Martyr Justin.

The first apology of Justin Martyr, addressed to the Emperor Antoninus Pius : prefaced by some account of the writings and opinions of Justin Martyr online

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Sabbath, — holding, however, meetings for religious worship on
the first day of the week, in commemoration of Christ's resur-
rection from the dead. The admission of the Gentiles into

' The reader will observe that Justm calls the first day of the week « tov
rXiov iifispec, "the day of the sun," and the last « xpoviKn, "the day of
Saturn." Dion Cassius, in Fompeio, c. 6, says that the Romans derived
the practice of assigning the names of the planets to different days from the
Egyptians, and that it had become in a certain degree national among
them, X.IX,) riOYj nu) Tovro ff(p!(ri <?rd,Tpiov rpo-rov rivd iittiv. Whether the
Egyptians, having received the computation of time by weeks from the
Jews, applied the names of the seven heavenly bodies then known to be
immediately connected with our system to the days of the week, or whether
their observation of the heavenly bodies first led them to compute time by
periods of seven days, may be doubtful ; but it appears certain that the
computation was made subservient to the purposes of astrology. Dion
has recorded two explanations of the manner in which the names of the
heavenly bodies came to be assigned to the different days. The early
Christians, if of Jewish extraction, retained, if of Gentile, adopted the
scriptural computation by weeks ; and finding the astronomical or astro-
logical names of the days of the week generally received throughout the
Roman Empire, in their Apologies addressed to the heathen, naturally
used those names. Seklen, in the 13th and following chapters of the third
book of his work, Dc Jure naturali, etc., which we recommend to the
careful perusal of those who, whatever be the side they espouse, shall here-
after engage in the controversy respecting the institution of the Sabbath,
has collected all that can be found on this not uninteresting subject.

Writings of JtLstin Martyr. "jt,

the Church was quickly followed by the controversy respectin'^
the necessity of observing the Mosaic ritual,— a controversy
carried on, as we collect from the writings of the New Testa-
ment, with great bitterness; one consequence of which was
that the converts, whether Jew or Gentile, who believed that
the injunctions of the ceremonial law were no longer obliga-
tory, soon ceased to observe the Sabbath ; some even went the
length, as Justin informs us,i of attaching criminaKty to the
observance, as bespeaking a species of return from Christianity
to Judaism. Bearing, however, in mind that one reason
assigned by Moses for the sanctification of the Sabbath was
that on the seventh day God rested from the work of creation,
they added to the original reason for observing the first day
of the week — the commemoration of Christ's resurrection —
another, that on that day God commenced the work of creation.^
Thus far, and thus far only, can it in my opinion be truly said
that the Lord's day was substituted in place of the Jewish
Sabbath : at first it was observed in conjunction with the
Sabbath, and with a reference only to the resurrection.

In Justin's account of the Christian assemblies we find
mention of a president, deacons, and a reader. That the
deacons were regarded as fulfilling the same duties as the
ministers whose appointment is recorded in Acts vi. cannot, I

^ The word (rajSjSar/^s/i/, " to keep the Sabbath," is always used by Justin
with a particular reference to the Jewish law, pp. 229 C, 236 E, 237 A,
238 A.

2 In the Dialogue, p. 241 E, Justin says that a greater mystery was
annexed by God to the eighth day than to the seventh. This mystery he
afterwards states to be the command to circumcise on the eighth day,
which was a type of the true circumcision from error and wickedness,
received by Christians through Jesus Christ, Who rose from the dead on the
first day of the week, which, when the weekly circle is complete, corre-
sponds to the eighth day, p. 260 C. The number of persons saved in the
ark was also a symbol of the day on which Christ arose from the dead,
being the eighth in number, but the first in power, p. Ti^'J D.

74 Some Accoimt of tJie

think, be doubted. But should any person infer that because
bishops and presbyters are not expressly named by Justin, no
minister with those titles then existed in the Church, his
inference would not be warranted by the premises. Justin, it
should be remembered, was addressing heathens, who could
not be supposed to take any interest in the titles borne by the
ministers of the new religion; nor did it form any part of
Justin's plan to enter into minute details respecting the govern-
ment or discipline of the Church. Tertullian, who in his other
works frequently mentions bishops, priests, and deacons, in his
Apology^ addressed to the governors of Proconsular Africa,
uses language even more general than that of Justin. In one
respect the president appears to have been regarded as occupy-
ing the place of an apostle ; for as the early converts, who sold
their lands and possessions, laid the price at the feet of the
apostles,^ so, according to Justin, whatever was collected for
the use of the poor at the meetings on the Lord's day was
deposited in the hands of the president.



