BUILDING THE NATION
ftncle <Sam 'j Oldffiine Stories
NY PUBLIC LIBRARY
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' ? 3 v 10019
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AfiTOR, LENOX AND
BOSTON TEA PARTY.
Building the Nation
Stories of How Our Forefathers Lived and What
They Did to Make Our Country a
MARY HAZELTON WADE
AUTHOR OF " TEN LITTLE INDIANS," " TEN BIG INDIANS," " IN-
DIAN FAIRY TALES," " THE COMING OF THE WHITE
MEN," " OLD COLONY DAYS," ETC.
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY
W. A. WILDE COMPANY
THfc: NEW YORK
6 3 8 9
ASTOR, LENOX AND
BY W. A. WILDE COMPANY,
All rights reserved.
BUILDING THE NATION.
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C* II > '
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In earlier volumes of this series the story has
been told of the pioneers who came to this country
ready and willing to brave unknown dangers for
the sake of gaining peace and freedom for their
dear ones and themselves. They held different be-
liefs, they were of different nationalities, their
modes of living and thinking were at many points
distinctly opposed to each other. If the country
they had chosen for their own was to grow strong
and mighty, able to resist foes within and with-
out, its people must draw near together with one
common aim ancf purpose', one c common love en-
shrined in their hearts, , A ;common danger was
T ' '
the one thins: needed to Drills' this about, and in
o - - <
O O D j o I )
the Revolution that raged for seven long and bitter
years that aim and that purpose were established in
the hearts of all true Americans. And through the
brave leadership of heroic souls and the devotion
of their faithful followers a nation was established
that soon won for itself the admiration of other
One of the first things undertaken at the opening
of this new era was the unfurling of the emblem
of what the people of this country stood for, the
American flag. Those stars and stripes tell all men
the story of the nation and its development, the
red of courage, the blue of constancy, the white of
pure and unselfish purpose, are all there, as well as
the thirteen stripes for the original colonies who
first banded together in a common cause, and a
star for each of the constellation of states that now
compose the nation.
Every true American citizen must sympathize
with the story-teller, Uncle Sam, who feels that
the country is in safe hands when the children of
to-day grow up^wjth love .ancLj-.jeyerence for the
*- * * r *- ^ * **<%*
American flag/quid: tbfc countrvy &i : \Vhich it stands.
<'< r '<-"'"* 1"'"
' f e e e ,'-
*p *. '
I. WHY THEY BEGAN TO BUILD n
II. PATRICK HENRY 22
III. A QUEER TEA PARTY 32
IV. LEXINGTON . . 42
V. THE MIDNIGHT RIDE 50
VI. BUNKER HILL AND DR. WARREN 63
VII. SOME QUEER CUSTOMS 73
VIII. WASHINGTON, THE COMMANDER 85
IX. OVER THE MOUNTAINS 90
X. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 109
XL THE BIG ELM TREE AND THE MEN UNDER IT . 127
XII. THOMAS JEFFERSON 136
XIII. THE GAME THAT WASHINGTON PLAYED . . . 148
XIV. THE CHRISTMAS SURPRISE PARTY 154
XV. THE GOOD FRENCHMAN 159
XVI. INDIANS IN THE WAR 164
XVII. MORE ABOUT INDIANS 170
XVIII. SARATOGA 175
XIX. THE TERRIBLE WINTER 182
XX. ARNOLD THE TRAITOR 188
XXL THE END OF IT ALL 196
BOSTON TEA PARTY Frontispiece. 39
PAUL REVERE'S RIDE 53
ONE HORSE SHAY 83
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN FLYING His KITE 124
WASHINGTON CROSSING THE DELAWARE RIVER .... 157
BUILDING THE NATION
WHY THEY BEGAN TO BUILD
Well, Lucy dear.
The old man had been half dozing in his arm-
chair, where he spent most of the time at present.
" Rheumatism isn't much fun," he sometimes
told the children with a sigh.
He was such an active old man, and was so
happy working about his little place, that it was
pretty hard to stay inside the house hour after
hour of the bright autumn days.
" The doctor says he is doing his best and he
thinks Uncle Sam will be all right in a few days,"
Lucy's mother had said. This comforted the child's
tender heart. ; I remember how long the time
seemed when I had the measles," she thought,
" and it is just as bad for Uncle Sam, now, as it
was for me, then."
