Mary Frances Sandars.

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UNIVERSITY OF CA RIVERSIDE, LIBRARY



3 1210 01962 8708











THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE



PRINCESS AND QUEEN
OF ENGLAND



THE ROYAL MIRACLE : A Col

lection of Rare Tracts, Broadsides, Letters, Prints,
and Ballads concerning the wanderings of Charles II.
after the Battle of Worcester (September 3 — Oc-
tober 15, 1651), with a Preface, Historical Intro-
duction, Appendix, and Bibliography by A. M.
Broadley, Author of " Dr. Johnson and Mrs.
Thrale," "Chats on Autographs," "Napoleon in
Caricature," etc. , etc. In crown 4to, handsome
cloth gilt, fully illustrated with portraits, maps, etc. ,
etc. , from rare originals, i6s. net.

These reprints include a Broadside History of His
Sacred Majesty's most Wonderful Preservation (1660);
"White-Ladies, or HisSacred Majesty's most Miraculous
Preservation" (ii6o); "The Royal Oake, etc.," by
John Danverd ; " Miraculum Basilicon, or the Royal
Miracle" (1664); " Claustrum Regale Resevatum, or
the King's Concealment at Trent," by A. W. {1667) ;
and the letter of William Ellesdon of Charm outh to
the Earl of Clarendon concerning the adventures of
Charles II., transcribed from the original letter in the
Bodleian Library, Oxford. Many other interesting
items are included, and the work is produced in the best
possible style.

Bookman. — " A contribution to history so conscientiously
and exhaustively written that it is never likely to be superseded.
The book is as supremely interesting as it is exact and reliable."

Guardian.— '' Y^xs book is a storehouse of curious matter.
It is a thorough and valuable piece of historical work which
says almost the last word upon a subject of fascinating interest."

Stanley Paul & Co., 31 Essex St., Strand, W.C.




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PRINCESS AND QUEEN
OF ENGLAND



Life of Mary II



MARY F. SANDARS

AUTHOR OK

Honore de Balzao : his Life and Writings'*
" Lauzuo, Courtier and Adventurer "
" Louis XVIII "



With Puotooravtrk Platk and 2(5 otukh Illi'btratigkb
IN Half Tone



LONDON

STANLEY PAUL & CO

31 ESSEX STREET, STRAND, W.C.



Firet published in 1913



DEDICATED

TO

MY MOTHER





ERRATA.








Page 147.


line 30—








For "


In March, 1686. over a


year after


her


h


usband's execution . .


"






Read


" In March, 1687, over


four


years


after


her husband's execution




**




Page 149,


lines 22 and 23—








For '


Hague.
Feb. li. 1678 8."








Read


" Hague,
Feb. 13, 1688."









^



PREFACE



No biography of Queen Mary II. has appeared
since Miss Strickland devoted a volume to her in
the " Lives of the Queens of England." This
volume is written with Miss Strickland's usual
picturesqueness and literary skill ; but her political
prejudices have prevented her from according the
slightest sympathy to either ^Villiam or Mary — in
fact, in her bitterness against them, she has occa-
sionally distorted, or at least rearranged, historical
facts. Besides, since she wrote, much fresh matter
has become available. Dr. Doebner and Countess
Bentinck have published some of Mary's letters,
and, what is more important, portions of her
Memoirs, which were intended for no eye but
her own.

Therefore, whatever excuses may be needed for
the quality of this biography, no excuse is, I think,
needed for attempting it, and I can at least say
that all possible care has been taken to verify the
statements it contains, and to conceal or distort
nothing.

In the letters written by Mary when Princess
of Orange to her friend Lady Bathurst, I have had
access to completely fresh material, and the fact
that James made a determined attempt to separate
his daughter from her husband has never, I think,
been recorded in any English history or biography.
However, Dutch contemporary sources seem to prove
the existence of an intrigue with this object, which,



viii PREFACE

though carefully hushed up in England, was in
Holland a matter of common report. The affair
is a curious page in history.

I must thank Earl Bathurst and his brother
Colonel the Hon. Benjamin Bathurst, M.P., most
warmly for allowing me to make use of copies of
the letters written by Princess Mary to their an-
cestress ; and Earl Bathurst for permitting the
reproduction for this book of two of the portraits
in his possession.

My gratitude is also due to the Duke of Portland
and to Mr. Richard Goulding for the loan of copies
of the letters of William III. which are at Welbeck
Abbey ; to Dr. Kramer, Keeper of The Hague
Archives, and author of a life in Dutch of Queen
Mary, for much valuable information, and for per-
mission to reproduce two fine engravings of William
and Mary ; to the Earl of Orkney for allowing his
portraits of Elizabeth Villiers to be photographed ;
and to Mr. A. M. Broadley for selecting many
valuable prints in his collection for the adornment
of this book, and especially for giving me access to
the unique album of William and ^lary views,
broadsheets, and other matters collected by the
late Sir W. Eraser and now in Mr. Broadley's
library. I must also thank Admiral Sir Nathaniel
Bowden Smith for his kindness in looking through
some of my proofs.

