Mary Francis Cusack.

A history of the city and county of Cork online

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a few distinctly American Flowering' Plants, and very many
American and tropical Cryptogamia (which latter appear
nowhere else in Europe), can only, I think, be accounted for



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468 THE FLORA OF

by the constant set of the Gulf Stream upon our western
shores.

In the following list of Phoenogams I shall italicize the
species discovered since Dr. Power wrote. I place an asterisk
only before such plants as are supposed to have been intro-
duced accidentally or by cultivation.

PH(ENOGAMS (FLOWERING PLANTS).

Thalickum minus — Sugar-loaf Mountain. (T. Wright.)

Ranunculus Baudotii — Salt-marshes near Cork.

Armor acea amphibia — Near Fermoy ; rare.

Subularta a^quatica — Gougane Barra Lake. (The late
Professor Harvey.)

Senebiera didyma — Frequent by the coast, but is supposed
to have been originally brought with ballast from America.

Rapkanus maritimus — Island in Roaring Water Bay.
(Rev. T. AUin.)

Helianthemum gultatum — Still at Three-Castle-Head.
Atlantic type.,

Viola canina — Hills near Blarney. (Mr. Mills.) (The
common Dog- Violet is V. sylvatica.)

Drosera anglica — North-west of Co. Cork ; rare. (Rev. T.
AUin.)

Elatine hexandra — About Durrus, etc., in flower. (Rev.
T. AUin.)

SUene anglica — About Skibbereen, etc. (Rev. T. AUin.)

''^Geranium Pyrenaicum — Near Cork. (Mr. J. SuUivan.)
Castlemagner. (Rev. T. AUin.) I fear not wUd here. It is
frequent in Cos. Dublin and Kildare.

G. roteurdifoUum — Common about Cork, but nowhere else
in Ireland.

Erodium maritimum — One plant at Ringaskiddy many-
years ago. (I. C.) Very rare.

Tri/olium scabrum — Sand-hUls near Youghal (Rev. T.
AUin.)

Vicia tetrasperma — Very rare.

V. sylvatica — Copse, near Ballybrittain. (I. C.) Very
rare.

Rosa micrautha — Frequent near Cork and Kinsale ; also at
Castletownroche and DoneraUe, but I think nowhere in Ireland,
except in Co. Cork. ^^

*R. systyla — Although stated by Dr. Power to be frequent
near Cork, I never saw but ofie specimen, and that was
gathered near a garden.



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THE OOUNTY CORK. 469

Myrtopkylleun alternifoUuin — ^Not rare in Co. Cork. (Rev.
T. Allin).

Sedum Rhodiola — Hungry Hill and other western moun-
tains.

S. dasyphyllum — This little stone-crop grows with S,
anglicum on rocks near Midleton abundantly, to all appearance
triily native.

Saxifraga umbrosa — Common in the west, rarer in tlie east
(Atlantic type).

S. Geum — Not rare in the west. (Atlantic type,)

(S. hirsuta— Gathered on Hungry Hill. Seems to me a
hybrid between the last two species.)

S. stellaris L. — Hungry Hill, very large. (I. C.) Rev. T.
Allin finds a viviparous state.

Carum verticillatum — Roadsides, MUlstreet. (I. C, and
Rev. T. Allin.) Very rare. {Atlantic type.)

Slum angustifolium. Near Ballycotton, Buttevant, etc.
This is the plant named Sium latifolium, in Flora Cork.

yEnanthe Phellandrium — Frequent in the north of the
county.

Anthriscus vulgaris — Cottage roof, Blackpool. (L C.)
.Wall at Ballyvodock. (Rev. T. Allin.)

•Galium erectum — ^Fields near Midleton, probably intro-
duced, but spreading rapidly. (Rev. T. Allin.)

Gcilium verum — This common plant must have been acci-
dentally omitted by Dr. Power.

Valerianella auricula — Mr. Allin has found this rare plant
in several localities.