In the introduction to the Dialogue zvith Trypho^ the old man
by whose discourse Justin was converted to Christianity enters
into a discussion respecting the soul. Having stated that the
heathen philosophers could not tell what the soul is, he pro-
ceeds to affirm that the soul is not immortal ; " for if immortal,
1 Acts iv. 35. ^ P. 222 E.

Writings of Justin Martyr. 75

it must also be necessarily-existent, as some of the followers of
Plato asserted, and as others erroneously asserted the world to
be. Yet, though not immortal, all souls do not die, for that
would be a benefit to the bad ; but the souls of the good exist
in a happier, and those of the bad in a worse state, awaiting
the day of judgment, when those which appear worthy of God
will be exempt from death, and the rest be punished so long
as God wills them to exist and to be punished. God alone is
necessarily-existent and incorruptible, and on that very account
is God ; all other things, including the soul, are created and
corruptible." He afterwards arrives at the same conclusion by
a different train of reasoning.^ " The soul," he says, " is
either life, or has life- If it is life, it must cause something
else, not itself, to live ; as motion moves something else, not
itself. No one can deny that the soul lives. If, then, it lives,
it lives not as being life, but as partaking of life ; and that
which partakes is different from that of which it partakes.
The soul partakes of life because God wills it to live ; and in
like manner it will cease to partake of life when God wills it
not to live. For its existence does not flow from itself, as the
existence of God from Himself. As man does not always
exist, nor is the body always united to the soul, but, when this
union is to be dissolved, the soul quits the body, and the man
no longer exists ; so when the soul is no longer to exist, the
vital spirit departs from it, and it exists no longer, but returns
thither whence it was taken."

Whether Justin wished to be considered as implicitly adopt-
ing thes*" opinions of his instructor appears to me doubtful ; ^
but even if he did, it is evident that he meant not to deny

1 P. 224 B.

'^ In the Dialogue, p. 241 B, he refers to an argument which he had
received from his instructor, sv t«,^ Ifnivou nfcov^a. rod uvojio;, ' which 1 heard
from that man," against the perpetual obUgation of the ceremonial law.
See p. 2, note 5.

76 Soiue Account of the

the immortality of the soul, but only to say that it was not
immortal in its own nature, — that its immortality was the gift
of God. In a subsequent part of the Dialogue^ he quotes the
fact, that the Witch of Endor called up Samuel's soul, to prove
the existence of the soul after its separation from the body.
In the First Apology'^" he says that the souls of the wicked are
in a state of sensation after death, and, imitating Christ's
example, refers to the passages in which God calls Himself
the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to prove that those
patriarchs, though dead, were still in being.^ His notion
seems to have been, that God conferred upon our first parents
the gifts of incorruptibility and immortality, which they lost by
their transgression ; but which may now be regained by us if
we believe, and lead virtuous and holy lives.^

We have seen that Justin's venerable instructor speaks of
the punishment of the wicked as enduring so long as God
wills. Justin always speaks of it as eternal.^ There is no
absolute contradiction between the two statements, which may

' P. ZIZ A.

P. 66 D (29). Tu Vi KoXci^iff^xif h oclffSriffii ko.) [Mto, 6a,varov ovffo,;, to,;
Tuv aViKuv i^v;\^Ms. See also p. 65 A (26). on xa) fAira,') Iv aUinffu
st<r)v eci \pv^oit,

^ P. 96 E (81). Compare Matt. xxii. 32.
aXXcc -prpo; ro a.'Z'oou^at vy.7v oti to <7fDiV[ji.a. to ciyiov ovj/5/^s/ rovs dv^pu^rovs,
Tous xai QiM o/xoiu; K-rah7; xa.) aJavdrou;, lav (pvXa'^uxri ra, TftoffTayy.aTa aurov,
yiyiv'/iy.ivov; xa) xaryi^iaiy-ivovs v<7e al/rov vlohs alrov xaXiHa^ai, xou ovrot o/xoius
TM ^Aoafi, xa] ry Eila. i^o/icoioij/u,iyoi 6dvarov lavroTs Ipyd^ovrai. Dial, p, 353 E,
referred to in p. 58, note 3. See p. 265 D. o'l Idv dl'tov; tZ Ixilvov (sovX'.u/xan

lavTov; 61 ipyuv di'i^utn, Tni (jlit ahrov avaffTpo(p7iS xara^tM^rivai 9rpoirnXr,<pa/xiv
ffVfj.fiaffiXivovra?^ a(p^a,provs fta) d-raSus yivo/nivovg. Apol. i. p. 58 B (13). xa\
rod "TaXiv Iv aipdapffio. yiuff^ai '^la '^iffriv rhv Iv alru air'^ffn; Ti/wprovris,

p. 60 D (17).

