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REESE LIBRARY

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
Class



%tn €pocf)S of Ctjurcf) f|ifitor^



(CDtteo b?

*

T0I.V.



Ten Epochs of Church History

edited by

JOHN FULTON, D.D., LUD.

A series of hand-books, giving a popular,
comprehensive and authoritative church
history. Price, $2.00 each; net.



Affangemcnt of Volumes

i. The Apostolic Age. By J. Vemon
Bartlet, M.A.

2. The Post-Apostolic Age. By Lucius

Waterman, D.D., with an introduction
by Rt. Rev. H. C. Potter, D.D., LL.D.

3. The Ecumenical Councils. By Prof. W.

P. Du Bose, with an introduction by
Rt. Rev. T. F. Gailor, D.D.

4. The Age of Charlemagne. By Prof.

Charles L. Wells, Ph.D.

5. The Age of Hildebrand. By Prof.

Marvin R. Vincent, D.D.

6. The Age of the Crusades. By J, M.

Ludlow, D.D.

7. The Age of the Renaissance. By Paul

van Dyke, with an introduction by
Henry van Dyke, D.D. .

8. The Age of the Great Western Schism.

By Clinton Locke, D.D.

9. The Reformation. By Prof. Williston
Walker, Ph.D., D.D.

10. The Anglican Reformation. By Prof-
William Clark, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.



$en (Bpoc^B of €^urc§ giefotrtj



THE

AGE OF HILDEBRAND



BY



MARVIN R. VINCENT, D. D



" Thus God might touch a Pope
At unawares, ask what his baubles mean,
And whose part he presumed to play just now?"

— R. Browning.



IPC



Claries ^cxiBnct's ^ons



1909



V



^\^'






Copyright, 1896,
3v The Christian Literature Compavy.




PREFACE.

HE period of mediaeval history treated
in this volume begins with the appear-
ance of Hildebrand in the arena of papal
politics under Leo IX. in 1049, and ends
with the death of Boniface VIII. in 1303.
It is properly styled " the age of Hildebrand," be-
cause the theory of papal absolutism, which is its
controlling factor, received its definite and practical
embodiment from that Pontiff.

Strictly speaking, however, the historical develop-
ment of this theory reaches its cHmax in Innocent
III. The succeeding pontificates down to Boniface
VIII. add to it no new elements, and are merely at-
tempts to maintain the Papacy at the level attained
by Innocent.

This age, in which the Papacy reaches the height
of its power over the nations of Europe, is marked
by the efforts of the Roman hierarchy to control the
German empire and the kingdoms of France, Spain,
and England. It is the age of the monastic orders
in close aUiance with the Papacy ; the age of the cru-
sades, of the scholastic philosophy and theology,
of the great universities, and of the rise of the
Inquisition.

The period is so significant historically, so crowded

V

1 ? r J



VI Preface.

with incident, and illustrated by a modern literature
so rich and copious, that I have been constantly
under a temptation to enlargement, which my pre-
scribed limits have compelled me as constantly to
resist.

The successive pontificates furnish the natural and
convenient outline for the history. For obvious
reasons the life of Hildebrand has been treated with
greater fulness of detail than the others, but I have
endeavored throughout to make all personalities and
all historical details tributary to the main theme — the
evolution of the Hildebrandian theocracy.

Among the large number and variety of sources
upon which I have drawn, it is proper that I should
acknowledge my special obligations to the following
works : Dr. Joseph Langen's " Geschichte der Rom-
ischen Kirche von Gregor VII. bis Innocenz III."
(1893); D. Karl Muller's *' Kirchengeschichte," vol.
i. (1892); Dean Milman's " History of Latin Christ-
ianity " ; Henry C. Lea's ** Historical Sketch of
Sacerdotal Celibacy in the Christian Church " (2d
ed., 1884), and the same author's ** History of the
Inquisition in the Middle Ages" (1888); Ferdinand
Gregorovius's " Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mit-
telalter " (4th ed., 1889) ; A. F. Villemain's "Histoire
de Gregoire VII." (2d ed.,1874) ; and the valuable col-
lections in Dr. John C. L. Gieseler's " Text-Book of
Church History," translated by Davidson, American
edition by Henry B. Smith (1876). I have also de-
rived valuable aid from Robson's translation of Mi-
chaud's " Histoire des Croisades " (1854); Friedrich
Hurter's " Geschichte Papst Innocenz des dritten und