* Petasites fragrans — Sweet-scented Colts-foot. This
American plant has quite established itself, and is becoming
very common near Cork. It escaped originally from gardens.

Inula crithmoides — ^Refound lately near Castlefreke by the
Rev. T. Allin. {Atlantic type).

♦Senecio squalidus — Very common about Cork ; also found
near Kinsale and Bandon, and is rapidly spreading. Another
instance of an exotic establishing itself within a comparatively
short time. This plant hybridizes freely with the common
Groundsel (S. vulgaris;.

Carduus nutans — I fear this handsome plant has disappeared
from the Little Island. I have not seen it for many years
past.

Hieraceum anglicum — Clifis over Gurtaveha Lake, Mill-
street. (A. G. More ; afterwards I. C. and Rev. T. Allin.)



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470 THE FLORA OF

H. /ricum—Brntry Bay (Bab. Man). Baae of Sugar-loaf
Mountain, Glongariff. (I. C.)

H. paXUdum — Dunemark FaUs, Bantry. (I.C.) On Caher-
bamagh. (Eev. T. Allin.)

H. ccBsium — Eocks near Midleton. (Rev. T. Allin.)

H. gothicum — Dunemark Falls, Bantry. (I. C.)

Arbutus unedo — Strawberry Tree. Seems to be confined
in our county to the neighbourhood of Glengariff. At Kil-
larney it flourishes luxuriantly, forming a great portion of the
natural forests on the lower ranges, as at Cromaglaun Moun-
tain. This fine tree forms with Saxifraga umbrosa, S. Geum,
Pinguicula grandiflora, and the Connemara Heaths (Menziezia
polifolia, Erica Mediterranea and E. ciliaris), the most striking
examples of the Atlantic type.

Cicendia filiformis — Bare, and confined to the extreme S.W.
(Atlantic type,)

Gentiana Amarella — Near Doneraile. (T. Wright.) Hills
by the Bandon River. (Mr. J. Sullivan, Rev. T. Allin.)

Solanum nigrum — Recently found in considerable quantity,
and apparently wild, in a barren islet at the back of the Great
Island, by the Rev. T. Allin.

S. Dulcamara — Very scarce, but still to be found near
Midleton. (Rev. T. Allin.)

Antirrhinum Orontium — Not rare in com and potato fields
near Cork, &c.

Linaria Elatine — Similarly distributed as the last.

L. minor — A weed in gardens near Cork and Glanmire.

L. repens — About Bandon, Innishannon, and between
Bandon and Dunmanway.

Euphragia viscosa — ^This, with the common Chamomile
(Anthenis nobilis) are amongst the most characteristic and
abundant plants of West Cork. (Atlantic type,)

* Veronica Buxbaumii — ^This pretty "weed of cultivation"
has become quite common in many parts of our county,
flowering all the year round.

Mentha sylvestris^ — Roadside near Timoleague. (Rev. T.
Allin.) The M. sylvestris of Fl. Cork has been proved by
authentic specimens to have been only M. rotundifolia.

M. piperita — Peppermint. In several places well estab-
lished. This and the last, and M. rotundifolia (much the
commonest of the three) are perhaps only escapes from cul-
tivation.

Salvia Verbenaca — ^Plentiftd at Clay Castle, Youghal.



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THE COUNTY CORK. 47 1

Lamium amplexicaule — By the coast ; very scarce.

Wahlenbergia hederacea— Tliis lovely little plant is not
rare in the Bandon district, and has been recently found near
Macroom.

Pinguicula grandiflora — Common in the west of Cork and
in Kerry ; nowhere else in Great Britain or Ireland. A very
beautiful plant. (Atlantic type,)

Utricularia intermedia — In the west, but rare. (Fl. Cork,
and Eey. T. Allin.)

Statice occidtntalis — Coast near Bally cotton, f L- C.)

Chenopodium rubrum v. botryosum, with Rumex maritimus,
by a small lake under Kilcoleman castle. (I. C.

