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poured in, occupied the Leonina^ and the Tiber

1 The Trastevere was in the only division of the city on the right
or Tuscan side of the Tiber. This division comprised also the Janic-
ulum and the Vatican. The Leonina was the section occupied by
the Vatican. It had not been included within the wall of Aurelian,
and remained outside even after the erection of St. Peter's. The
work of enclosure was begun by Leo IV., in 848, and completed in
852. The whole Vatican region was surrounded with a thick wall like
"horseshoe in outline, nearly forty feet high and protected by twenty-
four strong towers. The region thus enclosed was known as Civitas

Prelimuiary Treaty with the Normans. 45

Island, and stormed the Lateran. Benedict fled,
and . Nicholas entered the city with Godfrey and

By this vigorous stroke the nomination of the
Pope was transferred from the German sovereign to
the princes of Tuscany. The imperialists were not
deceived either as to the intent or the author of this
movement. They recognized the hand of Hildebrand,
and reproached him for conspiring with Beatrix *' to
set up a new idol false and frivolous," without the
knowledge of the Romans. Quite as important for
the future development of the Papacy was the alliance
with the Normans. Immediately after Nicholas's in-
auguration Hildebrand concluded a preliminary treaty
with them in Campania, and took back with him to
Rome three hundred Norman horsemen, who besieged
Benedict in the fortress of Galeria, about fifteen miles
from the city. Benedict appeared upon the wall, and
began to curse the Roman people who had made him
Pope against his will ; but he finally consented to ab-
dicate on a pledge of security for his life, which was
given by thirty Roman nobles. He took refuge near
the church of Santa Maria Maggiore ; but thirty days
later Hildebrand seized him and had him carried be-
fore Nicholas and a council in the Lateran. Here the
pontifical robes were put upon him and then stripped
oflf before the altar, and he was forced to subscribe
a confession of numerous sins, drawn up by Hilde-
brand, after which he was formally deposed from all
spiritual dignities. He lived for twenty years after-
wards, in the monastery of St. Agnes, closely watched
by his enemies.

46 Age of Hildebrand.

The temporary success of the Roman nobility in
the election of Benedict stimulated the reform-party
to new energy under Hildebrand's leadership. They
were determined to free the papal election from the
interference alike of the Roman nobles and of the Ger-
man throne. A council was convoked by Nicholas in
Rome (April, 1059), in which Benedict X. was con-
demned, and the prohibitions of simony and priestly
marriage were renewed. Berengar of Tours appeared,
and was forced to burn his books in the council-
chamber. But the most significant act of the coun-
cil was the passage of a decree concerning the papal
election. It was the greatest revolution attempted
in the hierarchy since the days of the apostles. The
council enacted that on the death of a Pope the card-
inal bishops should first assemble and nominate a
successor; they should then summon the cardinal
priests to vote upon their choice ; and finally the
people should be consulted and give their assent.
The authority of the German Emperor was vaguely
recognized ; but the terms were adroitly framed to
express the supremacy of the Pope over the Emperor,
rather than the right of the Emperor over the papal
election ; and they reduced the right to a personal
privilege accorded by the Roman Church itself. The
actual election was vested in the higher clergy. The
lower clergy and the people were simply to assent.
The college of the Roman cardinals was thus erected
into an ecclesiastical senate, from which alone, in time,
the popes must proceed.^ Finally, in order to with-

1 See Peter Damiani's ' ' Epist. ad Card. Episcopos, " in which the card-
inal bishops are styled " spiritual senators of the universal church."

Norman Alliaiice Concluded. 47

draw the elections from the violence of city revolu-
tions, it was decreed that they should no longer be
locally confined to Rome, but that even a minority
of cardinals should be competent to choose a Pope
canonically in another place. Moreover, the candi-
date need not belong to one of the Roman churches.
This decree, accompanied by a fearful anathema,^ was
ratified by general consent, and the signatures of a
hundred and thirteen bishops and of many other ec-
clesiastics were attached to it. The name of Hilde-
brand appears with the simple title '* monk and sub-
deacon of the Roman Church."

Menaced by a life-and-death struggle with the
German empire, by the Roman patricians and the
German nobles, the hopes of Nicholas were directed
to the Normans, who were still under the ban of the
church. Hildebrand's keen eye foresaw that the Nor-
mans would found a dynasty in Italy, and that, by
recognizing it, a vassal state and a powerful protec-
tion against the city of Rome and the German em-
pire would be secured to the church.