Preface, vii

seiner Zeitgenossen " (2d ed., 1836) ; the two learned
and exhaustive monographs of Carl Mirbt, " Die
Absetzung Heinrichs IV. durch Gregor VII. in der
Publicistik jenerZeit" (1890), and" DieWahl Gregors
VII." (1892) ; Mr. James Bryce's " Holy Roman Em-
pire " ; and Hallam's " History of the Middle Ages."
For the guidance of any readers who may possibly
be stimulated by this volume to a thorough study of
the period which it covers, I have appended a cata-
logue of books, which, though by no means exhaust-
ive, will be found useful.

Marvin R. Vincent.

Union Theological Seminary,
December 26, 1895.



CONTENTS.



Bibliography xv

CHAP. I. — The Church Ax\d the Empire. — The Church Imi-
tates the Empire. — The Church Subordinate to the Em-
pire. — The Benedictines. — Donation of Pepin. — The Clergy
Refuse Vassalage. — Degradation of the Papacy I

CHAP. II. — Henry III. — Clugny — Leo IX. — Hildebrand.
, — Gregory VI. — Clugny. — Early Days of Hildebrand. —
\/ Bruno of Toul Chosen as Pope. — Isidorian Decretals 14

CHAP. III. — Simony — Clerical Celibacy — Transubstan-
TIATION. — Domestic Relations of the Clergy. — The Policy
of Celibacy. — Leo IX. at Rheims. — Berengar and Transub-
stantiation 24

CHAP. IV. — The Normans — Victor II. — Beatrix and Ma-
thilde. — Rise of the Norman Power in Italy. — Death of Leo
IX. — Gebhard of Eichstadt as Victor II. — Death of Henry
III. and Regency of Agnes 32

CHAP. V. — Four Popes — The Election Decree — The Pa-
pal Alliance with the Normans. — Death of Stephen.
— Benedict X. — Preliminary Treaty with the Normans. —
Norman Alliance Concluded. — Death of Nicholas. — Election
of Alexander II 41

CHAP. VI. — Cadalous — Benzo — Henry IV. — Milan. — Ca-
dalous Elected Antipope. — Battle of Monte Mario. — The
Empress Agnes a Penitent. — Retirement of Cadalous. —
Fight in Milan over Clerical Marriage. — Great Festival at

Monte Cassino 52

.GHAP. VII. — Hildebrand Pope— Gregory and Henry IV.
^^ — The Reform Synod. — Hildebrand Chosen by Acclama-

tion. — Hildebrand Asserts Himself. — He Demands the Em-
peror's Submission. — The Saxons Revolt. — The Pope Con-

ix



X Contents.



PAGE

templates a Crusade. — Ban and Interdict. — Orgies in St.
Peter's 64

CHAP. VIII. — The Investiture Decree — Cencius Attacks
\^ the Pope — The Synod of Worms — Gregory's Abdica-
tion Demanded. — Summons to a Crusade. — The Synod
Abolishes Lay Investiture. — Henry Openly Breaks with
Gregory. — The Pope a Prisoner. — Gregory's Abdication De-
manded. — Right to Dethrone Kings Claimed 78

CHAP. IX. — Canosa — Rudolph of Suabia — Gregory and
William the*Conqueror. — The Oath to the Empress Dis-
regarded. — Henry Crosses Mount Cenis. — A Brutal Pope. —
Rudolph of Suabia Elected King. — Death of the Empress
Agnes. — Berengar's Case Finally Decided. — Gregory Meets
his Match 90