Atriplex littoralis — Hop Island, Cork. (I. C.) Very rare.
Obione portulacoides — Ballycotton, and salt-marsh, Eostellan.
(I. C.)

Rumex maritimus — By the same lake, or marsh, under the
ruins of Spenser's Castle, Kilcoleman. Extremely rare in Ire-
land. The " Golden Dock" of Fl. Cork was R. Hydrolapathum,
a species common about Buttevant, and near Ballycotton.
(I. C;

Polygonum minus, large form — Near Ballincollig Castle.
{\. C.) This is, no doubt, Drummond's plant Habitat. Since
destroyed by the railway embankment.

Euphorbia amygdaloides — Besides the original station in
Castle Bernard park, Mr. Allin has gathered this rai^e Irish
plant in woods by the river between Bandon and Kinsale.

Callitriche hamulata — Glanscskin, Kilworth. (I. C.) West
of Cork. (Rev. T. Allin).

Salix ambigua — Dunboy, Berehaven. (I. C.) Readily
distinguished from all the forms of S. repens, by ite erect habit.
It closely resembles the rare Arctic S. myrtilloides.

S. herbacea — Summit of Sugar loaf mountain, Glengariff.
(L C.)

Orehis pvramidalis — About Fermoy. (T. Chandlee). Little
Island. (I. C.) Ne^tr Passage ; abundant. ( — Cooke). Derry-
nane. (T. Wright).

Spiranthes Romanzoffiana {Chamisso) Spiranthes gemmi-
para. {Ltnctl) This extremely rare and curious plant, found
at Castletown-Berehaven, and lately by the Rev. T. Allin in
another western station, occurs nowhere else in Europe. It is,
however, identical withCharaLsso's specrimens from Kamtchatka,
and others since discovered in the Rocky Mountains of North
America, Spiranthes Romauzoffiana, and Eriocaulon septan-



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47^ THE FLORA OF

gulare are striking examples of -truly American species, native
in this country. {American type).

Cephalanthera ensifolia — Glengariff and Adrigole, very rare.

Alluim Scorodoprasum — Fota Island. (Dr. Moore).

Juncus acutus — This rare plant has been found in several
western stations lately by Rev. T. Allin.

Butomus umbellatus — Ballycotton, and plentifiil near Butte-
vant (I. C, and Rev. T. Allin).

Carex axillaris — Near Kinsale. (I; C.) Very rare.

C palUsces — ^Not very uncommon, but overlooked.

C. limosa — Near Kanturk and Glengariff. Very rare. (Rev.
T. Allin.)

C pmutata — Glengariff and Dunboy. (I. C.) Elsewhere
in the west (Rev. T. Allin.)

C. filiformis— Glengariff. (Rev. T. Allin.)

C. pahidosa — Dunsfort Bog, Midleton. (Rev. T.. Allin.)

Kaleria cristata — Roadside, near Fermoy. (T. Chandlee.)

Festuca arundinacea — In Shaw's demesne, Monkstown.
(I.e.) NearCloyne. (Rev. T. AUin.)

Bromus commutatus — Near Cork and Fermoy, in low wet
meadows ; not rare.

FiucES (ferns).
Polypodunt Phegopteris — Pass of Keim-an-Eigh and on
Hungry Hill. (T. Wright.) Rocks, Gurtaveha, Millstreet.
(A. G. More, Rev. T. AUin, and I. C.)

Lastraea oreopteris — ^Very rare in our county. I have seen
it in the only station recorded — ^the base of Hungry Hill.

Cistopteris fra^lis — A specimen marked " Glengariff."
(Herb., late Miss A. Taylor). Rocks over Gurtaveha Lake
(A. G. Moore).

'Asplenium lanceolatum — Rocks and walls near Kinsale.
(the late Mr. Joseph Woods, afterwards I. C.) Recently
foimd in an old castle near Cahirciveen. (Atlantic type.)

