Mary M Kingsbury.

Socialism as an educative and social force on the East Side online

. (page 2 of 5)
Online LibraryMary M KingsburySocialism as an educative and social force on the East Side → online text (page 2 of 5)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

side socialists. The introduction of this idea and the insist-
ance upon it would be a great step in advance.

In conclusion then we must admit that the defects of the
socialistic movement in New York are glaring; that too
often it is accompanied by conceit, egoism, and also, what
the limits of this paper forbid enlarging upon, by a disre-
gard for the institution of the family and by a none too
patriotic attitude toward the state. In other words, the
idea of responsibility is deeply lacking. On the other
hand, the socialistic propaganda has served to increase
general information; to arouse a consciousness of present
conditions ; to create a bond between different generations
of the same family; to give a kind of religion and ideal
to those who would otherwise be without any deep phil-
osophy of life; to render people thoughtful rather than
pleasure seeking; and to form a basis for further social-


The responsibility of the buyer of goods toward the man
or woman making or selling these goods is today acloiowl-
edged by the student of Economics. The consumer is in
fact the one who sets the standard of production and dis-
tribution. That this standard shall be one whereby the
producer can earn a living wage under wholesome conditions
is the aim of the Consumers' Leagues which are being
formed in several cities in this country. Delegates from the
Leagues of New York, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Boston,
Chicago and Syracuse met in conference in New York, at
the Calvary Parish House, on May 16 and 17. A report
from each league was given. In New York, Brooklyn and
Philadelphia a "white list" has been issued giving the
names of the retail dry goods shops maintaining good con-
ditions for their employees. In Boston no "white list " has
been attempted. The aim of the League has been, rather,
to devise some method to improve conditions of manufac-
turing "ready-made" clothing, — ^to prevent, or lessen the
evils of low wages, long hours and unhealthy surroundings
in sweat-shop and factory. In Chicago and Syracuse the
Leagues are not yet actively working, although the interest
is keen.

The result of the New York Conference was a general
desire to draw together if possible to form a National
League with the aim of adopting a Consumers' Label which
would guarantee the goods so labeled to be made under just
and wholesome conditions.

The desire to work with the Trades Unions and in no
sense to injure the use of the Trade Union Label was ex-
pressed by all. A representative Trade Unionist present
said that he thought the Trade Union Label could work up
from the cheaper line of goods and the Consumers' Label


work down from the more expensive, and tlius these labels
could supplement and assist each other.

A pviblic meeting on Tuesday Evening, May 18, brought
together a large audience. Mrs. Nathan, President of the
N. Y. League, presided. Mrs. Florence Kelley, Prof. Selig-
man and Col. Waring addressed the meeting, and the presi-
dents of the Philadelphia, Boston and Syracuse leagues
spoke briefly.


The following have appeared in the Publications of the Union.
They may be had from the Secretary at ten cents each.

(April, 1895, to May, 1896).

Series A.

The Church oe the Wori,!).

Rev. R. A. Holland, S. T. D.
The Church's Duty in Relation

TO THE Sacredness of Property.

Rev. Prof. W. Cunningham, D. D.

Social Problems and the Church.

Rt. Rev. If. D. Huntington, S. T. D.
Out of Print.

The Incarnation, a Revelation
OF Human Duties.

Rt. Rev. B. F. Westcott, D. D.

Rights and Duties.

Extracts from Joseph Mazzini.

What the Church Social Union

The Social Teaching of the Ear-
ly Fathers. (Two Views.)

Revs. C. Li. Marson and W. F. Cobb.

The Church's Opportunity in the
City To-day.

Rev. W. S. Rainsford, D. D.
Present Aspect of the Church
Social Union.

Rt. Rev. F. D. Huntington.

Socialism and Spiritual Progress.
Miss Vida D. Scudder.

The Spirit and Work of the
Early Christian Socialists.

Rev. C. H. Brent.

The Economics of Improved

Prof. E. R. L. Gould.

Series B*

The Railroad Strike of 1894.

Prof. W. J. Ashley, M. A.

An Interpretation of the Social
Movements of our Time.

Prof. Henry C. Adams, Ph. D.

Arbitration and Conciliation.

Rev. W. D. P. Bliss.