The Normans, since their victory over Leo IX.,
had acquired nearly the whole of Apulia and Cala-
bria. The disturbances in the Papacy had favored
the attempts of Robert Guiscard, who since 1056 had
ruled the Norman military republic in Apulia. The
impotence of Constantinople, the weakness of Ger-
many under the regency, the needs of the Papacy, the
characteristics of the Normans, all conspired to found
a Norman kingdom. In 1058 Richard of A versa
wrested Capua from Landulph V., the last of the

i See Milmais, " History of Latin Christianity," bk. vi., chap. iii.

48 Age of Hildebrand.

Lombard princes. Soon afterwards Guiscard over-
powered Troja, to which the Pope laid claim, and
was laid under ban by Nicholas as a robber of church
property. Under Hildebrand's influence Nicholas
now abandoned the belligerent policy of Lee IX.,
and entered into league with the Normans. At Melfi,
in the summer of 1059, Richard of Aversa and Rob-
ert Guiscard received from Nicholas their conquests,
except Benevento, as fiefs of the Holy See. The
rights of the plundered rulers were as Itttle regarded
as the so-called supremacy of the German empire.
** One legitimacy was seen to vanish and another to
emerge out of a robbery." It might well be asked
how the Pope had acquired that proprietorship of the
whole kingdom of Naples which he now conferred.
He based his right, no doubt, on the fabled Donation
of Constantine. The Normans took the oath of vas-
salage to the Pope, engaged to pay an annual tribute,
and swore to assist the church in maintaining its pos-
sessions, and to aid the popes who should be canon-
ically chosen by the superior cardinals. Thus Rome,
at one stroke, acquired control of Byzantine, Sara-
cenic, and Imperial Italy, and the election decree of
Nicholas II. was committed to the protection of Nor-
man swords.

The election decree and the Norman alliance cre-
ated dissatisfaction in both Germany and Italy.
Many of the Roman nobles were of German descent
and held by the Emperor, while others, of Latin ori-
gin, no less earnestly contested the sovereignty of the
Pope. Rome was divided between a papal and an
imperial party. The popes for a long time had not

Death of Nicholas. 49

sprung from the great Roman families ; consequently
they had no secure hold upon the barons, and were
compelled to rely for the subjection of the city mainly
upon the hated Normans. A Pope lived over a vol-
cano which, in its quietest moments, never failed to
remind him of the fires which raged below. The city
was studded with the towers and castles of rapacious
nobles. Proud families jealous of their ancestral
rights; petty princes who subsisted by plunder and
struck at any hand which wrested from them their ill-
gotten booty ; a venal and fickle populace ready to
throw itself at a moment's notice upon the side which
offered the largest pay ; cardinals and clergy deep in
plots and conspiracies, and as rapacious and unprin-
cipled as the titled robbers to whom they ministered
the sacraments of the church ; a soldiery hardened to
every horror and sacrilege — furnished the elements of
an explosion which might break out at any moment
and deluge the city with blood.

The death of Nicholas, on the 27th of July, 1061,
threatened to bring on a catastrophe. The enemies
of reform held a parliament, resolved to confer the
patriciate on the young King Henry, sent him the
insignia, and besought him to give Rome a Pope.
They were joined by many Lombard bishops and by
envoys of Milan, who urged the Empress not to allow
her son to be robbed of his imperial rights, but to
nominate a Lombard Pope and an enemy of clerical
celibacy. Indeed, the agitation created by the re-
form-movement was nowhere greater than in Milan.
The Milanese clergy were rich and numerous ; cler-
ical positions were purchased by the sons of the nobil-

50 Age of Hildebrand.

ity ; most of the priests were married, and the reform-
decrees accordingly aroused the bitterest opposition.
On the other hand, the pride and insubordination of
the noble-clergy created among the more democratic
portion of the people a popular party fired with zeal
for reform. The partisans of the old system rallied
round Guido of Valate, who had been archbishop
since 1045 J while the reform-party, known as the
Pataria, and in closest relations with Hildebrand,
found their leaders in Landolfo and Erlembaldo, two
brothers of noble family, with the fanatical deacon
Arialdo, who attached himself to them as preacher.