* uiuviav xoXatrtv xoXa(r(l'/iffof.t,ivuv, dxx'' ol^) ^tXiovrairyi Tnpio^ov, Apol. i.
p. 57 B (10). See also pp. 59 B (12), 65 A (26), 67 D (30), %i B (56).
Apol. ii. pp. 41 C, E, 45 E, 46 D, 47 D, Dial. p. 344 B. So also aiuviov

:tard(r^'cO-iv, pp. 34O D, 349 B. uTr/.va-rw: xoXd^ia-i'ai, p, 264 B.

Writings of J its tin Martyr. "jj

be reconciled by saying that God wills the punishment to
be eternal. But the former mode of expression implies the
possibility that the torments of the wicked may have an end,
which the positive language of Justin seems to exclude. Pre-
viously to the final judgment, the soul will be reunited to the
body, which, in the case of the good, will not only be rendered
immortal and incapable of suffering, but even if, during this
life, it laboured under any deformity or defect, it will then be
raised in a state of complete integrity.^ The bodies of the bad
will also be rendered immortal, in order to endure the eternity
of suffering to which they are destined. The place of future
punishment he calls by the name of Gehenna.^

In the Dialogue with Tryphoj^ Justin speaks of the appear-
ance of the man of sin as immediately connected with the
second coming of Christ in glory. His appearance was to
be the prelude to severe persecutions against the Christians.
Bishop Pearson* supposes Justin to have believed that this

1 Apol. i. p. 57 B (lo). The passage is corrupt, but the meaning clear.
P. 65 G (26). Tnv "hi ^ivrifxy (I'ccpovfflav) orav fUTO, ^o^ns s? ovpavuv f/,ira tjjj
a,yyi\ix,ni uvrov ffrpctTieis Trexpeayivyiffiffecii KiKfipuKTSity on xat ra, ffMfiara, ocviyipn
'TTa.vruv Tuv yivof^ivuv avSpuTeav^ xa,) ruv fAv a^iuv ivovtrn K(p$cipfflcx.v, ruv
aVixuv Ev al(r6'/i(TU alavia, /u,iT«, tuv ^ccvXav oxtfiovctiv lU to kimviov crup •TTifi'^^ii,
p. 87 B (63). on xeiv rig Iv Kujir) rm ffcof^aros vcrdp^uv (^vXac.'^ txv -^xpoiOido-
fjLivuv I'TT avTou ^i^ayfidruv vTrap^vi, okoxktjpov aurov Iv r? dsvrspa kItou 'Tfapovtria.,
fjura, rod xa) d^dveirov xai cif^aprov xa,) aXv'^rnrov -Troinffai^ uvaffryiffu. Dial.

pp. 296 A, 359 D.

^ ^ Be yiivvd iffri ro-rog svSa xoXd^KT^xi fAiXXovo'iy ot eiVixus (iieatravTiS. Apol.
i. p. 66 B (28).

^ v\^i ^ivripa {^apoviria) iv « ft,ird Vo^n? ccTo tuv ovpavZv <rapia'Tat, orav xai
rTis aToffraffias a,v6pu<ffos, xa) si; tov vyptfTov e^akXa XaXuv, i-ri ms yn;
oivo[ji.a ToXy-'/iO"/! us hf^as rov? Xptirriavou;, p. ^^6 E.