Political Economy and Practical
Rev. Prof. W. Cunningham, D. D.


Rev. Prof. W. Cunningham, D. D.

A Plan of Work.

The Slums of Great Cities.

Rev. P. W. Sprague

Industrial Arbitration and Con-

Mrs. Charles Russell lyowell.

Legality and Propriety of Labor
Organizations. Suggestions by
the Attorney General of the United
States in Piatt v. P. & R. R. R,

American Trade Unions.

Rev. W. D. P. Bliss.

Report of the Executive Com-
mittee OF the Church Social

The Christian Law.

Rt. Rev. B. F. Westcott, D. D.

(May 1896 to

No. 25, Poverty and its Causes,

Rev. W. D. P. Bliss.
No. 26. Christian Sociai,ism.

Rev. F. D. Maurice.
No. 27. What One Parish is Doing
FOR SociAi, Reform.

Rev. J. P. Peters, D. D.
No. 28. Settlements and the
Church's Duty.

Ellen Gates Starr.

No. 29. Report on the Questions

Drawn up by Present Residents

in our Coli^ege Setti^ements.

JSTo. 30. Christian Socialism and

THE Social Union.

Rev. George Hodges, D. D.
No. 31. The Work of the Prospect


Rev. Robert E. Ely.

May 1S97.)

No. 32. Is There a Social Ques-
tion — FOR America ?

Rev. Henry S. Nash, D. D.

The Economics of Devo-

No. 33.


Rev. Charles Ferguson.

No. 34. The Modification of
Christianity by its Contact

Prof. E. P. Gould.

No. 35. Social Righteousness AND
THE Power of the Church to
Proclaim It.

Mr. Rathbone Gardner.

No. 36. The Saturday Half-Holi-

Rev. James Yeames.


(May 1897

No. 37. A Lawyer's View of the
Function of the Church.

Robert H. Gardiner.

No. 38. The Rights of Capital
AND Labor and Industrial Con-
ciliation. Mrs. C. R. Lowell.

No. 39. The Republic of Letters.
Robert A. Wood.

No. 40. The Relations Between
THE Church and the Associated
Charities. Robert Treat Paine.

No. 41. Two Notable Reports of
THE Lambeth Conference.


to Date.)

No. 42. Recent English Legisla-
tion and Some Recent Decis-
ions OF American Courts on
THE Liability of Employers.

No. 43. Suggestions for Work.

No. 44, The Social Possibilities
OF A Country Town.

Laura E. Richards.
No. 45. Prison Reform in Massa-
chusetts. Rev. Frederick B.Allen
No. 46. Consumers' Leagues.

Mrs. Charles Russell Lowell.

These Publications are issued with the general approval of the
Executive Committee ; but no responsibility is assumed for the par-
ticular views of individual writers. It is intended to provide for the
expression of divergent opinions.
DicK.2o*'All letters should be addressed to


I Joy Street, Boston, Mass.





Issued Monthly*
No,5a i JUNE t5, t898. Is.NoL^^SgToe

Entered at the Post Office, at Boston, Mass., as Second Class Matter.




Office of thif S<?cretaiyf


'i Jcy 5>treet.
' ' '189I8,





Objects. I, To claim for the Christian Law the ultimate
authority to rule social practice. 2. To study in common how to
apply the moral truths and principles of Christianity to the social
and economic difficulties of the present time. 3. To present
Christ in practical life as the living Master and King, the enemy
of wrong and selfishness, the Power of righteousness and love.

Membership. Any Communicant of the Episcopal Church
in the United States, or of any Church in communion with it, may
become a member, and any other person an associate member, on
payment to the Treasurer of one dollar.

Publications. Papers on various aspects of the social ques-
tion are issued monthly. No responsibility is assumed by the
Union for the particular views of individual writers. It is in-
tended to provide for the expression of different opinions. Sub-
scriptions to the publications, one dollar per annum. Single
copies, ten cents each. Special rate to members and associate
members : annual dues and subscription to the publications, both
at one time, strictly in advance, one dollar. The first and second
series of publications may now be had complete, except one num-
ber of the first series which is oift of print, for one dollar each.

Sample Copies. The Secretary will be glad to send free to
any Address sample copies of the Constitution or of any of the
publications which members may be able to use to advantage in
securing new members or subscribers, or in arousing interest in
the work of the Union.