12 BUILDING THE NATION
She spent every spare moment at the cottage,
and this very afternoon she was sitting at his feet,
making a dress for her favorite doll. She looked
up from her work now, with a very sober face, to
; I've been thinking about our country, Uncle
Sam, and the stories you told Joe and me about
the Indians. After King Philip and Pontiac and
other great chiefs were dead and the tribes had
been driven west, our people must have had pleas-
ant times, for there was nothing to be afraid of
then, was there? '
: Bless your dear little heart ! ' exclaimed Uncle
Sam, who had become wide awake at the mere men-
tion of his favorite subject, America. " There was
enough to fear, and trouble in plenty, but it was
of a different kind, Lucy,- -a different kind. This
wasn't a nation yet. It had to be built.
" Listen, child. Do you hear the men at work
on the new house below us? The sound of the
hammers is distinct enough, even here. Think of
the men of different trades who give their work
before the building is finished. There are the
brick-layers, the plasterers, the carpenters and
the painters. It isn't enough to have a great
BUILDING THE NATION 13
pile of lumber. You can scarcely call that a house.
" Now, when the Indians in this part of the
country had been conquered, there were plenty of
brave people here,- - about two and a half millions.
They were like the bricks and lumber for a house
that is still to be built. They were living in differ-
ent colonies, thirteen in all. Some of these colo-
nies, like Massachusetts and Virginia, were rich and
powerful ; but they were not banded together. Each
one had its own interests.
" Perhaps you remember what Benjamin Frank-
lin said when the people were in great danger from
the French and Indians: ' Join or Die.' These were
his words, and they set some of the men thinking;
but not all." Uncle Sam shook his head. ; No,
not all. The very thought of a free and independ-
ent country had not yet entered the minds of Amer-
icans. Indeed, they still called themselves English-
men, and all looked up to the King of England as
the rightful ruler of this country.
" But they waked up when they found .they were
not treated right. Then the busy sounds of build-
ing were heard, as the colonists began to make the
foundation for the great nation."
" What do you mean, Uncle Sam? " asked Lucy.
I 4 BUILDING THE NATION
Uncle Sam laughed.
The building materials were the wise thoughts
and words, and the brave deeds of the wisest and
best and bravest men. Those words were spoken
and those deeds were done because the people were
in danger from a tyrant.
You remember Governor Berkeley of Virginia,
and Nathaniel Bacon, who led the people of that
colony against him. Well, across the ocean in Eng-
land was a foolish, stupid king, George the Third.
He was a greater tyrant than Berkeley because he
had a larger field. He had bad, selfish and foolish
men around him, and they advised him to treat
the people in this country unjustly.
This was how it came about that King George
made laws for the colonies that our people would
not obey. Some things had already happened to
make the colonists angry. In the first place, mer-
chants and ship-masters of England brought black
slaves here from Africa.
" ' We don't want them,' the colonists declared.
* They may make trouble by rising against us.'
" ' Then, besides that,' said others, both in the
South and in the North, ' it is not kind or right to
BUILDING THE NATION 15
" Nevertheless the slaves were forced upon the
colonies, because the merchants and ship-owners
who brought them made a great deal of money by
the business, and had no pity for the poor black
' Besides this, the colonists were not free to trade
where they pleased. ' You must buy your goods
from us, or from the colonies owned by us,' de-
creed the English government.
The people here were angry at the very thought
of this and said they had a right to trade with any
part of the world they pleased. We will not obey
any such laws,' they declared among themselves.
' Here we are on the other side of the ocean, with
nothing to say about these laws that are made for
us over in England. And, indeed, few of the peo-
ple there have anything to say, either. The King
and the nobles do just about as they please. It is
not right ; indeed it is not.'
" ' Why, the King will not let us trade with some
of the islands in the West Indies, just because they
do not belong to England,' said some.
" ' And they are so near us, and we can get our
sugar and molasses so cheaply from them,' added
16 BUILDING THE NATION
c Never mind/ said still others, who were bold-
er. : When the ships come into port bringing goods
on which we are told to pay taxes, we \vill keep
very quiet and let most of the cargo be landed,
before the officers go on board to make a list of
what is to be taxed.'