CHAP. X. — Henry Besieges Rome — Gregory's Fatal Tri-

; umph — His Death. — Henry Again Deposed. — Death of
Rudolph. — Henry's League with Alexius. — An Orthodox
Abbot among Heretics. — A Venal and Fickle City. — Guis-
card Comes to Gregory's Relief. — Gregory Rests at Salerno. 104

CHAP. XI. — Character and Policy of Gregory VII. — His
]/ Principles Included his Policy. — A Fatal Sincerity. — The

Pope is Lord of Kings and Princes 118

CHAP. XII. — Urban II. — Mathilde — Conrad's Treach-
ery — Synod of Piacenza — The First Crusade. — Ma-
thilde Marries Welf of Bavaria. — The Synod of Piacenza and
Praxedis. — Urban Preaches the Crusade. — Praxedis Canon-
ized 125

CHAP. XIII.— Paschal II.— Death of Henry IV.— Henry
V. — The Investiture Contest. — An Antipopeon Horse-
back. — Peace in Germany. — The Lingers Speak Their Mind.
— Another Antipope. — Papal Spite Vented on the Dead. —
Henry V. Marches into Italy. — A Great Papal Concession. . 134

CHAP. XIV. — The Coronation Riot — Paschal's Broken
Oath — Death of Mathilde — Gelasius II. — Calixtus
II. — The Right of Investiture Conceded. — The Pope Re-
pents his Concession. — A New Saxon Insurrection. — Flight
of Gelasius. — Synod of Rheims 149

CHAP. XV.— The Cistercians — Treaty of Worms— The
Frangipani and Pierleoni — HoNORius II. — Treaty of
Worms. — Influence of the Treaty. — The Triumph of the
Church Pictured. — The Pierleoni 161



Contents,



XI



PAGE

CHAP. XVI. — LoTHAiR THE Saxon — The South-Italian
Kingdom — Innocent and Anacletus — Bernard of
Clairvaux. — Roger Masters the Pope. — Innocent Flees to
France. — Bernard's Early Life. — Rapid Growth of the Cis-
tercians .. 171

CHAP. XVII. — Mystical Piety — Bernard and Hugo of
St. Victor — Norbert and the Pr.«monstrants. —
Scholasticism of Erigena. — Contemplation of Jesus. — Mys-
ticism and the Scholastics. — Norbert of Xanthen 180

CHAP. XVIII. — The Papacy and Roger of Sicily — Inno-
cent AND Anacletus — Scholasticism. — Bernard Ends
the Milan Schism. — Anacletus Losing Ground. — Roger
Receives Sicily. — Erigena and Aristotle. — Nominalist and
Realist 189

CHAP. XIX. — Abelard — Last Days of Innocent II. —
TivoLi — The Romans Proclaim a Republic. — Bernard
and Abelard. — Bernard Takes the Offensive. — Abelard as a
Theologian. — Romans Proclaim a Republic 201

CHAP. XX. — EuGENius III. — Arnold of Brescia — Bern-
ard's Crusade. — Bernard of Pisa. — Eugenius Retires to
France. — Arnold Denounces the Pope. — Bernard Preaches
the Crusade. — Failure of the Crusade 210

CHAP. XXI. — Barbarossa — Hadrian IV. — William of
Sicily — Barbarossa and the Romans — The Gauntlet
Thrown Down to the Pope. — A Clumsy Evasion. —
The Stirrup Question. — The Emperor Attacked in Rome.
— William of Sicily Submits. — The Gauntlet Thrown
Down 221

CHAP. XXII. — Roncaglia — Hadrian and Frederick at
Issue — Two Popes in the Field. — Papal Demands. —
Sharp Words to the Pope. — Octavian Enthroned. — Octavian
Acknowledged at Pavia. — Alexander Acknowledged at Tou-
louse. — Frederick Terrifies Italy 233

CHAP. XXIII. — Thomas a Becket — Paschal III. — Alex-
ander, Becket, and Henry II. — Thomas a Becket. —
"Constitutions of Clarendon." — Becket Condemned. — Diet
at Wiirzburg. — Alexander Forced to Conciliate 246