* The passage to which Pearson refers is as follows : — o^np yiynrai l^orov
£/j <rov ovpavov aviXyi(pd'/j y.ira to tx vixpuv avaffrnvai niAiripo; Kvpio; I'/jtrov;
Xpiffros, i-uv ^poveav trvy.'ffXyipovfJi.ivuv xa) rov (iXafftpvifia xai roXu.npa u? tov
v-^KTrov (jt,iXXovroe XaXiiv n^n W) Svpai? ovto? (av), xatpov xa) xaipou; xat ni^KTu
xxipou "^laxa^i^siv Aavr/iX fi^vvii. xa) v/u,u? ayvoovvTs; -rotrov ^povov dtaxaTt^uv
f4.iXXu, aXXo viyuif^i' tov yap xatpov Ixarov 'i-T'/i i^'/iyilffSi XiyKT^ai, it Oi tovto

78 - Some Account of the

event was near at hand ; this, however, does not strike me as
a necessary conclusion from the words.

We have seen that, among other questions put by Trypho
to Justin, he asks whether tlie Christians really believed that
Jerusalem would be rebuilt,^ and that they, as well as the
patriarchs, prophets, and Jews, and proselytes who lived
before the coming of Christ, would be collected there. Justin
replies that, although many pure (in doctrine) and pious
Christians were of a different opinion, yet he himself, and as
many Christians as were in every respect orthodox, opOoyv^-
fxoves Kara iravTa, were assured that they who believe in Christ
should rise in the flesh,'- and for the space of a thousand years

ifriv, n; ro iXa^itrrov tov rris xvcfytix; civ^pwprov rpiaxoffia TivrriKovTOi 'irr, fiecffiX-
ivffoc,! oi7y nee. to iipn/nivov v-xo rov uy'iov Auviti^, xki xccipav (f. xoci xxipohg), ^60
fiovov; KKipob; "kiyiaSai a,pt$fji,yiffuf/.i'j, p. 250 A. Here we have a plain allusion
to Dan. vii. 25 (xi. 36, etc.) ; 2 Thess. ii. 4 cf seq. The last passage
seems to have suggested the word ^/ax«T£;^£;v to Justin ; but he employs it
ns relating to the time during which the man of sin was to have dominion,
not to that during which he was to be restrained from appearing. See the
use of the word xa.rix,uv.- Apol. i. 82 D (55).

^ C. I, p. 28, Dial. p. 306 B, et seq. Compare pp. 368 A, 369 A.

^ To this resurrection Justin applies the words TaXtyyivja-ia, iv 0I5 za) to

uvfTnptov 9rdXiv TJjj yiviffiug (t>?j ?raX/v yivitria;) rif^tuv, xai octX&Is -zoivTuv tmv
TOV XptiTTov U 'lipovaocXnfJt' (^a-rAffiaSm 'TtpodhoxmTuv. " Regeneration, in which
also is the mystery of our regeneration and the appearance in flesh of all
ihose who believe in Christ in Jerusalem." P. 312 C. Middleton has most
unfairly charged Justin with maintaining that the saints will pass the
millennium in the enjoyment of sensual pleasures. Nothing of this kind
is to be found in Justin's description ; and in p. 346 B, he cautions Trypho
against supposing that the Mosaic sacrifices will then be revived, or any
but spiritual sacrifices offered : oZ {tou Xpiffrov) Iv tJ? -rdXiv •vupovtrlct f/,h ^o^'/iti
Xiyuv 'H<r«i'«v n Tovi aXXovs Tpo(p^Tocs 6vcrioci cc,<p ou[/.d,Tuv n ff'TTovduv i-ttI to
6v(riot,ffTripiov K,va(pipiiT^xi, ccXXu uX'/iCtvov; xx) ^rviVfiKTtxov; a,"vov; xu) iv^ocp-
uTTtas. " Do not think that Isaiah and the other prophets say that at His
(Christ's) second coming offerings of blood and libations will be offered
upon the altar, but true and spiritual praises and giving of thanks." It has
been observed, c. I, p. 24, that Elias is to appear before Christ's second

Writings of Jn still Marty7\ 79

inhabit Jerusalem, rebuilt and beautified and enlarged. In
confirmation of this opinion, he quotes Isa. Ixv. 17, and the
book of Revelation, which he expressly ascribes to the Apostle
St. John, At the expiration of the period of one thousand
years, the general resurrection was to take place ; ^ and after
the general resurrection and judgment, this whole frame of
things was to be consumed by fire.^

I will take the present opportunity of laying before the
reader the different notices scattered OA^-er Justin's works
respecting angels and demons. In opposition to those who
thought that angels were only emanations, sent forth for a
particular purpose, and then resolved again into that from
which they issued, Justin ascribes to them a positive and per-
manent existence.^ To certain of them God committed the
charge of watching over men and over this nether world ; ^ but,
as they possessed freedom of will,^ and were capable of evil as
well as good, they allowed themselves to be seduced into
transgression by the beauty of women ; from their intercourse
-with whom sprang demons. These apostate angels enslaved
the human race by magical arts,*^ by terrifying or by injuring
them, by instructing them in sacrificial rites, and inducing

