of Him as perfect man,^ but without sin.^ He seems,
however, to have thought that the divine nature in Christ was
so blended with the human as to be in a certain sense com-
municated to it. For, speaking of the moral precepts of
Christ, he says that the cause of their perfection is to be sought
in the nature of Him by whom they were delivered. ju,eyaXet-
orepa /xei^ ovv Trdarjs avOpiDTretov SiSacTKaAtas (^atVerat to. rjfxeTepa

^ ov^, ci>s TO TQV h^'iov (pu?, ovQfxKri fiovov ccfi^fitUTUi, ocXXot, xai upi^fiu iTip'ov Tt
iffrlv, p. 358 C. Compare p. 276 E. on ovrog rs rZ ^ Afipocotf^ kcc) tu
'la,xaj[i Kou ru Maitrt? ut^Sai kiyof/.ivo;, Kcci yiypa./yt.pi.ivo; @io;, irtpo; Itrrt rou tcc
-TTavrot. 'roin(ra,vroi @iov, upi^i^S Xiyu, aAX' oh yvu[jt,7f' ovhlv yu.p <P'/if/,i uvrov
Ti'Tpa^'ivui Tori n aTip ccuro; rov Koerf4,ov Tor/nras, vTsp ov ciXXos olx. siTTt ©£«?,
fii(iouk'/ircii Ko.) Tpei^oii xei) oju,iXii<rcci, p. 285 D. Tpog rivcc kou a,pi^fjt-M ovroe.
'irspov, XoytKov vfupp^^^ovret, and p. 359 B, quoted in note 2, p. 49.

^ KO,] uTotiixvuuv oTi a,k'/,^a; yiyoviv oiv^pwro; ocvtiX'/i^tipcms Ta,6uv. (f. ccvri-
XriTTiKos Toi^uv.) Dial. p. 325 A. kol) ti IxvrotJ ofioioTxhus ySVOfiiVOV Kx) §/5«-
^KVTos raZrx. ApoL ii. p. 49 A. ycai ykp yivv^h)? %vva[/,iv rhv xvrou 'icr^i, x.u,i
av^dvuv Kxrk ro xoivov ruv ccXXuv xTcivrMv xvSpuTuv, ^puf/,ivo; roi; xpfioC,oiiiTiv,
Ixxa'Tyi xl^ri(fit ro olxiiov awsv;/^;, rpi(pof/.ivo; rx; Txa-x; rpo(pxSf x. r. £.,
pp. 315 C, 328 E, 332 D. Justin founds a singular argument in proof of
the supernatural birth of Christ on the words of Dan. vii. 13, 14. orxv yxp
ut v'iov xvCpu'Ttou X$yyi AxvihX rov 7rKpxXxfz.(ixvovrx rhv xlaviov (ixtriXuxv, ovx xvro
rovro xWiffcnrxi ; ro yxp us viov xf^puTov itTuv, (pxtvo/xsvov fnv xxi yivof/,ivov
xv^peoTov f/,nvvii, olx l| xv^puTivov Ti ffTipfiXTos v'Txp^'^ovrx oijXoT, p. 301 •''^•
See p. 25, note 2. See also p. 331 E, where there appears to be an
allusion to the Docetre. In p. 327 A, Justin assigns reasons why Christ
called Himself the Son of man.

^ xXXx Tph ro «vxju,xpr'/iro; iTvai. Dial. p. 330 A, D. See also pp. 337
E, 234 D, 235 B, 241 B, 254 B.