This was not an honest way of doing, but even
some of the best people were not opposed to the
idea. They were not treated fairly, so they thought
it was right to protect themselves as well as they
1 At this time there was a boy living in Boston,
who was fast growing to manhood. His name was
James Otis. He heard what the older people about
him were saying and it set him thinking.
" By and by, Otis went to college. Then he
studied law and became a very clever lawyer. But
he was unlike many other lawyers; he would not
take anyone's part unless he thought that person
had a good cause. He would even give up the case
and have nothing more to do with it, if he found
out anything which made him lose faith in its
" After a while, Otis rose to the high position
of Advocate General of Massachusetts. By this
BUILDING THE NATION 17
time, King George had discovered that the colo-
nists were not obeying his laws about trade.
They are cheating me,' he said. : I will send
someone to the port of Boston, and he shall have
the help of the courts there. They must allow him
to send men to search houses and stores where he
thinks any untaxed goods have been carried/
The merchants of Boston were very angry
when they were told what the King had ordered.
They said hotly, ' It is not just for us to be treated
in such a way.'
" Then was the time for James Otis, the Advo-
cate General, to defend the King and his laws.
But no! he was a true patriot, and he could not
speak against the rights of his own people.
" He did not stop to think of the good salary
and the honors he would lose, but gave up his posi-
tion at once. He went into the court and spoke
with great power against the King's order. Then,
for the first time, he used these words:
" ' Taxation without representation is tyranny.'
Uncle Sam stopped for a moment. Then he ex-
claimed, " Great words those were, little Lucy,
great words ! And they were heard all through the
thirteen colonies!' His blue eyes fairly blazed.
i8 BUILDING THE NATION
But Lucy looked puzzled. c I don't think I quite
understand why they were so great, nor just what
they mean, Uncle Sam," she said slowly.
; It's just this way, dear," was the answer.
' Otis spoke aloud what the rest of the people had
been feeling in their hearts for a long time. They
were taxed, often unjustly, by their mother coun-
try, England, and although they still looked upon
themselves as Englishmen, yet they had no part in
making the laws under which they were taxed ; they
had no place in the government. Not one man
from this side of the ocean, among all the wise
ones here, was allowed to speak the wishes of the
colonies in the English Parliament. This state of
things was tyranny; it was the work of a tyrant.
" Otis sounded a war-cry, when he said, Taxa-
tion without representation is tyranny/ and it rang
in the ears of all our people. Old and young, men,
women and children, heard and repeated it. Now
do you understand, Lucy ? '
" Yes, Uncle Sam."
" Very well, then, I will go on with the story.
' Of course, Massachusetts and the other colo-
nies that did a great deal of trading had the most
reason for being angry, for up to this time the most
BUILDING THE NATION
unjust laws had been those about trade. It was
not long, however, before the farming colonies
were also aroused. This was because the King of
England decided to send ten thousand soldiers to
America, and after the first year the colonies must
support them !
' Hm ! ' said one after another, scornfully, ' we
are told that the soldiers are coming to protect us
against our enemies; but we haven't any enemies.
We know the real reason. The King is angry be-
cause we will not pay taxes when we have no voice
in making the laws, and because we made such a
fuss about having officers search our houses and
stores for untaxed goods. He thinks we have too
proud spirits, and he wants the soldiers here to keep
us in order.'
" England made a new law for the colonists.
She declared that every business paper and every
newspaper must have a stamp on it. This stamp
must be bought of the government officers. It was
a new way of taxing the colonists and getting their
" ' Taxation without representation is tyranny ! '
could be heard, now, in every direction. Traders
and farmers, people of the South and people of the
20 BUILDING THE NATION
North, were roused as they never had been before.
' We will not submit to the Stamp Act/ all de-
' Angry deeds followed upon angry words. In
New York, a mob seized upon the coach of the
royal governor and burned it. They tore down the
theater, thinking to annoy the royal officers who
went there. ' It is the rich men who take the part
of England against us/ they said. In Boston, the
excited people attacked English officers who had
been sent there to collect the taxes, and the officers
had to flee for their lives to the war vessels in the
harbor. In Charleston, the people attacked Fort
Johnson, where the stamped paper was stored. They
seized the fort, packed the paper into bundles, and
sent it back to England."
Uncle Sam chuckled.