While the imperialists of Lombardy thus combined
with their friends in Rome to elect an anti-Hildebrand-
ian Pope, the Roman reformers sent Cardinal Stephen
to the German court, which refused to receive him.
Not content with this, the German bishops held a
synod, at which they declared void the acts of the
Roman council — a proceeding which Peter Damiani,
naturally enough, characterized as " a conspiracy
against the Roman Church, and a specimen of audac-
ity wholly incredible." Hildebrand thereupon as-
sembled the cardinals, on the 1st of October, 1061,
and caused Anselm of Badagio, Bishop of Lucca, a
Lombard, to be elected according to the provisions
of the new decree under the title of Alexander H.
This prelate was the intimate friend of Hildebrand,
and one of the founders of the Pataria ; and Hilde-
brand hoped to avail himself of his long and friendly
relations with the German court. The newly elected
Pope was borne in triumph by a crowd of monks in
frocks without sleeves, carrying a gourd on their left

Election of Alexander II. 51

side and a sack on the right. Some cries were raised
in the crowd: "Away, lepers! bagmen!" but Guis-
card, who was present with a strong force of Norman
knights, sustained the election, and the imperial par-
tisans did not venture to make any disturbance.



HE election of Alexander was justly re-
garded by the Germans as an invasion
of imperial rights. The Lombard eccles-
iastics, especially those who favored
the marriage of the clergy, dreaded his
elevation as carrying with it the dominating influ-
ence of Hildebrand and of the high monastic party.
A number of these, along with the German bishops,
under the lead of Guibert of Ravenna, the chan-
cellor of the empire and administrator of the im-
perial interests in Italy, assembled, in October,
at Basle, where ths Roman envoys had already
invested the ten-year-old Henry IV. with the
patriciate, and elected as Pope Cadalous, Bishop of
Parma, who assumed the name of Honorius II. It
was a mistake^ since Cadalous had neither the genius
nor the pov jr to fight Hildebrand. Damiani repre-
sented him as without character or learning, and de-
clared that if he should prove himself able to explain
a single verse of a psalm or a homily he would sub-
mit to him as an apostle. The election was no more
irregular than other pontifical elections held in Ger-
many under Henry III. and peaceably accepted by


Cadalous Elected A ntipope, 53

the Romans ; but Hildebrand's persistent assertion
of the independence of the Roman Church had pro-
duced its effect, and made Cadalous's election appear
a profanation, even to those who did not overlook
the power of Germany. Two hostile popes now coii-
fronted each other; the one in Rome, the ®ther be-
yond t^ie Alps, where he was preparing, with the aid
of the Lombard bishops, to descend upon Rome and
drive his rival from the Lateran. Rarely has the
world regarded a similar conflict with equal interest ;
for the two popes represented, not two factions, but
two powers, the Roman Church and the Roman Em-

Alexander, weak and dependent, leaned upon Hil-
debrand, whom he at once appointed chancellor. At
his side stood Damiani, whose trenchant pen he set
in motion, and who vigorously pelted the antipope
with the names of '' the devil's preacher," " the apos-
tle of Antichrist," '' food for hell-fire," and similar ele-
gant and Christian epithets. Cadalous, on the other
hand, formerly the imperial chancellor of Henry III.,
and a courtier of high standing, found no reason for
viewing himself as a usurper, but sufficient reason for
calling his opponent such. Not so strong as Hilde-
brand, he had abundant wealth, and he founded large
expectations on the well-known mercenariness of the
Romans. In the spring of 1062 he entered Italy,
was conducted by the imperialists from city to city
in spite of the obstacles interposed by Beatrix, and
halted at Parma in order to perfect his arrangements
for an advance upon Rome.

In the meantime a contest was going on in Rome

54 '^g^ of Hildebrand,

itself. Benzo, the Bishop of Albi in Piedmont, a
man of coarse eloquence and popular humor, was the
commissioner of the Empress to the Romans. He was
a bitter enemy of Hildebrand and his Pope, against
whom he launched furious invectives, while he im-
pressed the Italians by his boldness and coarse wit,
and especially by his promises to reward their adher-
ence to Honorius with " mountains of gold." Hav-
ing formed an Honorian party in Tuscany, he went
to Rome, where he was received by the German cour-
tiers. The nobles assembled in the Circus Maximus,
which had lain in ruins ever since a Gothic king had
held there the last chariot-race. Its two obelisks lay
upon the ground, its triumphal arches were in frag-
ments, and its arena was overgrown with grass and
tveeds. But its tiers of seats could still afford sitting
for an assembly. Benzo adroitly gave the meeting
the character of a Roman popular assembly. Alex-
ander found himself compelled to appear in person.
As he rode into the arena, surrounded with cardinals
and armed retainers, he was received with a popu-
lar tumult and a thundering harangue from Benzo.
Benzo denounced him as a perjured traitor to the
German court, who had abandoned his see of Lucca
and had usurped that of Rome ; as an intruder who
had obtained his election by bribery and the aid of
Norman robbers. He proclaimed Hildebrand as the
prime mover in this business, for which they both
had incurred damnation. He bade him, in the king's
name, to abdicate the chair of St. Peter and to seek
forgiveness of Henry.