Mary F. Sandars.



CONTENTS



Authorities Consulted pp. xvii-x\iii

Genealogical Table of the Houses of Orange-
Nassau AND Stuart p. xix



CHAPTER I

Jtunea II. and Aniie Hyde — Their love-affair — Marriage — Birth of the
Princess Mary — Iler childhood and education — Her mother's death —
The Duke of York's second marriage — The Princess's early letters
to Miss Apsley — Calisto, or the Chante Nymphe — Confirmation

pp. 1-28



CHAPTER II

European politics — Charles II. 's poUcy — His desire to marry the Princess
Mary to William of Orange — Reasons for this — William's birth,
childhood, and youth — His distrust of Charles — His visit to England
— War — Marriage suggested between Wilham and Mary — William
and Beutinck — William's determined patriotism — He discusses
marriage with Sir William Temple — He goes to England pp. 29-46



CHAPTER III

England's hatred for France — W^illiam in England — Discussions and
anxieties — "The Lady Mary" — William's threat — The marriage
question settled — Distress of the Princess — Opposition to the marriage
— Preparations for it — The wedding — The Duchess of York has a
son — PoUtical discussions — William's unkindness to his bride — Ball —
The Prince sind Princess of Orange leave for Holland — Are de-
tained at Canterbury — Leave England . . . pp. 47-64



CONTENTS



CHAPTER IV

The Prince and Princess arrive in Holland — Festivities at The Hague —
" The House in the Wood " — The Princess's maids of honour — Letters
to Miss Apsley — Elizabeth Villiers — Anne VilUers — Bentinck —
William's indifference towards his wife — Her growing affection for
him — Her life and occupations — Her chaplains — WiUiam's behaviour
to them — Dr. Hooper — Monetary affairs — A settlement — The Prin-
cess's character — Letter to Miss Apsley — Pohtical position of Holland

pp. 65-85



CHAPTER V

Disappointed hopes — Duke of York's visit to Holland — Henry Sidney —
Thomas Ken — Zulestein — A conversion — Dr. Hooper — The Princess's
letters to Lady Bathurst — Indignation about Princess Anne — The
diary pp. 86-107



CHAPTER VI

Kecall of the Duke of York to England — WiUiam's visit to England —
James's letter to the Princess — Monmouth's visit to The Hague —
William's attentions to him — The anniversary of Charles I.'s reign —
Difficulties of WiUiam's policy — Death of Charles II. — Wilham's
interview with Monmouth ..... pp. 108-119



CHAPTER VII

James II. ascends the throne — The EngUsh Envoy's insolence to the Prince
and Princess of Orange — Chudleigh — Skelton — Monmouth leaves The
Hague — Monmouth's expedition — Question of William's compUcity
in it — Monmouth's execution — Lady Mary Forester's letters to the
Princess — Ball on William's birthday — " The Kermesse " — Mary's
sweetness of disposition ..... pp. 120-130



CHAPTER VIII

Crisis in the married life of William and Mary — James's scheme — WiUiam
and Elizabeth Villiers — Mary's distress — WiUiam discovers James's
scheme — Covell to Skelton — Dismissal of the Princess's servants —
The Princess and Burnet — His description of her — The Princess's
views on the Succession — James II. 's folly — The Princess's resentment
at his measures — William and Mary and Lady Russell — Mary's letter
to her . . . pp. 131-150



CONTENTS xi



CHAPTER IX

James'H attempts to induce the Princess to leave the English Church —
d'Albevillo's mission — James's letter to his daughter — The Princess's
answer — Further correspondence — The Princess writes to the Arch-
bishop of Canterbury — Another letter to James II. — James's indigna-
tion at his daughter's attitude .... pp. 151-166



chaptp:ii X

Affairs in England — Question of supposititious child — .Anne's letters to her
sister — Her hatred of hor stepmother — Birth of the Old Pretender —
Visit of Elootor and Elcctress of Saxony to Holland — The Princess's
attitude towards her fatlier — Veroce acts as spy on William —
Skelton's disgrace — .Approaching crisis in England — The Princess's
unlmppiness — William and Mary's parting interview — Departure of
William — Storm — His return — He puts off again — The Princess's
anxieties — Kindness shown her — Death of Mme. Bentinck — William
lands at Torbay pp. 167-187