52 Sonic Account of the

Sta rovTo, Xoy LKvv to oXov rov cfiuvevTa (Thirl by would read
Slol to Xojlkuv oXov tov (jiavivra, Pearson Sta tov to) Sl rjfxa^
XpLCTTOv yeyovevai kol (Tojfxa kol Xoyov Koi KJ/v^^rjv.^ Where,
whether we interpret Kal Ao'yov of the Divine Nature, or suppose
it equivalent to vovv as distinguished from ij/vxqvj Justin must
be understood to say that Christ was XoyiKos as to the whole
of His human nature. It should, however, be observed that,
according to Justin, the whole human race participated of the
Aoyos. In the First Apology'^ he supposes an objection of this
nature to be made — that they who lived before Christ entered
upon His ministry and taught mankind how to believe and act,
could not be held accountable for their actions ; to which he
answers — that Christ, the first-born of God, was the reason
(Aoyos) of which the whole human race participated ; so that
all who Uved according to reason (/^era Xoyov) were Christians,
even though they were reputed to be atheists ; for instance,
Socrates, Heraclitus, and others, amongst the Greeks; Abraham,
Ananias, Azarias, Misael, Elias, amongst the barbarians.^
While on the contrary, they who lived contrary to reason (avcu
Xoyov) were bad men and enemies of Christ ; and, as Justin
means his reader to infer, equally accountable with those who

^ Apol. ii. p. 48 B.

2 P. 83 B (56). Compare A^ol. ii. p. 41 E. (jlitu. "k'oyov hpSoZ (lioucriv,
''they live by the aid of a true reason." Christ was in part known to
Socrates. Aj)ol. ii. p. 48 E.

3 h (ixplicipois. As Justin here calls Abraham, etc., barbarians, in com-
pliance with the prejudices of the heathens whom he is addressing, may
not what he says respecting the seed of the word, implanted in the
breasts of all men, be said in accommodation to the same prejudices,
with the view of procuring a more favourable reception for the doctrine
of the Aoyos ? Le Nourry and the Benedictine editors have taken some
pains to rescue Justin from the suspicion, founded on this passage, that
he believed that the Gentiles could, by the mere light of reason, attain
to eternal salvation. See Casaubon, Exercit. ad Baronii Atrnales, i. i .
In Apol. i. p. 96 E (81), Justin says that Abraham, Isaac, etc., were the
first who applied themselves to the study of divine thing?.



IWitings of Justin Ma7'tyi\ 53

lived wickedly after Christ's coming. Whatever right opinions
the Gentile philosophers entertained respecting the nature of
the Deity/ the relation in which man stands to Him, and the
duties arising out of that relation, were to be ascribed to this
seed of the word implanted in their bosoms. But to them
was given only a small portion : the true believer in Christ
alone possesses its fulness.^

As it was the Adyos who suggested to the Gentile philo-
sophers and lawgivers whatever right notions they possessed,
so was it also the Adyos who inspired the ancient prophets.
We have already cited one passage to this effect ; ^ but the
same statement occurs repeatedly in Justin's writings.

1 oh yap f^ovov "EXXtia-t ^la, 'Euxpa.Tcv; v-tto X'oyou 'hXtyX-^n raZra (the absur-
dities of the Gentile polytheism) aXX« ko.) Iv ^a,p!iu,poi? y^r' eAvroZ toZ
X'oyov f^op(pei)6ivro;, ko.) avSpu-TTov yivof/.ivov, na) 'l'/i<roZ XpiffroZ xX'/jhvroi. Apol.
i. p. 56 A (7).. Here an opposition seems to be intended between Acyo-,
and Aoyes, " Reason " and the " Logos ;" but it is not observed in other
passages, ^ici to 'ifycipuTov crccvr) yivu av^pu'Tcdv ff'^ripf/.cc tou Xoyou. Apol. U,
p. 46 C. o\ yap ffvyypaipu; •^ravrs; ^la, rr,$ ivovffns lf/'(pvrov rov Xoyov ff'TropM;
a,[jt.vhpwi i^vvoiVTO opav ra, ovra,. irzpov yap ia'Tt ff'TTipy-a nvo; xai f^tf/,fif/.a xara
'Bvvaf/.iv ^oHv' Ka) 'inpov aiiro ov, x,aTa ;^a,piv rh a-r Ixuvov, h (/.iroviria xai
f/.ifiyitns yiyvirat, p. 5 1 D. a^o fiipous raZ (r<7rip(/.artx,oZ 6uov Xoyov, p. 5 1 C.
ohv "prapa vaffi ff'Tf'ipfJt.a.ra aXf]0uccs "Soxti iivai. Apol. i. p. 82 A (52). As the
word A'oyo', in Justin's writings is used in three different senses, for the
Reason or Word of God— the second Person in the Trinity ; for reason
generally ; and for speech or the word spoken ; we may expect to find
occasional difficulty in determining the precise sense in which it is used.
See Casaubon, tibi supra.