" Scarcely a piece of that stamped paper was sold
in the whole country. The colonists said they
wouldn't take it, and they didn't; and as they
thought about it, they laughed."
" I should think they would have been afraid of
all those ten thousand English soldiers," said Lucy.
" Afraid ! my dear. They didn't know what fear
BUILDING THE NATION 21
; But the English government was terribly angry.
: Because the colonists won't pay the tax, we
have to bear the whole cost of keeping that great
army of ours in America, and now the colonists are
acting like rebels! ' That is what the king and his
ministers said. ( It will never do to let such things
go on. Never ! '
" The sky was growing blacker all the time," Un-
cle Sam went on. The clouds of war were fast
shutting out the sunlight that had made so many
homes glad after the fear of the Indians had passed
" What a shame ! ' declared Lucy, springing up
from her seat and 'folding her doll's clothes. : But
I love my country all the more because of the hard
times she has had.
" I must go home now, Uncle Sam. I am sorry
Joe wasn't here this afternoon, but he had a big pile
of wood to split, and he said it would take him two
hours. I'll tell him all I can remember, though,
about that horrid stamped paper and the English
soldiers. Good-night. I hope you will be better to-
4 X X 7 ELL, .Uncle Sam, how are you to-day ? '
V V " Better, Joe ; better, Lucy. But I
want company, children. I get lonesome sitting
here all day long. Miss Jane is a good woman and
keeps the house in order, but I can't talk to her
about what I love."
" We have come to spend the whole morning, so
you can talk to us for three hours," said Joe, with
' And you'll get so tired I believe you won't want
to say another word for the rest of the day," added
Lucy, glancing out to the kitchen, where a very neat,
but rather cross-looking, woman was washing the
' Sit down, children and make yourselves com-
fortable, then," replied Uncle Sam. There, that's
right. Dear me! Anyone who saw you would
know you are twins. He could hardly tell your faces
apart. Your old uncle knows, though. There is
BUILDING THE NATION
always a twinkle of mischief in Joe's eyes, that he
doesn't see in Lucy's.
; But you want to hear about America and her
brave children, don't you?
' One of them was Patrick Henry, who lived
in Virginia. He was what might be called a hap-
py-go-lucky boy. He loved to roam through the
woods, or sit on the bank of a stream and fish all
the morning long, and he hated school. I fear that
people called him a lazy, good-for-nothing fellow.
But he was so happy and merry and was such a good
story-teller, that they couldn't help liking him.
' Patrick managed to learn a little Greek and
Latin, however, and he got into the habit of reading
a few good books over and over. By the time he
was twenty, he was married and had several little
children. He was hardly more than a boy himself.
He was very poor. He had tried to make a living by
keeping store, but had failed. Then his relatives
got him a little piece of land and he turned farmer.
He failed at that, too. Once more he became a
store-keeper, but soon failed, the second time. The
truth is, he hadn't found out yet what he could do.
" At last he thought, ' I would like to be a law-
24 BUILDING THE NATION
' It was the very thing. He set to work and
began to study. Just as soon as he could, he took
his examination and passed it.
! He was now Lawyer Henry. He did so well
that people began to talk about him. ' How ably
that man speaks/ they said. ' I declare, he has the
power to make anyone believe as he wishes ! ' cried
' All Virginia was soon sounding the praises of
the lazy, good-for-nothing Patrick Henry, as he had
been spoken of only a little while before.
"How Henry hated England's unjust laws!
When the Stamp Act had been passed, he dared to
stand up in the courts and speak out what he
thought, with the greatest boldness. He said :
" ' The people of Virginia have the right to gov-
ern themselves. The English government has no
more right to make laws for us than we have to
make laws for England.'
" He said these, and other things, so well, that
many of his hearers nodded their heads and thought,
' He is quite right.' Others, however, were scared.
' This young man is speaking treason,' they said.
" But Henry did not stop here. He made a long
speech, in which his words were so noble and stirred
BUILDING THE NATION 25
the hearts of the people so deeply, that one after an-
other declared he had never heard anything so grand
in all his life. Before ending, Patrick Henry pointed
out that the time had come for George the Third,
King of England, to be careful. These were his
words, soon famous all over the world :
" ' Caesar had his Brutus, Charles the First his
Cromwell, and George the Third -
: When he had got so far, there were cries of
' Treason ! Treason ! ' from different parts of the
room. But the brave young man, who loved his
country so deeply, was not frightened. He waited
quietly for the noise to stop. Then he finished his
' may profit by their example ! If this be trea-
son, make the most of it.'