A. acutum — A few localities near Cork ai^d in the west of
the county. A very beautiful fern, but probably only a very
well-marked form of A. adiantum-nigrum. (Atlantic type.)

A. viride — On Hungry Hill, and over Gurtaveha Lake,
MiUstreet.

Trichomanes radicans — Killarney Fern. This lovely sub-
tropical Fern, which only occurs in Europe in the S. and S. W.
of Ireland ; is very scarce in our county. It ascends to over
looo feet on hills near Kildorrery. {American type,)

Hymendphyllum Wilsoni — On several of our mountain-



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THE COUNTY COKK. 473

tops, but hitherto overlooked, perhaps on account of its small

size.
Iso'ites lacustris — Gougane Barra Lake. (I. C.)
Lycopodiuminundatnm — Near Enniskean. (Rev. T. AUin.)

Very rare in Ireland.

Musci (mosses).

In treating of the lesser cryptogamia I shall be as succinct
as possible, only mentioning the rarest species, or those which
prove the existence of the American (or sub-tropical) type.

Dicranella crispa — Cork.

Cynodontium Bruntoni — Cork.

Grimmia orbicularis — Cork.

G. ovata — Cork; very rare. (Identical with my Icelandic
specimens.)

Glyphomitrium Daviesii — Cork, Kerry.

Eacomitrium ellipticum — Cork, Kerry.

Gymnostomum curvirostrum — Cork, Kerry.

G. calcareum — Cork.

Pottia Wilsoni — Cork.

P. crinita — Cork.

Didymodon recurvifolius — Kerry ; nowhere else.

Didymodon luridus — Cork, Kerry.

Ditrichum pusillim — Cork ; very rare.

Tortula Hornschuchiana — Cork ; very rare.

T. Hibernica — Cork, Kerry.

Orthotrichum te^iellum — Cork, Kerry.

0. rivulare — Cork.

0. Ludwigii — Kerry.

0. Drummondii — Kerry.

Phascum patens — Cork ; very rare.

Physcomitrium fasciculare — Cork.

Bartramidula Wilsoni — Kerry ; very rare.

Bryum polymorphum — Brandon, Kerry.

B, Donianum — Cork ; very rare.

B. Tozeri — Cork ; very rare.

Leptobryum pyrifonne.

This lovely moss, so common in the swamps of Lapland,
etc., is scarcely ever seen in this country, except in green-
houses, where it sometimes covers the surface of the flower-
pots. I have, however, collected it in the cave under Blarney
castle.

Daltonia splachnoides — Kerry ;> very rare.



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474 ^^B FLORA OF

Hookeria laBtevirens — Cork, Kerry, Cape of Good Hope.
(The late Professor Harvey.) (American type.)

Hedwigidium inberbe — Cork, Kerry.

Pylaisia polyantha — Mucruss, Killfirney.

Hypnum illecebrum — ^Near Queenstown : very rare.

H. Mildtanum — Cork ; rare.

H. demissum — Cork, Kerry.

H. micans — Cork, Kerry.

H. circinnatum — Oork, Kerry.

H. speciosum — Cork, Kerry.

H, Teesdalii — Cork.

H. fluviatile — Cork ; rare.

H. stramineum — Cork.

H. Cossoni — Near Fermoy.

Fissidens polyphyllus — Glengariff. (American type,)

Hepaticae (Liverworts).

Not being well acquainted with the geographical distribu-
tion of these little plants, I shall merely give the names of
those species which were overlooked by Dr. Power, or detected
since he wrote. I may observe that the group of minute
forms, recently named Lejeunia (Jungermannia minutissima,
hamatifolia, microscopica, etc.,) belong to the American lypi^

Targionia Michelii — County Cork.

Jungermannia concinnata „

J.juniperina „

J. trichophylla „

J, setacea „

J. incisa „

J. curvifolia ,^

J, pumila „

J. exsecta „

J. resupinata „

J. ventricosa „

J[ anomala ,,

J, Uevigata „

J. rivularis „

J, riparia „

J, stipulacea „

J, minuta „

J, decipiens „

J. Taylori „

J, scalaris ,>

J. minutissima „



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{American type.)