2 Tflyj {y.n) Kara ffTTip^ariKoZ Xoyov [/.ipo;, aXXa Kara rhv rov -Travro; Xoyov,
'^ Iffrt XpiffroZ {L Xpio'ros), yvuffiv Ka) ^ieoplav. ApoL \\. p. 46 C. oW yap
xaXui at) i(p6iylavro Ka) iSpov 01 (piXo/ro(priTavrii n vo[zoSir'A(ravri?, Kara Xoyov
f/Apog ivpiffius Ka) hupla; \<rr) Tovfi^ivra avroTs. WuPyi Ti ov ■^dvra ra roZ X'oyov^
lyvuptffav, 05 iffrt Xpta-ro;, Ka) havr'ia savroT; -TtoXXaKis sItov, p. 48 C. oi
■riffnvovrii alrZ uit)v av^pu-roi, iv oJ; oIkiI ro 'Ttapa roZ @ioZ ffv'tpf^u,, Aoyo;.
Apol. i. p. 74 B (41). 3v «]j at) ^vvdf^u f^h ■^dpiirri, Ka) hapyag h -rapi^rai
Iv rn "^ivripn alroZ "Trapovc'ia (0 Xpicrros). Dial . p. 273 L.

'^' Apol. ii. p. 49 A, quoted in note 6, p. 47- See also Apol. i. 75 C (43).

"t/ Ti ovhi\) aXXop CioipopoZvrai 01 ■rpo(pyirivovri;, i't uh Xoyoj ^iUa>, Ka) If^Ui, o^i



54 Some Accoimt of the

With respect to the third Person in the Trinity, we have seen
that Justin represents the Holy Ghost, in conjunction with the
Father and the Son, as an object of worship. The distinct
personality of the Holy Spirit is also incidentally asserted.^ It
is, however, not unworthy of observation that the passages
most explicitly declaring the doctrine of the Trinity are found
in the First Apology^ not in the Dialogue ivith TijpJio ; in which
Justin's principal object was to establish the pre-existence and
divinity of Christ. When, therefore, he alleges the passage in
Gen. i. 26, " Let us make man in our image after our like-
ness," the only inference which he draws is, that the Almighty
then addressed Himself to some distinct rational being.^ In
like manner, in alleging Gen. iii. 22, " Lo, Adam is become
as one of us to know good and evil," he proceeds no further
than to conclude from the words " as one of us," that there
were two persons at least in conference with each other ; and
he afterwards applies them solely to the Son.^ When the Holy
Spirit is mentioned in the Dialogue^ it is chiefly with reference
to the inspiration of the prophets, or to His operation on the
hearts of men.

But though, in the passages above quoted, a distinct per-
sonality is ascribed to the Holy Ghost, we find others in which
the Spirit and the Aoyos seem to be confounded. Thus, in allu-

vx<jXo!.fji.p>a.vu, (pnffiri. Pi 76 D (45) • y-''^ «'^' ^t^Tuv ruv l/n.'^ri'rviva'/u.ivuv kiyiff-
&ai vof/.i(r'/iri, aXX' kto rou kivouvtos avrovi 6uov X'oyov.