' Children," said Uncle Sam, thoughtfully pull-
ing at his beard, " those words of Patrick Henry
were the spark that set Virginia on fire. He spoke
aloud what most of the people hardly dared to
think. Patrick Henry did for Virginia what James
Otis had done for Massachusetts. Those two colo-
nies led all the others, which followed in their steps
" It was not possible for England to force the
26 BUILDING THE NATION
colonies to obey the Stamp Act, so it was given up.
But the King and his ministers said, ' We will tax
the colonies in another way. They shall pay us a
duty on every pound of tea, pot-lead, and paper, that
is sent into the country. We will show them that
we are still the masters and they must obey. We
will send officers to the port of Boston to see that
the duty is paid, too.'
' But the people would not pay. 'It is a small
sum, but that does not matter,' they said. ' The tax
is not right; we will not submit to it.'
The English government was more determined
than ever. It gave the order to send two companies
of soldiers over to Boston. The people there must
take care of them. The colonists would be so
frightened at sight of soldiers in the town, that they
would surely pay the taxes and not cheat the gov-
ernment as they had before.
' An officer was sent ahead of the troops to pre-
pare their quarters. How angry the people were
when he landed! They got a tar barrel and hoisted
it into the empty frame of the beacon which had
given its name to the highest hill of Boston,- - Bea-
con Hill. They set it afire, and there it blazed and
burned, speaking in tongues of flame to the whole
BUILDING THE NATION 27
country round. The hearts of the colonists were
filled with anger.
The officer was soon followed by the troops.
One company 'made its camp on the Common, the
other took up its quarters in Faneuil Hall and the
Town House. Out in the harbor, the children of
Boston could see eight English war ships at anchor.
Their fathers told them that these ships carried one
hundred and eighty cannons.
' It was a sad time for all. The hated red-coats
seemed to be everywhere. The boys and girls
passed them on their way to school ; they met them
in the streets and stores; while the dear old Com-
mon, where the children loved to coast in winter and
play ball in summer, was covered with the tents of
the British. As month after month went by, hard
words were often said, and quarrels were frequent
between the soldiers and the people of the town.
" The fathers and mothers of families talked of
the dreadful lessons their children were learning.
' Such loud words and wicked oaths as those sol-
diers use ! ' they often exclaimed. ' And such drunk-
enness! Boston doesn't seem like home any more.'
" At last something still worse happened. It has
since been called ' The Boston Massacre.'
28 BUILDING THE NATION
' One dark night, as a sentinel stood guard in one
of the streets, two young men tried to pass him with-
out answering his call. He sprang in front of them,
and there was a struggle. The noise was heard by
other soldiers, who came hurrying to the place. One
of these was armed with a shovel, and another with
a pair of tongs. Then there was more noise and
more scuffling. By this time many people of the
town had waked up. They came rushing to see
what was the matter. And now some British offi-
cers appeared and ordered the soldiers back to their
barracks. They wished to save trouble if they
: But by this time the mob was too angry and
excited to stop. It made its way to a sentinel on
guard at the Custom House. The people were look-
ing for trouble.
" ' He is the one that knocked me down/ cried a
boy, pointing to the sentinel.
' At these words a group of young men began to
throw things at the soldier. He loaded his gun and
tried to make his way inside the building, but it was
locked. Then he called loudly for help, as he did
not wish to fire.
" A sergeant, with six men, arrived in a few mo-
BUILDING THE NATION 29
ments. But by this time the crowd of excited people
was very great, and the bells were set ringing as if
for a fire.
The soldiers had loaded their guns, when a cap-
tain appeared with six more men.
' Fire, if you dare/ cried the angry mob. * Come
on, you lobster-backs ! Come on, you bloody-backs ! '
they called. But the soldiers, at the word of their
captain, only presented their bayonets.
' At last one of the men in the mob struck a sol-
dier with his club. It was too much ! He stepped to
one side and fired. Other soldiers followed his ex-
ample, and the mob fled before them.