graduate study in economics to take Mathematics
111-112, Mathematics 211-212, Economics 351,
and Economics 400. Regardless of plans upon
graduation, all students will find more options
open to them if they are familiar with the use of
computers in the manipulation of economic
information. We urge economics majors to take
a course or courses on the use of computers, in
addition to the departmental courses that
require computer work.
The department offers a minor in economics,
which a student can complete by taking Economics
103, 104; two courses from among Economics
241, 242, 243, 245, and 299, and two courses
from among those numbered 301 or above.
Additionally, a student minoring in economics
must demonstrate the same achievement in
mathematics as required of majors, and must
achieve a grade point average of 2.0 or higher in
courses counted toward the minor.
Economics 103, 104 are prerequisites for all
upper-level courses in the department except
Geography 310. Under special circumstances, a
student may petition the instructor of a course
for a waiver of course prerequisites.
The departmental brochure, Economics
Department Handbook, contains additional
information about the department and about
the opportunities which the study of economics
provides. Copies are available in the department
office, Glatfelter 111, and from department
Honors, internships. Special Programs
The Department of Economics values intensive
and independent work by its students, as well as
their interaction with peers and faculty
members on collaborative economics projects.
To encourage and recognize high quality work,
the department offers departmental honors to
students who (1) satisfactorily complete one
course from among Economics 400, 401, 402,
and 403; (2) earn an acceptable overall and
departmental grade point average; (3) complete
a senior project either in the seminar or via an
independent study (Economics 460) that may
build upon the 400-level course, and is deemed
of high quality by the project supervisor; and
(5) present the project to the faculty of the
department, who will make the final decision on
the granting of the honors degree. Students
ineligible for or uninterested in formal
departmental honors are encouraged
nonetheless to pursue individual projects.
Internships involving the application of
economics are available to qualified students
who provide an acceptable application at least
one month prior to the beginning of the
internship. Persons desiring more information
should contact Dr. Railing. Gettysburg College
also recognizes the Washington Economic
Policy Semester at American University, a
program that involves both classroom study and
an internship in Washington, D.C. (For more
information, see Washington Semester in this
catalog.) Interested students should contact Dr.
Railing in the spring semester of their sophomore
year. Several foreign study programs are
especially interesting for economics students;
information is available from the department
and from the international student coordinator.
A student may satisfy the College distribution
requirement in social sciences by successfully
completing Economics 103, 104, or an upper-
level economics course and may satisfy the non-
Western Culture requirement with Economics
326, 337, or 338.
103, 104 Principles of Microeconomics, Principles
of Macroeconomics Courses provide general
understanding of economic systems and economic
analysis, with emphasis on the operation of the
U.S. economy. Topics in 103 include the price
system, theory of consumer behavior, theory of
production, theory of the firm, income
distribution, welfare economics, and the micro
aspects of international trade. Topics in 104
include national income accounting, employment,
inflafion, monetary and fiscal policies, aggregate
demand and supply analysis, economic growth,
the monetary aspect of international economics,
and comparative economic systems.
241 introductory Economic and Business
Statistics Topics include nomenclatiue of
descriptive statistics; probabilities using the
normal, binomial, and Poisson distributions;
Chi-square; sampling; estimation of parameters;
hypothesis testing; linear regression; and
correlation. Prerequisites: Economics 103,104,
and one of the following: Mathematics 105-106,
11 1, or the equivalent or permission of the
economics department. A student may not
receive credit for both tliis course and Matliematics
107, Psychology 205, or Sociology 303.
Ms. Fender, Ms. Fletcher, Mr. Niiro
242 Intermediate Economic and Business
Statistics Advanced statistical theory and the use
of computers in data analysis. Topics include
some applications of mathematics to economics,
hypothesis testing and model specification,
multiple regression and the determination of
model acceptability. Prneciuisite: Economics 241.
243 Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory
Examination of classical, neoclassical,
Ke)Tiesian, monetarist new classical, and post-
Ke\Tiesian economics, with particular focus on
various theories and policies that relate to the
determination of national (aggregate) income
and price level, the determination and role of
interest rates, and the part played by monetary
and fiscal authorities in stabilizing the economy.
Offered both semesters. Prerequisites: Economics
103,104 and Mathematics 105-106 or 111 or its
equivalent, or permission of instructor.
Mr. Forstater, Mr.Gondwe
245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory Course
uses the methodological tools of economics to
examine consumer and producer behavior and
economic behavior, both individual and
collective, imder different input and output
market structures. Also analyzes implications of
such behavior for general equilibrium and
economic welfare. Prerequisites: Economics 103,
104 and Mathematics 105-106 or 111, or the
equivalent, or permission of instructor.
Ms. Fender, Ms. Fletche)-
299 History of Economic Thought and Analysis
Study of the development of economic ideas
and policies in relation to the evolution of
economics as a discipline from its roots in
philosophical discourse to its modern form.
Schools of economic thought from Physiocrats
to neoclassical economics are examined.
Emphasis is placed on the ideas of major
contribtuors to economic thought from Plato to
Keynes. Prerequisites: Economics 103-104.
Recommended: Economics 243, 245.