^ xa.) avoxpiviTcci avroTs to •Tryivy.a, to Uyiov, *i a.'Tto -rpocreufov tov TXTfo;^ n

UTTO TOU I^IOV, K. T. I. Dial. p. 255 C. fO"^' OTi ykp TO CCyiOV 'TTVlVfJl.a, xou

ivetpyas TpxTTiff^ai t;, tvttos tov f^ikkovTo; yty\i(r6a,t riv, IfoUt' tjf oTi oi xa,)'
X'oyov? i(p0iy^otTo TTip) Tuv ocffoficciviiv fMXXovT&iv, ^6iyyofjt,ivov ccvtov; u; toti
yiyvofisvuv 55 xki yiyiv/ifUveoVf p. 34I ^> **' ''"'' -t'^-'v oiUTov TpiTov, i-xno-/}, ug
TposiTo/je-sv, i^civu tuv uharut uviyvu V'tto Muaicos iip^f^ivoy iTKptpiO'^xi to tov

@iov -TviVfitt. Apol.'x. p. 93 B (72).
2 Dial. p. 285 D, quoted in note i, p. 51.

^ ouxouv uTuv, uii us i| '/ifiiov, xa) api0ju.ov rZv u.XXr,Xoi; (Tuvovtuv, xat to
\7.d,y^nTTo\i SyOj fjt,ifji,yivvxiv. Dial. p. 285 I^,



Writings of Justin Martyr. 55

sion to Luke i. 35, " The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee,
and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee," Justin
says, " It is not allowed me to conceive that the Spirit and
the power from God is any other than the Word, the first-
begotten of God."^ Grotius, in his note on Mark ii. 8, says
that the early Fathers frequently used the word irv^vfjia to signify
the divine nature in Christ, and quotes this very passage from
Justin in proof of the statement ; and doubtless the word may
without any over-refinement be there so understood. Perhaps,
however, the idea present to their minds was, that as, in the
mystery of the Incarnation, the Holy Ghost came upon the
Virgin, and the power of the Highest overshadowed her, and
the x\oyos thereby became flesli, the Holy Spirit, the power of
the Highest, and the Aoyos were the same. But Justin attri-
butes the inspiration of the ancient prophets sometimes to the
Aoyo9, sometimes to the Holy Spirit.^ Here it is difficult to
interpret the latter of the divine nature in Christ, and yet the two

^ TO TViVfAce, ovv xx) rhv ^vvufiiv rhv Tocpx rod @iov oloiv oiXXo vono'ix.i hf^i;, %
Tov X'oyov, o; kui TpuroToxo; ru QiM Itrri, Apol. i. p. 75 -^ (43)' Compare
this passage with Dial. p. 327 C. The ancients were very fond of con-
trasting Eve with the Virgin Mary. As, through Eve, a virgin, sin was
brought into the world, so, through Mary, a virgin, has its power been
destroyed. <'v« »«) %! va ohou « k'Pfo raZ o(pi&>; 'Xa.fa.Kon fnv upx^v j'Xa/3£, diK
ravrns Trts o^ov kou x.u.TO.Xvffiv X«/3>j, •^a.fiSivo; yup outrce, Eva xa) ecip^opo; tov
X'oyov TOV a.To tov o(piu5 av'ky.a.^ouffa,^ 'Tfa.pocKonv xiu 6a.vcf.Tov tTiKi, k. t. £.
" For in the same way that disobedience was first brought into the world
by the serpent, so also it was destroyed ; for Eve, the incorrupt virgin, con-
ceiving the word from the serpent, brought forth disobedience and death."
Eve conceived the word from the serpent, Mary the Word from God.

2 See note 6, p. 47, and note 3, p. 43. ««' ^raX/v kIto; ■ffpo(pnT7.i
'Ha-eciccs, 6iO<popovfjt.ivo; t^ <ffvivy.ce,Ti tm 'rpo(p'/iTix,M, i(pyi, " And again the same
prophet Isaiah, as he was moved by the prophetic Spirit, says." P. ']6 A
(44). For the Aiyo?, see Dial. pp. 268 B, C, 314 B, C, 370 C. For the
Holy or Prophetic Spirit, Dial. pp. 242 C, 249 E, 271 D, 274 B, 275 C,
277 B, D, 284 A. Apol. i. pp. 72 B (38), 94 E {'J^). In p. 243 C, we
find xiyu yap @%o; lia. 'Ha-xiov, "For God says by Isaiah." The same
Spirit Who inspired ihe i>rophets also anointed the Jewish kings. Dial.
pp. 272 B, 313 C.