CHAP. XXIV. — Battle of Monte Porzio — Barbarossa's
Disasters — Becket. — Storming the Leonina. — The Tide
Turns. — Becket's Suspension Confirmed. — The Pope Checks
Becket. — Becket Recalled. — Character of Becket 257



xil Contents,



PAGE

CHAP. XXV. — Papal Transactions in France and Eng-
land — Barbarossa in Lombardy — Battle of Legnano
— Treaty of Venice — Close of Alexander's Pontif-
icate. — Ireland and the Roman See. — Queen Eleanor's
Treachery. — Legnano. — The Peace of Venice. — Alexander
Returns to Rome. — The Pope's Bier Stdned 270

CHAP. XXVI.— Five Popes in Ten Years— Third Crusade
— The New Roman Constitution — Death of Barba-
rossa— Henry VI. Emperor. — A Ghastly Procession. —
Gregory VIII. — The Third Crusade. — Death of Barbarossa.
— Tusculum Destroyed. — Richard of England Imprisoned. . 282

CHAP. XXVII. — The Emperor Master of Italy — Papal
Complications in France and Spain — Death of Henry
VI. and Ccelestine III. — The Great Heresies. — Philip
and Ingeborg. — Ban upon Leon. — Character of Coelestine
III. — " The Poor of Lyons." — The Albigenses. — Obstinacy
of the Heresy 294

CHAP. XXVIII. — Innocent III. — Steps towards Papal
Supremacy in Italy — A New Crusade Proclaimed —
The Contest for the German Crown. — Markwald of
Anweiler. — Innocent's Administrative Skill. — Philip and
Ingeborg. — Contest for the German Throne. — Papal Alle-
gory 306

CHAP. XXIX. — Heresy Attacked in France — Innocent
Decides for Otto — The Crusaders at Venice — The
New Latin Empire in the East. — " Slay the Wolves." —
The Pope Challenged. — Innocent Urges the Crusade. — Cap-
ture of Zara. — The New Latin Emperor 317

CHAP. XXX. — Stephen Langton — Otto's Cause Weak-
ening — The Templars. — Stephen Langton. — Rise of the
Templars. — Abuses and Corruptions 329

CHAP. XXXI. — The Albigensian Crusade. — Murder of
Pierre de Castelnau. — Surrender of Carcassonne. — Toulouse
Resists Montfort. — Innocent Inexorable. — Death of Mont-
fort 337

CHAP. XXXII. — Innocent Abandons Otto — Troubles in
THE East — Murder of Philip and Recognition of
Otto — A New Contest between Innocent and Otto
— Frederick of Hohenstaufen Crowned. — The Greeks
Defeat the Crusaders. — Otto Recognized. — Otto Excommun-
icated. — Frederick Accepts the Crown 349



Contents » xiii



PAGE

CHAP. XXXIII. — Innocent and John of England — The
Children's Crusade — The Twelfth General Council
— Death of Innocent III. — John Encounters Pandolfo.
— Cowardly Submission of John. — Fate of the Young Cru-
saders. — The Twelfth General Council. — Character of Inno-
cent 359

CHAP. XXXIV.— The Popes and Frederick II.— The Pas-
toureaux and Flagellants — The Mendicant Orders.
— Popularity of Frederick. — Manfred. — The Flagellants. —
Error in the Monastic Ideal 371

CHAP. XXXV. — The Dominicans and Franciscans. — Fran-
cis of Assisi. — Institution of the Franciscan Order. — A Blow
at the Episcopate. — Saved by Death 381

CHAP. XXXVI. — The Inquisition. — Testes Synodales. —
Commission of Gregory IX. — Bull of Innocent IV. — A Ter-
rible Phenomenon 391

CHAP. XXXVIL— The Universities.— The Crusades Strike
at Feudalism. — Work of Justinian. — Student-Guilds. — The
Clergy Study Civil Law. — Intellectual Fermentation 400

CHAP. XXXVIIL— Boniface VIII.— Collapse of the Hil-
debrandian Papacy. — Boniface and the Colonnas. — The
Great Jubilee. — Events in Sicily. — Meeting of the States-
General. — The Vengeance of the Colonnas. — " The Babylon-
ish Captivity " 411

CHAP. XXXIX.— Conclusion.— The Papal Dominion Secu-
lar. — Hildebrand's Episcopal Policy. — The Isidorian Decre-
tals. — Moral Obligations Disregarded. — Romanism and Pro-
testantism. — How Much Allowance? — A Warning 424



BIBLIOGRAPHY.