THB COUNTY CORK. 475

J. hamatifoUa — County Cork.

e/. calyptrifolia

J. cochleanformis

J. barbata

J. cupressina

J, trilobata

J. spkcerocarpa

J. Bantriensis

LICHENS.

The following species belong to the Atlantic type : —

Lecidea ochroph :a — Dinis Island.

Graphis dendiitica — Co. Cork.

G. Lyellii — Cork.

Opegrapha leutiginosa — Co. Cork.

Stigmatidium circumscriptum — Kerry,

Arthonia aspersa — Kerry.

A ilicina — Cork, Kerry.

A. ilicineUa — Kerry.
' Chiodecton albidum. — Kerry.

Melaspilea amota — Kerry.

M. ockrothalamia — Cork, Kery.

Verrucaria leptospora — Kerry.

Pyrenopsis lecanopsoides — Kerry.

Calicium populneum — Kerry.

C. eusporum — Kerry, Cork.

Gromphillus calicioides — Kerry.

Sticta Dufourei — ^Killamey.

Physcia flavicans — Cork, Kerry.

P. chrysophthalma — Cork, Kerry.

P. leucamela — Cork.

P. speciosa — Kerry.

The following belong to the American or sub tropical
type: —

Collema aggregatum — Kerry.

Leptogium tremelloides — Kerry — Cork.

L. Burgessii — Kerry.

L. chloromelum — Kerry.

Myriangium Duriai — Cork, Kerry.

Sticta intricata, v. Thouarsii — Kerry. (Also found in
England and the west of Scotland.)

S. crocata— Kerry.

S. damsecomis. This fine lichen, common in tho tropin ., it
only found in Europe near Killaniey.



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476 THE FLORA OF

Parmelia tiliacea V. sublaevigata — Kerry,

P. perforata — Kerry.

Thelotrema subtile — Kerry, Cork,

Lecidea mutabilis — Cork ; Kerry,

L. homalotropa — Kerry ; closely allied to, if not identical
with, L. urceolata of Brazil.

Gr aphis Ruizeana — Cork ; Kerry ; also in New Granada,

Opegrapha diplasiospora — Kerry ; also New Granada,

Arthonia Cascarillae — Kerry. I believe this and A. ochracea
of the S. of Europe are the same species. ^

Mycoporum sparsellum — Killarney ; New Granada.

Vcrnucaria pyrenuloides v. Hibernica. This fine and very
distinct species has a wide tropical distribution extending to
S. America and Java.

Many of the following rare Lichens may belong to the
Atlantic or American types, but their distribution is not yet
known with certainty.

Collema chalazanum — Kerry ; Cork,

C. plicatile — Kerry.

Leptogium Moorei — Kerry ; Cork,

L. fragile — Kerry.

Calicium diplo^Uum — Kerry.

C, tritkiale — Cork.

C. hyperellum — Kerry,

C trachelinunt — Cork.

C curium — Cork.

Cetraria Islandica — Very rare in Ireland. Summit of Man-
gertou. (Dr. Taylor, afterwards the late Admiral JonesV

Parmelia endochlora — Kerry.

P. astroidea — Kerry.

Pannaria microphylla — Kerry,

P. cheilea — Kerry.

Lecanora holophcea-^—Qovk ; Kerry.

L. rubra — Cork. (Rev. W, A. Leighton).

L. elatina— Kerry ; Derricunnihy, only British station
known.

L. epanora — Kerry.

Z. epixantha — Cork.

L. Dicksonii — Kerry.

L. ochracea — Kerry.

JL, Lallavei — Cork.

L. Hutchifisice — Cork,



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THE COUNTY CORK, 477



Pertusaria multipimctata — Kerry.