56 Some Acco2int of the

appear to be identified. I know no other mode of explaining
this fact than by supposing that, as the Aoyos was the con-
ductor of the whole gospel economy, Justin deemed it a matter
of indifterence whether he said that the prophets were inspired
by the Aoyos, or by the Holy Spirit Who was the immediate
agent. The Holy Spirit is called in Scripture the Spirit of
Christ.i

Had the work which Justin composed in confutation of the
heretics of his day {Apol. i. p. 70 C (36)) come down to our
hands, we should probably have obtained a clearer insight into
his notions on these abstruse subjects. As it is, we cannot
doubt that he maintained a real Trinity ; whether he would
have explained it precisely according to the Athanasian
scheme is not equally clear ; but I have observed nothing in
the Apologies or in the Dialogue ivith Trypho which appears
to me to justify a positive assertion to the contrary. Those
passages which seem to imply an inferiority in Christ to the
Father may without any forced construction be understood of
the part borne by Christ in conducting the economy.

In the first chapter ^ we mentioned that Justin accused the
Jews of having erased from the prophecy of Jeremiah a
passage which is not found in any copy, either Greek
or Hebrew. The purport of the passage is that the Lord

' Rom. viii. 9 ; Gal. iv. 6 ; Phil. i. 19 ; i Pet. i. 11. In the last passage,
the immediate reference is to the inspiration of the prophets. In the
following passage Justin says that the prophets saw visions : b iKcrraffit.
TovTov %i avrov ovx, iv rr u.'ffox.a.Xv^ii alrov lupuKU o ^po(pnT'/i;, ciff'TTip oloi tov
^i»[iokov xx) Tov Tov T^vpiov a-yyiXov ovx, a.lro'^tK iv KU.ra.ffru.ffii iov lupuKU,
uxyJ iv ixcTo.a'u aTTofcaXv-^iu; ocvtm yiyiwiy-'iv/i;, " In a trance. For the
prophet saw Him not in revelation, even as he did not see the devil nor
the angel of God with his own eyes in person, but being taken out of
himself, as it were, he saw Him in a vision." Dial. p. 343 A.

^ P. 33, note 5. Observe the expression \v ffoov /j.ivuv, "to remain in
, Hades," p. 326 C.



Writings of Jit sf in Martyr. 57

God remembered the dead among the Israehles ^\ho were
His, and descended to preach His salvation to them. Here
we have an approach to the doctrine of Christ's descent into
hell.



CHAPTER III.

Justin's opinions respecting original sin, the freedom
OF the will, grace, justification, predestination.

Man, according to Justin, was created an inteUigent and
rational being, capable of choosing the truth, and securing
his own happiness, and consequently capable of transgression :^
for this is the property of everything created that it is capable
of virtue and vice ; ^ and on this capacity of choosing good
and evil Justin rests the accountableness of men and angels.^
What were Justin's opinions respecting the change made by

Kou Tnv ap^hv voipov Kcc) oiivcifiivov alpilirfai t«X>5^>j, kcu lu TpuTritM, to
yivo; TO uv^pw^ivov TtToiyixiv, uitt KvciTToXoy/jTov I'lvai Toii "TTuffiv avSpw^rot;
<ffot.pa Tu &iZ' XoyiKo) yup kk) ^icopy,Tizoi yzyiv^Tcci, Apol. i. p. 7' ^ (37)*

In Dial. p. 259 A, the body of Adam is said to have been made the
habitation of the inspiration from God : toZ iiJt,(pvir'/if^a,Toi tov Tccpa. toZ Qiov.