GENERAL LITERATURE ON THE HISTORY OF THE PAPACY AND THE

EMPIRE.

L. A. MuRATORi : Rerum Italicarum Scriptores ab anno aerae Christi
quingentesimo ad millesimum quingentesimum ; Milan, 1723-51,
25 vols. With supplemental vols., Florence, 1748 and 1770;
Venice, 1771.

Pertz, Waitz, Wilmans, Watteneach (editors) : Monumenta Ger-
maniae Historica; Hannover, 1826 ff.

J. F. Bohmer: Die Regesten des Kaiserreichs von 1198 bis 1254;
Stuttgart, 1849; new ed.

The Papal "Regesta" from St. Peter to Innocent III., edited by
Jaffe; Berlin, 1851. 2d ed., enlarged, by Wattenbach, Loewen-
thal, Kaltenbrunner, and Ewald ; Leipzig, 1885-88. Continua-
tion by Aug. Potthast, from Innocent III. to Benedict XI. ;
Berlin, 1874-75. Faucon and Thomas, Boniface VIII. ; Paris,
1885.

P. Heinr. Denifle and P. Franz Ehrle: Archiv fiir Literatur-
und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters ; Freiburg, 1885 ff.

C^SAR Baronius : Annales Ecclesiastic! ; A. Theiner's ed., Bar-le-
Duc, 1864 flF.

PERIOD FROM IO49 TO I085.

Abb6 Migne: Patrologia Latina (Patrologiae Cursus Completus,

etc., vols, cxl.-cxlviii. ; Paris, 1844-66).
Damiani Epistolae (Migne, vol. cxliv.).
F. W. E. RoTH : Der heilige Petrus Damiani (Studien und Mitteil-

ungen aus dem Benediktiner- und Cistercienserorden, vols, vii.,

viii. ; 1886 ff.).
F. Neukirch: Das Leben des Petrus Damiani bis 1059; Gottingen,

1875-
BoNizo or BoNiTHO (a great admirer of Gregory VII.): Libri ad

Amicum, sive De Persecutione Ecclesiae (in Jaffa's Monumenta

Gregoriana; Berlin, 1865).
Phil. Jaffe : Regesta Pontificum Romanorum ; 2d ed. by Wattenbach,

Leipzig, 1883.
Wattenbach: Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter; 5th

ed., Berlin, 1886.

XV



xvi Bibliography,



Wattenbach : Geschichte des Rom. Papstthums ; Berlin, 1876.

Hofler: Deutsche Papste; Regensburg, 1839.

C. Will: Anfange der Restauration der Kirche im XI. Jahrh. ; Mar-
burg, 1859-62.

Thomas Greenwood: Cathedra Petri, bks. x., xi. ; London, 1861.

W. GiESEBRECHT: Geschichtc der Deutschen Kaiserzeit; 4th ed.,
Braunschweig, 1876.

RuD. Baxmann : Die Politik der Papste von Gregor I. auf Gregor
VII. ; Elberfeld, 1868-69.

Ferdinand Gregorovius : Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittel-
alter, vom V. bis zum XVI. Jahrhundert; 3d ed., Stuttgart, 1877;
4th ed., vols, i., ii., 1889. An English translation by Annie Ham-
ilton is in progress; 3 vols, published; London, 1894-95.