Members are asked to secure new members or subscribers
to the publications.

Address all letters and .maj^fe a11 remit;tances p^iyable to The
Christian Social Ur>pou.,i tjioCesaH-
Mass. '

Hojuse, ,1^ Joy ,> Stieet; < Boston,

SS-b^". Ifi


In January and Februaiy, 1898, the Executive Committee
wrote to the Secretary of each Diocese in the United States
and to a large number of rehgious neivspapers in the
United States and Canada, asking them to aid in making a
public and emphatic recognition of the right and duty of
the Church to lead consumers to the fulfilment of their
obligations to producers, by publishing a certificate of the
conditions under which the printing of the Diocesan Journal
or of the newspaper was done. The Committee, without
mtending to propose any definite standard, and knowing
that in some places a lower standard than in others is all
that can reasonably be required, suggested as a model the
Resolve of the Legislature of Massachusetts providmg that
the contract for State printmg be based on a working day of
nine hours, and equal pay for equal work performed by men
and women, at such rates as the State Committee on the
matter should decide to be equitable between employer and
employed. In No. 44 of our Publications, the Committee
asked from the members of the Union their opinions as to the
plan and their help in promoting it. We regret to say that
the experiment has not been altogether successful. So far
as it has failed, the Committee feel that the failure has
shown the need of th& effort, and we therefore ask your
personal and active help.

Possibly the seeming novelty of the proposition and the
lack of general knowledge of what the Christian Social
Union is have been greater obstacles than we expected. It
did not seem to us necessary to go into much explanation

about the Union, for it is not ambitious. It has no desire
to perpetuate or aggrandize itself, and it looks only to the
day when the Church shall officially take over the work the
Union is trying to do. Its principles are stated on the
second page of the cover of this pamphlet, and we are sure
that every earnest Christian will at once recognize their
soundness and their entire harmony with the teaching of the

And the novelty of the proposition is only seeming. Prob-
ably the greater number of the men who voted against this
suggestion in the Diocesan Conventions have always been
careful to follow its principle in their own affairs. We are
sure that there are very few of them who would not go fur-
ther and even gladly suffer personal loss, if it were needed,
to ensure the fair and just treatment of those whom they em-
ploy. It was only that they did not recognize that what
they have always seen to be their own duty as individual
members of the Church must also be the duty of the Church
in its official capacity. What they recognize they them-
selves must do because it is righteous and just, must be
done by the Divinely commissioned Herald of righteousness
and justice. So there is nothing radical or startling in the
suggestion, and we believe it to be a practicable and easy
method for the Church to establish an important principle
and to make clear its claim to authority over practical
matters ; and therefore we attempt to present in detail some
answers to the objections that have been made to it.

So far as we have have had reports, the proposition has
failed in Diocesan Conventions for the following reasons: —

1. Indifference.

2. The fear of making mistakes.

3. The theory that the Church stands and has always
stood for right and fair dealing, and does not need to make
any declaration of its position.

4. The feeling that it was unnecessary, the printing of

the Cliiirch being already done in humane and just shops.

5. The idea that it is the duty of the Church to denounce
abuses rather than to commend righteousness.

6. The fear that this was only a first step toward com-
mitting the Church and its members to full responsibility
for the conditions of all labor employed by it or them ; for
example, as was said in one Diocese, of makers of clothes, in
another of butchers and bakers. Another attempted
reductio ad absurdum was the suggestion that we might as
well ask that each copy of the Bible should bear a certifi-
cate that it was printed under fair conditions.

7. The fear that the suggestion was made in the interest
of Trade Unionism.

We can not argue here with those who are indifferent as
to the duty of the Church toward social and industrial prob-
lems. We believe that the Church is God's Agent, com-
missioned to bring all men to Him by setting up in the sight
of all the earth His Kingdom of Peace and Righteousness
and Love, and that the Gospel of Christ and the teaching of
all the prophets and apostles from Moses down to the last
Lambeth Conference have the closest and most direct and
practical bearing on those problems, pressing them upon
the Church and its members for immediate, practical and
personal solution. If this be so, the Church must not be de-
terred from its duty by the fear of mistake, nor may it rest
content with the mere self-consciousness that it stands for
fair dealing. It is bound to the most active and anxious
care that its members, clerical and lay, shall give their best
attention to social questions in order that the position of the
Church shall be right and shall be so proclaimed to every
human being that every man may recognize its Divine
Commission. By its fruits men shall know the Church. It
must set itself on a hill so that its light cannot be hid. It
is the light of the world, and it must not put that light
under a bushel, but must let it so shine before men that


they may see its good works and glorify our Father wMcli
is in lieaven.