See also p. 316 A. «X^' u? lyiyvuffKi kkXov uvxi yiviffSoit, \<7roiviiTiv alTi^ovcrtov?
-ffpos ^ixetia^pa^ixv xki ayyiXov; kk) k^Spu'Teovs. • kcc) ^povovs aipiin f/.s^pt; ov
iy'iyveoirxz xccXov t'lvxi to ccvTi^ouffiov s^''^ auTov;' xou oTt (f. ots) xkXov uvcti
ofjt-o'tco; lyvupiZ,i, ku.) kccSoXiku,? kk) [/Apixa.; xpiffus iTohi, TK^vXayusvov f^iVTOi
TOV avTs^oua-iov, p. 329 A.

^ yivv'/^Tov Ti -preiVTo; ^'^j '/i (pvffi?, y.a,yAu.i xou apiTYi; oiztikov uvki, k. t. i.

Apol. ii. p. 45 E.

^ TO d \^ecxoXov§7ia'0!.i o'l; ipiXov ocItcu, a'tpovfMvou; 01 uv u.vTOi ioci)pYi<Ta.Ta XoyixMv
^wdf^iuv, 'pn'thi Ti xa) st; tio'tiv ciyn ^^S;. Apol. i. p. 5S C (l3)' Here
we have something like preventing grace, xm 1i \a.vTov$ yiuu? ol eL'/SpuTroi,

xoCi ot ciyytXoi, iXsyp(^^yia'o/u.'Jcc Tov/ipi'JffccjU.ivoi, \u.v uh (pf<i<ru,vTi? uiTOi$uu'Ja,

Dial, p. 370 C.



58 So))ie Account of the

ihe fall in man's condition, with reference to this capacity of
choosing good and evil, does not clearly appear. He speaks
of a concupiscence existing in every man, evil in all its
tendencies, and various in its nature ; ^ and on one occasion
seems to distinguish between original and actual sin.^ He says
also that man, being born the child of necessity and ignorance,
becomes by baptism the child of choice and knowledge ; but
the necessity and ignorance in which man is said to be born
are not referred to the transgression of Adam.^

From the indistinctness of Justin's language respecting the
effects of the fall on the posterity ot Adam, we may expect
to find an equal indistinctness on the subject of grace. He
insists, however, repeatedly that man stands in need of
illumination from above, in order to be enabled rightly to
understand the sacred Scriptures;* and we find something
resembling converting grace in Dial p. 344 A.

^ (rvfjt,f/,a^ov kafiovTis <rhv iv Ixuffrco Kuxriv Tpos Teivra, ku) -TroixiXyiv (pvirn
I'TTthy.la.v. Apol. i. p. 58 E (13).

^ aXX' v<7f\f rod y'lvovi rov ruv •jivSpu'Veov, o ecfo rov Adoif/> v^ro ^dvurov
Kcc) TXdvtiv rnv rov o(piojs i'^i'^ruKii, •^ra.fo, t^v /o/av ulrlocv Ixacrov a-lruv
<^ovt]fivffeifiivov. Dial, p. 316 A.

I'TCuon rfjv rrpturyiv yiviffiv '/ifjt-cujv wyvoowns xa.r ccvayxr/V yiyivvri/x-fci i^
vypecs 0'1'opcis xccra. fcl^iv rhv ruv yoviuv 'ffpoi uXXyiXovf^ xai tv tSiffi (paukois
xai Tov'/ipaT; a,vccrpo<paTs yiyova.fjt.iv^ oTm; f/,vi avccyxr,; rixva fi'/iot ecyvoias f/,ivu-
fji.lv, aXX« 'TpoecipiffiMi xcc) i'7tKTrriy,r,i, x, r. t, Apol, i. p. 94 ^ (76)' The
opposition between the first and second birth in this passage implies that
the baptized person is an adult. In Dial. p. 353 E, Justin says that
Adam, by his transgression, brought death upon himself; but Christians,
if they keep God's commandments, can attain to a state of exemption
from suffering and of immortality, and are thought worthy to be called
the sons of God.