CHAPTER XI

The Princess's life in Holland — Visit from the Elector and Electress of
Brandenburg — Events in England — The Prince refuses to be "his
wife's gentleman usher " — The Princess summoned to England —
She lands at Wliitehall Stairs — Her arrival at the Palace — Criticism
of her behaNiour on arrival — William and Mary accept the Crown —
Reaction of feeling in England — Queen Mary, her uncles, and her
sister pp. 188-207



CHAPTER XII

The Coronation — Preparations — Unique event — Queen Mary's feelings —
Those of the Princess Anne — The journey to Westminster Hall —
Procession to the Abbey — The ceremony — Burnet's sermon — The
Coronation Oath — The Anointing — Presentation of the Bible — The
Holy Communion — Return to Westminster Hall — Reception at
Whitehall — Hampton Court — Kensington Palace . pp. 208-228



xii CONTENTS



CHAPTER XIII

Growing breach between the Queen and her sister — Lady Marlborough —
First eerious dispute between Mary and Anne — The King's want
of courtesy — Birth of the Duke of Gloucester — The Queen's desire
for a child — Question of .Anne's revenue — The Queen's interview
with the Princess — Lord Shrewsbury as intermediary — His character
— Question of the Princess's allowance settled — The Comprehension
Bill — William's unpopularity in England — His desire to go to Ireland
— Queen Mary's distress — Her life in London — Scene in the theatre
— Gossip — Parliament prorogued .... pp. 229-250

CHAPTER XIV

The Queen's unhappiness during the Irish campaign — Her letters to William
— Elizabeth Villiers — Jacobite intrigues — The Queen's Council — Her
opinion of them — Admiral Torrington — An anxious month — Plots —
French fleet seen off PljTnouth — Alairo and indignation — The Queen's
letter to Torrington — The CovmcU's resolution — The battle of Beaohy
Head — Indignation with Torrington — Patriotism roused — The Queen's
calmness — The battle of the Boyne — The Queen's letters to her
husband — French sarcasm ..... pp. 251-278



CHAPTER XV

Elizabeth Villiers and Irish estates — The Queen's feelings — Disputes in
Covmcil — The Privy Council — The Queen's anxieties — The Scotch
conspiracy — The Queen's interviews with Ross and Montgomery —
Her overburdened condition — William's rettim — He goes to Holland
— Conspiracies — Ashton — Preston and Crone — Discontent among
Ministers . . . . . . , -Pp. 279-298

CHAPTER XVI

The non-jurors — Tillotson's appointment — The Queen's charities in
England and in Holland — Dr. Hooper — The Queen during WiUiam's
absence — Disaffection for William — Treachery among his Ministers —
The King's return — Rejoicings .... pp. 299-313

CHAPTER XVII

The Princess Anne and Lady Marlborough — William and Mary's dis-
pute with Anne — Marlborough — His disgrace — The Queen's letter
to her sister — William's departure to Holland — State perils —
Mary and Anne — Continued breach between the sisters — Ken's
letter — The Queen and the Navy — Battle of La Hogue — Grandval
— The Queen's distress — William's return . . pp. 314-341



CONTENTS xiii



CHAPTER XVIII

Continued breach between Mary and Anne — The Duke of Olouoester —
Nottingham's retirement — Naval misfortunes — The King's return —
Elizabeth Villiora and Slirewabury — The Queen and the Eleotread
Sophia — The King's departure for Holland — Treachery at Brest —
Admiral Russell — Death of TiUotson — Tenison's appointment

pp. 342-350

CHAPTER XIX

Illness of the Queen — She bums her papers — The Triennial Bill — The
Queen's illness declared to be smallpox — General sorrow — The King's
distress — The Princess Anne — The Queen's danger — Question of
her letter to the King — Slie receives the sacrament — Her death —
General sorrow — The King's anguish — He carries out her wishes —
James II. — The Ijring-in-state — The funeral — Ken's letter — The
Queen's character — Greenwich Naval Hospital . . pp. 3r.G-378

Index pp. 370-386



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



Portrait of Qikf.n' Mary . . . Frontispiece

Reproducrd by tho kind permission of Dr. Krflmcr, Keeper ol
the Archives at The Hague.

rkCIKO PAOB

Portraits of the Duke and Duchess of York and

THE Princesses Mary and Anne ... 16

From a picture by Sir Peter Lely. In the collection of
Viscount Dillon.

Portrait ok Princess Mauv ..... 32

From a portrait by Sir Peter Lely. In the collection of Earl
Uathurst.

Portrait of ^VILLIAM III. ..... 48

Reproduced by the kind permission of Dr. Krfinicr. Keeper of
the Archives at The Hague.

James II. ........ 64

From a painting by Knellcr. By permission of the Trustees
of the National Portrait



Online LibraryMary Frances SandarsPrincess and queen of England, life of Mary II → online text (page 1 of 31)