The Church, if she were to put forward the fear of making
mistakes would in reality accuse herself of cowardice or
sloth. God has given her this work to do, and she must do it,
earnestly, faithfully, prayerfully. If the Church had been
afraid of making mistakes, Christianity would never have
survived Our Lord's Ascension.

It is said that the average Churchman is not equipped
for dealing with intricate questions of economics. But the
answer is plain that he ought to be, and that if the ques-
tions are too intricate for his intelligence the Church must
demand the help of the best minds in her fold.

It is largely, though perhaps more or less unconsciously,
through the influence of the Church that our Schools and
Colleges are studying economics so diligently and teaching,
of late years especially, the duty of each man to his fellow in
their industrial relations. The time is ripe for the Church
openly to assume the leadership. The economics which are
well taught in school or college can be better taught in the
Theological School, for the ground of all interest in social
questions is found in the Incarnation and the Unity of the
Church. As for practical knowledge of business matters, the
Church has it at her command. Multitudes of able and ex-
perienced business men will place their knowledge at her
disposal, as soon as the Church convinces them that she is
bound to deal with practical and vital questions. They
have not volunteered, because the Church has made no call.

Then, too, the Church must bring all men to the King-
dom, but multitudes of men are indifferent to the Church
because they see no evidence that it stands for right and
fair dealing, and they do not believe that it does so in any
practical degree.

Otlier multitudes have strayed away from the one fold
because the Church by its indifference or by its self-content

has obscured the Divine purpose of one definite, visible
Kingdom of Righteousness, and they think the Divine pur-
pose of unity can be as well served by rival and conflicting
sects. The Church must seek after these men in the high-
ways and hedges, and patiently and lovingly compel them
to come into the fold where God means that all wrongs
shall be righted by all men being made one Body in Christ.

As to the fourth and fifth reasons, if it be true, which we
doubt, that the shops which do the printing of the Church
are always humane and just, surely the Church ought not to
hesitate to encourage them and others in well doing by pub-
lic commendation. Men have lost their fear of the Church,
they no longer stand in awe of its denunciations; but no
business man can afford to disregard public opinion. If the
public demand a certain article or require that certain con-
ditions shall be observed in the shops, the shopkeepers must
comply, or the public will go to their competitors. The
Church must lead that public opinion by Christ'^ law of
Love, and not by denunciation.

As to the objection that this is but a first step, little need
be said. Of course it is only a first step. If it is right, as
we believe it is, the Church must take it, aud take every
succeeding step till it reaches the position Christ marked
out for it. And so as to Trade Unionism. If this step is
right, the Church must take it whether it helps or hurts
Trade Unions. But in fact the suggestion made by the
Committee was carefully guarded against any dealing with
the question of Trade Unionism. We asked only that the
conditions should be stated publicly, and that they be " at
least as favorable to the employees as those observed by the
first class firms in the City," not anywhere in the country,
but where the printing is done. The Church can hardly
refuse to require the observance of conditions so fair and
reasonable that they have been adopted as the standard by
first class firms. If the demands of the Trade Unions are

reasonable and fair tlie Churcli must accede to them, while
if and so far as they are unjust and unreasonable it is the
duty of the Church to oppose them, and the Christian Social
Union will not hesitate to urge such opposition. In fact,
one of its earliest, as one of its best, publications was the
impartial statement of the problems raised by the demands
of the Trade Unions in the Railroad Strike of 1894 (Series
B, No. 1).