■• Dial. pp. 247 A, 250 C. Qvo\ ykp 'bvvu.y.t; l/Jt-o) roiccvrn ns iirr)v, k'k'kk
X^P'i '^t^poi' &10V fjLovv) £<V ro trvviivxi raj ypeupa; avrov IdoSn f^oi' yis X,"-?''"^
xai vuvrocs xoivuvovi a,fji.t(r6ur) xot,) a(p0oveos TctpuxoiXu yiyvtirdxi, pp. 280 B,
305 A. £i ouv ri; f^h fiira fjciyxXm x'^piroi rn? •ffotpa, @iov Xafioi vo^ffut rk
up'/]fyt,ivoe, xa.) yiysvyi/u.iva vTo ruv '^po(pyiruv, ohdiv alrh ovncru ro ru.i priirsii

}oxi7v Xiyitv, pp. 319 B, 326 E, 346 E. The inability of the Jews to



Wrilijtgs of Jitstin Martyr. 59

On the subject of justification, Justin is sufficiently clear and
explicit. He uniformly assigns the merits or death of Christ
as the cause, and faith as the medium by which we are justified.
By Christ's stripes we are healed ; ^ by His stripes all are healed
who approach the Father through Him : '^ by His blood all
who believe on Him are purified ;^ the Father willed that He
should bear for the whole human race the curses due to all ; ^
He endured the servitude even of the cross in behalf of the
various races of men, having purchased them by His blood
and the mystery of the cross.^ The names of Helper and
Redeemer are appHed to Christ, though with an immediate
reference to the power of casting out demons in His name.^
With respect to the medium of justification, it is asserted that
men are purified by faith through the blood and death of
Christ ; ^ and that Abraham was not justified by circumcision,
but by faith.^ In order, however, to secure the benefits arising

understand the Scriptures was the eflect of a judicial blindness inflicted
on them by God, p. 274 E. Compare p. 287 E.

^ yKJI^e X^ivd^'/in avrou tovs fji.uXu'Tra.s, oJs la^ijvxi 'Jru.fft ovvktov, tu; kki ny'it;
id^nfciv. Dial. p. 366 D. See also p. 323 B.

^ 1! oZ tZv f^eoXuruv "afft? yiyvirai roT; ^/' airoti iTi tov ToiTipa. Tpoo'X'-'-
fovffiv. Dial. p. 234 A.

^ -ffpoayyikriKOV «v rod Toi^ov; oS -^cctrx'-'v if/.tXXs, V ccl[/,a.Tos KctSa-ipm rou:
•r,ffrivovra.s avTu. Apol i. 74 A (41). Dial. pp. 259 A, 273 E, 338 D.
0/' avTMV Ta^ovTCt koyov, p. 33^ -^*

* £< ouv kk) rov lavrov XpiffTov v^rlp tmv Ix txvtos yivovg ot.v&pu'ffm o 'ffarnp
TMV oXmv ras Tavrav Ka.ra.pai a.\ahi\aiT6a.i i(iovX^h. Dial. p. 322 E.
Observe the whole passage.

* ''^ov'Kivtn xa) t^v (Jt-iXP* ffravpov '^ouXiia.v o Xpiffros v-np tmv ik -Travro;
yivovs -roiKiXuv xat -roXvii^uv a,vSpu-?fm, h' m[/.a70? xa.) f/.vffr'/ipiov tov irravpov
xv'/jifa.fji.ivoi avTov;. Dial. p. 3^4 -D.

^ lio'/i^ov 'yap ixiTvov xx) XvrpuTm xaXovf^iv, oS xa.) rh rov hvo[/,a.70S Iffxyv
Koi Ta ^aif/,ovia, rpsf/,ii x. r. i. Dial. p. 247 C.