After a brief denial of these charges Alexander rode

Battle of Monte Mario. 55

off amid the hootings of the populace. Benzo, on his
return to his residence, assembled the imperial partis-
ans, and a deputation was sent by them to Honorius,
urging him to hasten to Rome and occupy the apos-
tolic chair.

Honorius, accompanied by Guibert, advanced to
Rome and encamped at Monte Mario. ^ His force was
attacked by the Hildebrandians, and a bloody fight
ensued ; but Honorius entered the Leonina as victor
on the 14th of April. Hundreds of slain covered the
Neronian field at the foot of Monte Mario, and many
Romans were drowned in the river. Honorius, how-
ever, was unable to pass into the city proper, nor did
he dare remain in the Leonina, but returned to his
camp in the Neronian field. Though he heard that
Godfrey was on the march, his hopes were fostered
by the arrival of an embassy from the Greek Emperor,
who acknowledged him, and eagerly seized upon the
Roman schism as an opportunity for driving the Nor-
mans from Apulia by the help of Alexander's enemies.
But all negotiations were broken off by the appear-
ance of Godfrey, who assumed the role of mediator.
He required both parties to lay aside their arms and
both popes to retire to their bishoprics, while he him-
self would go to Germany and let the question be de-
cided there. Honorius withdrew to Parma and Alex-
ander to Lucca; but events in Germany, in which
Hildebrand had a hand, decided the contest in favor
of Alexander.

The death of Henry HI., leaving as his heir a son

1 Monte Mario rises over the Ponte Molle, and is reached by the
Via di Porta Angelica, which issues from the Piazza of St. Peter.

56 Age of Hildebrand,

only five years old, gave an opportunity to the lords,
who had long suffered from Henry's oppressions, to
free themselves; and on every side parties were
formed against the young prince. Agnes had chosen
as her principal counsellor Henry, Bishop of Augs-
burg, a man of large experience and weighty charac-
ter; but the confidence which she reposed in him at
once aroused the jealousy of other bishops who were
candidates for the favor of the Empress. They were
indignant that one woman should control so many
princes and bishops through a man concerning whose
relations with her they did not hesitate to circulate
the m.ost scandalous reports. They also declared that
the young prince was being educated entirely under
female influence, and was not instructed in manly
studies or chivalrous sports ; and that he ought to
be made to grow up outside of the palace walls,
amid assemblies of nobles and the cares of state and

Accordingly, Hanno and Siegfried, the Archbish-
ops of Cologne and Metz, with Otho of Bavaria and
Count Ecbert, contrived a plan for his abduction.
During a banquet at Kaiserswerth Hanno took occas-
ion in the prince's presence to praise the beauty of
his own barge, which wa^ lying in the stream, and
invited Henry to go on board and inspect it. No
sooner had he mounted the deck, however, than the
oarsmen rowed away. Henry threw himself into the
river, but was rescued and taken to Cologne, where
Hanno was absolute master. The Empress's efforts to
rouse the people for the recovery of her son were in-
effectual, and Hanno convened at Cologne a council

The Empress Agnes a Penitent. 57

of lords and bishops, who formally approved his act
and placed the administration of the empire in his
hands, thus taking the regency from the Empress.

This was followed by a complete revolution in the
attitude of the empire towards the Papacy. A coun-
cil was summoned at Augsburg by the false and avar-
icious Hanno to consider the papal schism. Damiani
appeared as the representative of the Hildebrandian
party, and Alexander was acknowledged as Pope.
The victory of the Hildebrandians was complete,
since Guibert, the very soul of the imperialists, was
displaced, and the chancellorship of Italy was be-
stowed upon Bishop Gregory of Vercelli. Alexan-
der was joyfully received by his partisans in January,
1063. Godfrey's troops, united with the Norman
forces, held possession of Rome, though they could
not drive their opponents from the Leonina ; and
Alexander, holding only the city proper, tremblingly
took up his residence in the Lateran.