K. J. Hefele: Conciliengeschichte, vol. iv., 2d ed., 1879; vol. v.,
2d ed., Freiburg, 1886.

Henry C. Lea: An Historical Sketch of Sacerdotal Celibacy in the
Christian Church; 2d enlarged ed., Boston, 1884.

special works on hildebrand.

His Letters, ** Registrum " (Migne, Patrologia Latina, vol. cxlviii.).
Best in Jaffe's Monumenta Gregoriana (see above).

Biographies, in Muratori, Rer. Ital., vol. iii.

Watterich : Pontificum Roman. Vitae, vol. i. ; Leipzig, 1862.

JOHANN VoiGT : Hildebrand als Papst Gregor VII. und sein Zeitalter ;
181 5; 2d rev. ed., 1846. The substance of Voigt is reproduced
in J. W. Bowden, Life and Pontificate of Gregory VII. ; Lon-
don, 1840,

Sir James Stephen : Hildebrand. Reprinted from Edinburgh Re-
view, in Essays on Ecclesiastical Biography; 4th ed., London,
i860.

Soltl: Gregor VII. ; Leipzig, 1847.

Floto: Kaiser Heinrich IV. und sein Zeitalter; 1855-56.

Helfinstein : Gregors VII. Bestrebungen nach den Streitschriften
seiner Zeit; Frankfort, 1856.

Gfrorer: Papst Gregor VII. und sein Zeitalter; Schaffhausen,
1859-61.

W. GiESEBRECHT: Geschichtc der Deutschen Kaiserzeit, vol. iii., pt.
i. (see above).

Jos. Langen : Geschichte der Romischen Kirche von Gregor VII.
bis Innocenz III. ; Bonn, 1893.

A. F. Villemain: Histoire de Gr^goire VII. ; 2d ed., Paris, 1873.
English translation by J. F. Brockley; London, 1874.

S. Baring-Gould : Lives of the Saints for May 25th ; London,

1873.
Martens: Die Besetzung des papstlichen Stuhls unter den Kaisern

Heinrich III. und Heinrich IV. ; 1887.
W, R. W. Stephens : Hildebrand and his Times ; London, 1888.



Bibliography. xvii



Carl Mirbt: Die Absetzung Heinrich IV. durch Gregor VII. in
der Publicistik jener Zeit ; Leipzig, 1890.

Carl Mirb^: Die Stellung Augustinus in der Publicistik des Gre-
gorianischen Kirchenstreits ; Leipzig, 1888. Showing the influ-
ence of Augustine on both parties in the Gregorian controversy
concerning the relations of church and state.

Carl Mirbt: Die Wahl Gregors VIL ; Marburg, 1892.

Leop. V. Ranke: Weltgeschichte, vol. vii. ; Leipzig, 1886.



ROMAN CATHOLIC AUTHORITIES.

K. J. Hefele: see above.

Hergenrother, Rohrbacher, J. Gretzer: Apologia pro Gre-

gor VII. (in Migne, vol. clxxxix.).
Abb6 Gorini : Defense de I'figlise centre les erreurs historiques de

MM. Guizot, Thierry, Michelet, Ampere, etc. ; 6th ed., Lyons,

1872.

CHURCH HISTORIES.

Henry H. Milman : History of Latin Christianity.

J. A. W. Neander : Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen Religion
und Kirche. English translation by Torrey ; 12th ed.. New York,
1882.

D. Karl Muller: Kirchengeschichte, vol. i. ; Freiburg, 1892.

W. Moller: Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte; 1889-91. English
translation.

Ferd. Ch. Baur: Die christliche Kirche des Mittelalters ; 1861.

J. K. L. Gieseler: Kirchengeschichte. English translation by Sam-
uel Davidson. Amer. ed. revised and edited by Henry B. Smith ;
New York, 1876.

ROMAN CATHOLIC HISTORIES.

J. Hergenrother: Handbuch der allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte;

1884-86.
F. X. Kraus: Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte; 1887.
F. X. Funk: Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte; 1890.



THE investiture CONTEST.