^ xa.) [ji.nxiTi dlya.(fi rpayuv xa.) -TrpoliaTcov, ^ (TTo'^m day.a.Xiu;, n (nyidaXiui
'7fpo(r<popa,7s xa^api^oyivov?, aXXa. 'Xitfru liia. roZ alyaros rov XpiffroZ xa) rov
eavxrov a.vrod, os ^/« roZro «*£^av£v. Dial. p. 229 E. a'iyan ffaimpr.j
Ti'TKrrivxa/u.iv, pp. 24I E, 259 A, 273 E, 338 D.

8 xa) yap alros 'Afopuay, h uxpofivffria ^v, ha, rm Titrriv h l-rlffriviri r^



6o Some Account of the

from Christ's death, repentance and a renunciation of our past
evil habits are necessary.^ It has been already observed that
Justin, in interpreting Gen. xlix. ii, says that the Holy Spirit
calls those who have received remission of sins through Christ
His garments.- We may not find in Justin those nice and
subtle distinctions which controversy subsequently introduced
into the question of justification ; but the substance of the
true doctrine is there — that man is justified on account of the
merits of Christ through faith, of which faith a holy life is the
fruit.

We have seen that Justin maintained such a degree of
freedom in men as rendered them accountable for their actions.
When, however, he is urging the argument from prophecy in
the First Apology^ an objection of this kind seems to have
occurred to him — that events, in order to be predicted, must
be foreknown — that what is foreknown must be irreversibly
fixed — and consequently, that whatever happens, happens by
a fatal necessity ; men have nothing in their own power, and
are not accountable for their conduct. In reply to this objec-
tion, and in order to show that men act well and ill by their
own free choice, Justin argues thus : — " We see that the con-
duct of the same man is various at different times ; is sometimes

e)=f "ihtx.a.iui'/i. Dial. pp. 241 C, 319 E. Apol. i. p. 60 D (17). In p.
327 E, Justin says that the Fathers who hoped in God confessed Christ,
'hn'^uTixa. iffri tou koc) <ffaripxs avrov o/^coXoyiTv rov; iXTta'ctvrcc; It) tov @sov.

' uTecXXci.'yhv ^£ rod 6a,va.rov Toii fjt.ira.yiytuiTx.ovffiv uTo ruiv (pxvXw'v ku)
Ttffnvovirtv sJj ccvtov \pya.Z,iroi.i, Dial. p. 3^7 E. rovTo ai Itrnv &>;, /u,;Ta-
vorttfot'i 25r/ ToTs ky.a.Dr'A[ji.Kffi, roov afj.apTYii/.a.rMV Tctpce, tou @iov Xoifi'/i «(p5(r;v* aXX
ovx ^i uf/-i7; ucrwroiri Ixvrov;, x-cci aXXci tivi; v/iaTv 0//-0101 xara tovto, 01
Xiyouffiv oTi Kciv ccf/.afi'ruXo) ufft, ®iov o\ yiyvaffKMffiv, oh [///i XoyKTYiroci avroi;
Kvpto; a/^ecprleiv, p. 370 D. See also pp. 267 A and 259 D, where Christ
is said to have been an offering for all sinners who would repent and live
righteously.

" Dial. p. 273 E, quoted in p. 25, note 2. A nearly similar thought
occurs in p. 344 B.

' P. 80 D (51). Compare Tucker, Z/^/// of Ahxtii7-e, vol. iv. p. 282.



Writings of Justin Martyr. 6i

good, sometimes bad; but this could not be the case if his
character was fixed by a fatal necessity — if it was fated that
he should be either good or bad. Nor would some men be
good, and some bad, since in that case we should represent
fate as at variance with itself, or place no distinction between
virtue and vice, making them dependent only on opinion.
This only is irreversibly fated, that they who choose what is
good shall be rewarded ; they who choose what is evil, punished.
For man cannot be a fit object either of reward or punish-
ment, if he is virtuous or wicked, not by choice, but by birth."
In another place, he says that events are foretold, not because
they happen from a fatal necessity, but because God foreknows



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