Meanwhile the Empress Agnes, disgusted with Ger-
many, repaired to Rome, where she recognized Alex-
ander as Pope. Twelve years before, she had been
crowned at her husband's side in St. Peter's amid a
throng of princes and knights. She now entered
Rome as a penitent, clad in a black woollen robe,
and mounted upon an' insignificant steed ; but she
possessed large wealth and costly ornaments, which
were lavishly bestowed upon the Roman churches as
votive offerings, or consecrated to the service of their
altars. She embraced the religious life after a public
confession to Damiani, and lived thenceforth austerely
at Rome under the ministratfons of Hildebrand, who

58 Age of Hildebrand.

gained over her a power which he afterwards used
in his deahngs with her son.

Though the Germans had abandoned Honorius, a
large part of the ItaUan clergy adhered to him. He
maintained a correspondence with the Empress and
with her partisans in Germany, and devoted h's
wealth to the increase of his military strength. The
barons of his faction in and near Rome held the cas-
tle of St. Angelo, and kept the city in constant alarm.
Archbishop Hanno, beset with the jealousies of his
episcopal brethren, and with a rising enemy in the
young king, was at length supplanted by Adalbert,
Archbishop of Bremen, a man eloquent, dignified, and
munificent, who became the guardian and counsellor
of Henry. He was a sturdy imperialist, and exhorted
his party in Rome to hold out, Cadalous to repossess
the papal chair, and Benzo to bring him once more
to Rome. His free expenditure of money at Parma
for a new expedition to Rome, the support of many
Lombard troops, the reaction in the German court,
the preoccupation of Guiscard and Richard of Capua
in southern Italy, and the lukewarmness of Godfrey
enabled him to appear before Rome with his army on
the 4th of April, 1063. He obtained possession of
St. Peter's by night, and made his headquarters at
St. Angelo. Two attempts of his troops to reach the
Lateran were repulsed. The conflict raged endlessly.
No other city in the world had such facilities for a
city-war, since the numerous monuments and pubHc
works furnished so many points for fortification.
Rome was a forest of towers. The Romans endured
this state of affairs for more than a year, while the

Retirement of Cadalous. 59

two popes, the one in the Lateran and the other in
St. Angelo, sang masses, hurled bulls and decrees,
and vigorously cursed each other.

The death-blow to the hopes of Cadalous was the
fall of Adalbert. This prelate, with all his fine qual-
ities, was tainted with the rapacious instincts which
characterized so many of his metropolitan brethren
who ruthlessly plundered the property of the abbeys.
The young king, moreover, was left to devote him-
self to idle sports. These things caused a combina-
tion against him of secular princes, led by Hanno of
Cologne and supported by Godfrey. His palace was
surrounded, and he was compelled to fly for his Hfe
to a distant estate, where he made terms by the sac-
rifice of the larger portion of his vast property. The
Romans had become tired of Cadalous. After more
than a year in St. Angelo he purchased for three hun-
dred pounds of silver the privilege of flight to north-
ern Italy. Hanno now summoned, in the emperor's
name, a council at Mantua to decide the question of
the pontificate. This assembled on the 31st of May,
1064, and declared Alexander to be the lawful Pope.
Cadalous retired to his bishop ic at Parma, where he
lived for several years, never renouncing the papal
title. Alexander went to Rome under Godfrey's pro-
tection, and the opposing party, for the time being,
submitted to the regimen of Hildebrand.

Hildebrand had thus accomplished his purpose.
With the recognition of Alexander the feeble efforts
of the German regency to assume the patriciate were
futile, and the claim of the crown to interfere in papal
elections could now be more effectively met. The

6o Age of Hilde brand.

church was at his beck. Never had such activity
pervaded the Lateran, which was thronged with the
most distinguished representatives of all Christendom.
Rome, through Hildebrand, had again become the
metropolitan city. Every attempt at insurrection was
held in check by the fear of Godfrey and the Normans.

But in Milan the reform battle was violently re-
newed. Milan had long occupied an independent at-
titude towards Rome. Its position had early threat-
ened the universal pretensions of the Roman bishop.
The fact of its having been at times the seat of the
imperial residence, the prominence given to its arch-
bishopric by the disorders which followed the time of
Charlemagne, its conspicuous position as the centre
of resistance to the Lombard conquest, its firm stand
for Catholic orthodoxy against Lombard Arianism,
the popular agitations growing out of the relations
between archbishop and emperor — all had tended to
develop a spirit of independence and to make the

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