Staudenmaier: Geschichte der Bischofswahlen ; Tubingen, 1830.
Meltzer: Papst Gregor VII. und die Bischofswahlen; Dresden,

1S76.
Bernheim : Zur Geschichte des Wormser Konkordates ; Gottingen,

1878.
Bernheim : Lothair III. und das Wormser Konkordat ; Strassburg,

1874.



xviii Bibliography,



ScHUM : Die Politik Papst Paschalis II. gegen Kaiser Heinrich V. ;

Erfurt, 1877.
Jos. Langen : see above.
G. Peiser: Der Deutsche Investiturstreit unter Heinrich V. bis

nil ; Berlin, 1883.
Ul. Robert: Etude sur les actes du Pape Calixte II. ; Paris, 1874.
Text of the Worms Concordat in Gieseler's Church History, H. B.

Smith's ed., vol. ii., p. 275.

MONASTICISM.

MiR^us: Regulae et Constitutiones Clericorum ; Antwerp, 1638.
HOLSTENIUS: Codex Regularum Monasticarum ; Rome, 1661.
Helyot: Histoire des Ordres Religieux et Militaires-; Paris,

1714-19.
Hendrion: Histoire des Ordres Religieux ; Paris, 1835.
Day: Monastic Institutions ; London, 1846.
Ruffner: The Fathers of the Desert; New York, 1850.
C. F. R. Montalembert : Histoire des Moines d'Occident ; Paris,

i860. English translation by Mrs. Oliphant ; 1861-67.
A. Harnack : Das Monchthum : seine Ideale und seine Geschichte ;

Giessen, 1882.
Mohler : Geschichte des Monchthums ; Regensburg, 1836.
J. A. W. Neander : Der heilige Bernhard von Clairvaux; 3d ed.,

1854-58. English translation from 1st ed., by Matilda Wrench ;

London, 1843.
G. HiJFFER: Der heilige Bernard von Clairvaux, vol. i. ; 1886.
R. S. Storrs: Bernard of Clairvaux ; New York, 1 893.
MoRisoN : Life and Times of St. Bernard; London, 1863.
Theodore Ratisbonne: Histoire de St. Bernard et de son Siecle;

Paris, 1875.
R. Rosenmund : Die altesten Biographien des heiligen Norbert ; 1874.
R. W. Church: St. Anselm ; London, 1892.
F. Winter : Die Cisterzienser des nordostlichen Deutschlands ;

1868-71.
F. Winter: Die Praemonstratenser des XII. Jhs., etc. ; 1865.

MENDICANT ORDERS.

K. Hase : Franz von Assisi ; 1856.

Paul Sabatier : The Life of St. Francis of Assisi. Translated from
the French by Louise S. Houghton, Avith critical study of the
sources ; New York, 1895.

K. MiJLLER: Die Anfange des Minoritenordens und der Bussbruder-
schaften; 1885.

H. Thodr : Franz von Assisi und die Anfange der Kunst der Renais-
sance in Italien ; 1885.

F. MORIN : St. Fran9ois et les Franciscains ; Paris, 1853.



Bibliography, x i x



DOMINIC AND THE DOMINICANS.

Friedrich Hurter: Geschichte Innocenz des dritten, vol. iv. ;

3d ed., Hamburg, 1841-43.
J. B. H. Lacordaire: Vie de St. Dominique; Paris, 1840.
Caro : Dominique et les Dominicains ; Paris, 1853.

E. C. Bayonne : Le Monastere des Dominicains de Langres ; Lang-

res, 1 88 1.
Henry C. Lea: History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages;
New York, 1888.

INDIVIDUAL POPES.

M. Maurer: Papst Calixtus 11. ; Munich, 1886.

M. F. Sturn: Zur Biographic des Papstes Urbans IL ; Halle, 1883.

H. Reuter : Geschichte Alexanders IIL ; 2d rev. ed., Leipzig, i860-

64.

F. Hurter: Geschichte Innocenz des dritten (see above).

F. Delitzsch : Papst Innocenz III. und sein Einfluss auf die Kirche ;

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