P. ceuthocarpa — Cork ; Kerry.

P. velata — Cork ; Kerry.

P. globulifera — Cork.

P. Hutehinsae — Cork.

P. fastigiata — Kerry ; CorK.

P. sublactea — Kerry, Cork.

Lecidea lutea — Cork ; Kerry.

L, Salweii — Cork.

L. glaucolepidea — Cork.

P.fuliginosa — Cork; Kerry.

L. f^ispansa — Cork.

L. sympathetica — Kerry.

L. trochodes — Kerry.

L. flexnosa v. aeruginosa — Kerry,

L. sanguineo-atra — Cork,

L. panaeola — Kerry.

L. tenebrosa — Kerry.

L polycarpa — Kerry.

L Taylori — Kerry.

L leiotea — Kerry.

L. phaeops — Kerry.

L. gelatinosa — Kerry.

L, fusco-rubens — Cork.

L, scabrosa — Cork.

L. atro-albella — Cork.

L. Lightfootii v. commutata — Cork»

L. globulosa — Kerry.

L. atro'purpurea — Cork ; Kerry,

L. prasinoides — Kerry.

L. ascaridiella — Kerry.

L. melaena — Kerry.

L. CEderi — Kerry.

L. abietina — Kerry.

Z. sqtiamulosa — Cork,

L. pachycarya — Kerry.

L. citrinella — Kerry.

L. pulvinata — Kerry.

L. cupularis — Kerry.

L. scapanaria — Kerry.

L. parasitica — Cork.

L. cpisema — Keny.

Agyrium riifuni — Jverry



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47* THE FLORA OF

Aitlionia excipienda — Kerry,
A. spadicea — Cork.
A. puncti/ormis — Cork,
fL s^^ectabilis — K^ry,
A . punctella — Cork.
Verucaria prominula — Kerry,
V. antecellens — Kerry.
V. cinerella — Cork ; Kerry.
V. micula — ^Killarney.
V. Taylori — Cork ; Kerry.
V, capnodes $t varrhyponlella — Cork,
V. Salweii — Cork.
V. consequens — Cork ; Kerry.
V. rubella— Kerry. (Theolopsis rul)ella),
V. glabrata et var dermaiodes— Cork : Kerry,
y. aldissima — Cork ; Kerry.
V. platypyrenea—Coik ; Kerry,
V. desistens — Kerry.
T. lucens — Kerry.
V. umbrina — Cork ; Kerry.
V. isidioides — Cork.
V. Carrollii—QoiV ; Kerry.

V. theleodes v. inundata — Kerry. j

V. pallida — Kerry. |

V, hymefiogonia — Cork,
V. haplotella— Kerry.
V. rimosicola — Kerry.

ALGiE (sea-weed).

I only note a few species found since Dr.. Power wrote.
They are all from Cork harbour, or the neighbourhood. Thre^
species— Stenogramme interupta, Polysiphonia simulans, aud
P. obscura— were not previously &und in Ireland

Stibphora rkizodes.

S. Lyngbycei. \

Ralfsia detista.

Elachistea fucicola.

E. scutulaia.

Myrionema strangulans.

Ectocarpus Hinksia.

E. brachmtus.

Ptilota scricea.

Ceramium Deshngchampsii. \



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THE COUNTY CORK. 479

Ptilota serkea,

Ctramium Desbngchampsii.

C. fastigietum.

C. flabelligerum.

C. eckionotum,

C. acantkonotum.

Polysiphonia obscura.

P. simulans.

Corallina officinalis.

C. squamata.

yania ruSens. •

Hildenbrandtia rubra.

Nitophyllum versicolor— ^y^rj rare.

Stenogramme interrupta do.

Cladophora Macallana. -

Conferva Melagonium.

FUNGL

There is a tolerably full list of these plants in " Flora Cork.''
I have never made tbe Fungi an object of study, but may
mention that Tuber cibarium (the Truffle) has been found
near Cork, and the edible Morell (Morchella escuUnta) near
Fermoy.