As regards the religious press, other considerations also
apply. The publisher of a religious paper is seeking to ad-
vance beliefs or opinions which he thinks important, or to
make money by supplying the demand for religious news.
So far as he seeks only to benefit the world by establishing
beliefs which will lead it to a fuller righteousness, his read-
ers may fairly insist that he must not neglect a matter of
the law certainly as weighty as those he advocates. So far
as he is seeking only profit for himself, his customers, that is
those who buy his paper, are entitled to demand of him an
article produced under fair and just conditions, and thej^
may rightfully declare that they will buy only those papers
which are produced under such conditions. They can with
equal propriety demand that neither their papers nor their
clothes shall bear the taint of unfair conditions. If a paper's
conditions are fair, it will not hesitate to let it be known, if
its subscribers ask for the information. If unfair, it will soon
realize that its interests compel it to comply with the pub-
lic desire for righteousness.

In this connection the Committee desire to admit that
their suggestion that the certificate as to the conditions
under which the paper is printed should be kept standing
in each issue was not, perhaps, practicable. A certain
ainount of repetition is obviously desirable to attract atten-
tion, and to ensure that a paper which has a fair standard
has continued to observe it. Tlie statement of the duration
of the contract made for printing, with an occasional repe-

tition of the certificate, especially when a new contract is
made, would be all that we should reasonably ask.

The historic Creeds state the doctrines from which flow
the right and duty of the Church as to the practical settle-
ment of social questions. The Fatherhood of God, the
equality and brotherhood of all men in and through Christ,
the presence of the Holy Spirit in the one, definite, historic
Church compel that Church to take up these matters, and
to try continually to bring into concrete and detailed form
the message given it to proclaim. Nothing is too great,
nothing too small, to be outside the function of the Church
which is the Kingdom of God.

So far as this matter of printing is concerned, it is be-
lieved that the duty of the Church and the individual
Christian is stated, though imperfectly, in the following
propositions :

1. The consumer is bound to see that the persons em-
ployed in producing the articles he consumes receive such
wages and work only such hours and under such sanitary
conditions as shall enable them to live in health, decency
and comfort, to give their children suitable religious and
secular education and to make some provision for old age
and sickness.

2. The purchaser must pay a fair price, that is, one which
shall give the seller a fair and reasonable profit and shall
also enable him to fulfil his obligations as an employer.

3. Purchasers ought to investigate the conditions of the
production and distribution of the goods they buy and to
encourage fairness and humanity by buying only of sellers
who fulfil their obligations as employers.

4. The Church, whether National, Diocesan or Parochial,
must recognize that it is under the obligations of the indi-
vidual consumer and employer.

We should be glad to have your opinion as to these


propositions and any suggestions you can make as to tlieir

The Committee believe that this matter of printing is a
good place to begin at. Its justice is manifest, so that it
need not alarm the conservative impulse which hesitates to
do anything, lest a mistake be made. It is public, for along
with every official utterance of the Church will go the pub-
lic declaration and proof that the Church accepts to their
full extent the teachings of its Master. Sermons and re-
ligious editorials will be seen to be full of real and vital
meaning. The compositor who sets up the type of the Ser-
mon on the Mount and the man who reads it will be moved to
accept the Church, for they will see that the Church which
publishes the Bible intends to be guided by it in practical

It is a method which can be universally adopted, for the
whole Church and every part of the Church has official
printing. The National or Diocesan Church does not em-
ploy garment makers or bakers or carpenters, but it does
employ printers, and by its anxious care of their interests,
coupled with a due regard for the fair profit of the master
printer, it can teach to all its members the law that they
must deal righteously with all who serve them in any way.

It is a thing which can be undertaken easily and quickly,
for most of the printing in question is already fairly done,
and nothing but the public statement of that fact is needed.

Perhaps it is well to add that the plan proposed is a di-
rect encouragement to the most desirable kind of compe-
tition. The shop which can offer the best conditions to its
labor is that whose business management is most intelligent
and thrifty, and whose labor is most industrious and efficient.
Church printing is often given to a particular firm because one
or more of its members are Churchmen. We propose that
the Church shall say to them that they must be more than
merely Churchmen for revenue only, and tliat they must


take into their every day business the principles the Church
is commissioned to establish. And we submit that if the
Church gives its patronage to the shops where the condi-
tions of labor are the fairest, it will be a deserved reward to

2 4 5

Online LibraryMary M KingsburySocialism as an educative and social force on the East Side → online text (page 2 of 5)