1 P. 308 B.

" Apol. i. p. 66 B (28), where Justin appeals to the authority of the
Sibyl and Hystaspes. Apol. ii. p. 45 C

3 Dial. p. 358 C. Compare pp. 311 I> and 312 B, where Justin proves
from Ps. cxlviii. i, 2, that angels are heavenly powers. They required
food, but not such food as men require. Their food was manna, according
to Ps. Ixxviii. 24. Dial. p. 279 D.

^ Apol. ii. p. 44 A, referred to in c. i. p. 4, note 2. Trypho appears to
have been scandalized at the notion that an angel could fall. Dial. pp.
305 C, 306 A.

^ Dial pp. 316 A, 370 A. In the former passage he seems to limit
the freedom of men and angels by saying that they were free to do that
which God had empowered each to do, T/;«r-=/v 'Uk 'Uaarov hi^vvuuMiTs

« See Apol. i. p. 61 A (18).

8o Some Account of the

them to offer incense and libations, which became necessary to
themselves after they were subjected to passions and lusts.^
Having enslaved mankind, they sowed among them murders,
wars, adulteries, wantonness, and all kinds of wickedness.
The poets and mythologists, ignorant that these evils were the
work of the angels and of the demons, their offspring,
ascribed them to the deities, whose names the angels appro-
priated to themselves at pleasure. ^ In order more securely to
establish their dominion, the demons employed every art to
seduce men from the worship of the true God, adapting their
temptations to the character of the individual :^ if he was of a
low and grovelling temper, addressing themselves to his senses,
and, as it were, nailing him to idols and earthly objects ; if he
was of a more contemplative cast, perplexing him with subtle
inquiries, and urging him into impiety. With this view, also,
after Christ's ascent into heaven, they instigated different men,^

•^ 01 }ca.) Txpcc Tuv uXoyui (iiovvruv alrovo'i ^uf^etra xx) hpct-Viixs. " Who get
their sacrifices and worship by exacting upon the follies of wicked men."
AJ>ol. i. p. 59 D (15).

It should be observed that Justin makes a clear distinction between the
worship of idols and that of the heavenly bodies. We have seen his
notions respecting the origin of the former (c. i. p. 4) ; but he believed,
and according to hun Trypho also believed, that God actually permitted
the heathen to worship the sun and moon as God. This notion was
founded on a misinterpretation of the Septuagint version of Deut. iv. 19.
£>ia/. pp. 274 B, 349 E.

'^ In the Fi'rs^ Apology, p. 55 E (7), Justin gives a similar account, and
says that men, being ignorant of the existence of wicked demons, called
them gods, assigning to each the name which he had appropriated to
himself. Compare p. 57 D (11), where he says that the images, the
objects of worship in the heathen temples, bare the names and the forms
of wicked demons. See also p. 67 D (30). In proof of this opinion he
frequently appeals to Ps. xcvi. 5. o\ hoi rav ihav 'Butfx.oviBi s/V/v, " the
gods of the heathen are demons," as in Dial. p. 306 B.

■* Apol. i. p. 92 B (70). The devil enabled Pharaoh's magicians to
work wonders. Dial. pp. 294 E, 306 B. He also inspired the false
prophets, p. 325 A.

* Apol. i. p. 69 C (34).

Wri lings of J its tin Martyr. 8i

among them Simon the Samaritan, to give themselves out for
gods ; as previously to Christ's appearance on earth they had
suggested various fables to the poets, founded on what the
holy prophets had foretold respecting the coming of Christ
and the future punishment of the wicked, to the end that men,
having their minds preoccupied with those fables, might regard
the narrative of Christ's life and actions with less reverence.^
In like manner, they caused various rites to be introduced
into the heathen mysteries, bearing a resemblance to those
which were to be instituted under the Christian dispensation.
Thus from Isa. i. i6, which Justin refers to baptism, the
worshippers in the heathen temples were instructed to sprinkle
themselves before they made their offerings ;2 and from what
the demons had learned respecting the future institution of
the Eucharist, bread and a cup of water were placed before
the candidates for initiation into the mysteries of Mithras, as a
part of the ceremony.^ This imitation of the prophetic writings
extended even to the precepts of righteousness inculcated in
the Sacred Volume.*

' Apol. i. p. 89 A (66), where Justin alleges several instances of imita-
tion, some of them sufficiently extravagant. Compare pp. 68 C (31), 90
A (67), 97 A {82). Dial. pp. 297 B, 295 A, 294 E. The demons did
not know that the Messiah was to be crucified, and did not in consequence
invent any fables with reference to the crucifixion, p. 90 B (68).