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ON THE BREEDS OF CATTLE

IN THE

COUNTY CORK,

Breeds of Cattle in the County of Cork. — ^The origin
uf the splendid stock of Catfcle in this county was a small
class of Mountain Cattle, adapted by nature, both in their
forms and habits, for the wildness and asperity of their habitat.
Though small, they are most perfectly formed, being the very
beau ideal for accessories to a picture of mountain scenery.
They are black, with shaggy hair, which crests their foreheads,
and haugs like the mane of some wild animal between two
long and graceful horns. There is a kind of quiet, yet deter-
mined expression, in their well-set little eyes, and the firm
and stately plant of their feet as they walk, indicate plainly
that the instinct of self-defence is strong in them. From this
romantic little stock, by a judicious and careful admixture of
Devon, Durham, and Guernsey, we have acquired a stock
better adapted to garnish the butcher's stall than set off the
artist's picture. Up to the year 1 840 there Wiis no appreciable
change, for a speckled animal was rarely seen ; but since then
the class of cattle has been gradually but surely progressing,
until now it can bid fair to compete with that in England.
Of course I allude here to the cattle for slaughter. And now
let us glan<5c at the prices, as by them, taking into consideration
the comparative value of money, we shall arrive at a fair
knowledge of the progress which has been made. The prices
obtainable for the original stock were as follows : — Yeiirlings,
15 to 30 shillings; fat animals, /*3 to ^^7. Compare with
the above the present prices of the improved stock : — ^Year-
lings, £(y to £() ; fat animals, Ji 20 to ^ 30. We have sluwn
that there has been a decided improvement in the class of
animals ; now let us enquire into tlie trade with England.

Trade in Cattle. — In th^ yej^r 1797 live animals were
not shipped, but they were slaughtered and the carcases sent
over. At that time King-street, which runs j)arallel to and
at the back of the shipping quay, must have presented a lively
spectacle. I have said lively, but deadly would be the fitter
word. The whole length and breadth of King-street must



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ON THE BREEDS OP CATTLE. 48 1

have been piled with vehicles containing these carcases,
hurrying off to be shipped, and the air must have rung with
Celtic exclamation, with now and then the language of the
Sassenach babbled out by the Celt. Of this time I have not
been able to obtain any reliable information, and must make
a jump into 18 14, when the one-masted sloop the Merniaid^
of Newport, left this port for New Passage, with 140 pigs on
board. She went to New Passage, which is about 1 2 miles
from Bristol, to evade the harbour dues of Bristol. With this
vessel there were other sailing vessels carrying on the trade,
and it is computed that in every three weeks 600 head of
cattle left this port. Seventy-two hours was the average time
for the journey over, but frequently seven or ten days. And
it has often happened that a vessel had been out three or four
days, and has been obliged to put back. The animals were
slung into the holds in any way as long as they were embarked,
and on the other side were slung again into a tender which
carried tiiem on shore. Cattle died by wholesale from ex-
haustion, consequent upon hanger and thirst. Since i860
these vessels have ceased to ply.

.About 1825 the first steamer, George IV,y left this port,
carrying 2CX3 calves and 600 pigs. This seems a surprising
number, but the pigs were small and would occupy about as
much space as 100 would do at the present day. About this
time we may estimate the trade in cattle to be about 6cxd every
three weeks. I say three weeks, because this gives time for
the vessel to go over, for the stock to be disposed of, for the
dealers to return to purchase a fresh lot.

And now let us step into a more enlightened and advanced
period when the St. George Company started their steam ships.
The trade increased rapidty, but somehow the company fdl
as rapidly, and at length tiie trade came into the hands of Mr.
Pike, a gentleman well known in this city. He beginning in
the usual way with certain shareholders, started with a
splendid and well-equipped fleet of boats, under tiie name of
the City of Cork Steam Ship Company (limited liability).
And now I come to the present on which I can speak myself.



Online LibraryMary Francis CusackA history of the city and county of Cork → online text (page 41 of 53)