2 Apol. i. p. 94 E (77).

3 Apol. i. p. 98 C (90), referred to in c. iv. p. 66. In the Dialogue,
p. 304 B, Justin says that the practice of initiating the votaries of Mithras
in a place called a cave was derived from Isa. xxxiii. 16. oZto? olmtrn iv
v-4^'/iXm tTTijXeciM 9rirpoi; Iff^vfa,?, "his place of defence shall be the munitions
of rocks;" from which passage he infers that Jesus was born in a cave near
Bethlehem. See Casaubon, Exercit. ad Baronii Annales, ii. i. See also
p. 296 B.

^ aw KOLi Toiii X'oyovs To.vTOt.; [ji,t[jt.n(ra,iT$oct iTiX'-'P''^''''^^' ^<««'«*pl''«? y^P Xoyou;

tea.) 'ffetp Ixuvois XiyiffScu \rixvu.ira.vTo. " Of which they attempted to imitate
all the prophetic writings, and they also managed by art that precepts
of righteousness should be spoken among them. " P. 296 C.

82 Some Account of the

Actuated by a spirit of unremitting hostility against God and
against goodness, the demons instigated all the persecutions
to which not only the Christians, but the virtuous among the
heathen were exposed.^ They also excited the Jews to put
Christ to death. 2 They were the authors of the calumnious
accusations brought against the Christians. ^ To their sugges-
tions were to be traced the different heresies which had arisen
in the Church;* the unjust and wicked laws which had been
enacted in different states ; ^ in short, they were the authors of
all evil existing in the world. Among tliese evil angels the
serpent who deceived Eve, called also in Scripture Satan, and
the devil, was pre-eminent ; ^ who, together with the other
apostate angels and with wicked men, will be consigned to
eternal flames at the consummation of all things.'''

With respect to demoniacal possessions, Justin says that
the Christians,^ by adjuring demons in the name of Christ,

^ This opinion is repeatedly stated by Justin. See Apol. i. pp. 55 D
(6), 59 D (15), 82 B (53). Apol. ii. pp. 41 D, 45 D, 46 C, 50 B. Dial.
p. 258 D, where it is said that the persecutions of the Christians will
continue till Christ's second coming, p. 360 D.

- Apol. i. p. 96 A (80).

■' Apol. i. pp. 58 D (13), 68 D (31). Apol. ii. p. 51 B.

-> Apol. i. pp. 69 D (33), 91 A (69), 92 A (70).

5 Apol. ii. p. 48 A.

** -xu-o VifM'i y,\v yap ecppf^riyiTr,; tuv KXPiuy 6aiy,ovuv 01^1; KOcXiirui, koh

a-uravas, xec} ^lafiokos. " But the ringleader and prince of evil spirits is by us
called the serpent, and Satan, and false accuser." Apol. i. p. 71 A (37).
Compare Bial. pp. 264 A, 304 D, 327 D, 331 B, 353 E, 354 E.

^ Apol. i. pp. 71 B (37), 82 D (56), 87 B (63). Apol. ii. p. 46 D.
Dial. p. 361 C. This notion of Justin, that the punishment of the apostate
angels will not take place until the end of the world, has by some been
stigmatized as heretical. See Le Nourry, p. 416. Perhaps Justin meant
that all their, power of doing mischief, and consequently their only source
of gratification, would then be taken away, and they would exist for ever
in a state of unmitigated mi'-'ery.

s Apol. ii. pp. 45 A, 46 D. Dial. pp. 247 C, 302 A, 311 B. In the
last passage, Justin says that a demon would possibly obey, if adjured by a

Writings of J^istin Martyr. 83

were enabled to work cures which the Jewish and heathen

Online LibraryMartyr JustinThe first apology of Justin Martyr, addressed to the Emperor Antoninus Pius : prefaced by some account of the writings and opinions of Justin Martyr → online text (page 8 of 24)