300 Personal Finance Course considers how
individuals might react to financial constraints
in order to provide for their own material
seciuity, then develops insight into the important
social issues of a mixed economy. Topics include
the meaning of financial security, both
individually and collectively, the development of
financial goals and the use of personal budgets
to achieve goals, the proper use of credit, the
nature and use of insurance for protection and
saving, housing, income earning assets, and
estate planning. Current social issues are also
considered. Prerequisites: ¬•.conom\cs 103, 104.
30 1 Labor Economics Theoretical and empirical
study of the functioning of labor markets, with
emphasis on wage and employment
determination. Topics include time allocation,
wage differences, discrimination, investment in
education, mobilit)' and migration, impact of
legislation, unions and labor relations, and
imperfect markets. Prerequisites: Economics 103,
104, and 245. Recommended: Economics 241.
302 Gender Issues in Economics Application of
microeconomic theory to gender issues in our
economy. Course explores demographic issues
such as fertilit)' and divorce, considers the effect
of the tax structure and other public policies on
gender differences in labor force participation
over time, and examines economic paradigms
for explaining gender discrimination in our
society. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104.
Recommended: Economics 245.
303 Money and Banking Course examines role
of money, credit, and financial institutions in
the determination of price and income levels.
Coverage includes the commercial banking
system, the Federal Reserve System, monetary
theory, and the art of monetary policy.
Emphasis is placed upon evaluation of current
theory and practice in the American economy
in the context of increased internationalization
of financial activity. Prerequisites: Economics 103,
104. Recommended: Economics 243.
Mr Gem mi II
305 Public Finance Introduciton to principles,
techniques, and effects of government
obtaining and spending funds and managing
government debt. Nature, growth, and amount
of expenditures of all levels of government in
the U.S. are considered, along with numerous
types of taxes employed by various levels of
government to finance their activities. Domestic
and international implications of government
debt are also considered. Prerequisites:
324 Comparative Economic Systems
Comparative analysis of free enterprise
economics, centrally planned economies, and
mixed economies. Primary attention is given to
the economic aspects and institutions of these
economic systems, but political, philosophical,
and historical aspects are also considered.
Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104.
325-332 Regional Economic History, Growth, and
Development Seminars Intensive examinaiton of
one region, using the framework of economic
analysis and political economy to consider
economic history, growth, and development.
Economic theory pro\ides the primary paradigm
within which these regions are studied, but
consideration is also given to historical events
that conditioned the economic outcomes. Each
course reviews the pertinent theory and focuses
on application of that theory to specific historical
events. Among the regions to be studied, one in
each course, are Africa, the Caribbean, Japan,
Russia and Canada/U.S. Prerequisites: Economics
Ms.Fendei; Mr. Forstater, Mr Gondwe, Mr. Niiro
336 International Economics Introduction to
the history and development of international
commerce and its relation to the rise of the
capitalist system. Fundamentals of international
trade and finance are also elaborated, and these
tools are applied to such issues as international
business cycles, global competition and technical
change, balance of payments and trade deficits,
and the international debt crisis. Prerequisites:
Economics 103 and 104.
Mr. Forstater, Ms. Stilbvaggon
337 Introduction to Political Economy and the
African Diaspora Examination of the origins and
development of capitalism and the contribution
of Third World peoples and minorities in the
U.S. to the process and continued growth of
capitalist development. Primary focus is on the
conuibutions of Africa and people of African
descent in America. Prerequisites: Economics 103,
104. Recommended: Economics 243, 245.
338 Economic Development Examination of
economic and noneconomic factors accounting
for economic growth and development in less
developed areas of the world. Various theories
of economic growth and development are anal^-zed
and major policy issues discussed. Primary focus
is on the study of the development experience in
the Third World and the roles of international
trade, aid, multinational corporations, as well as
the World Bank and the International Monetary
Fund, in the formation and application of Third
World strategies for economic development.
Preiequisites: Economics 103, 104. Satisfies
distribution requirement in non-Western culture.
Mr Gondwe, Ms. Stillwaggon
341 Environmental Economics Investigation of
the relationship between the economy and the
en\ironment, leading to a derix^tion of biophysical
conditions for a sustainable economy. Mainstream
theories and policies, including those based on
externalities and social costs, property rights,
cost-benefit analysis, and discounting, are
studied in the light of these conditions. Problems
and prospects of both market controls and
government regulation are considered. Special
topics include population, appropriate technology,
accounting for pollution and resource depletion
in GDP statistics, and sustainable development.
Prerequisites: Economics 1 03, 1 04, and either
Economics 245 or Environmental Studies 212.
342 Industrial Organization and Public Policy
Application of microeconomic theory to the
structure of industry. Course considers
traditional, as well as recent and interdisciplinary
theories of firm and industry behavior, with
particular focus on oligopoly and game theory.
Course also reviews the economic history of U.S.
antitrust and regulatory policies and examines
the effect of greater global interdependence.
Students evaluate alternative policies for static
economic efficiency, technological change, and
equit)'. Prerequisite: Economics 245 or permission
351 Application of Mathematics to Economics
and Business Introduction to the application of
calculus and matrix algebra to economics and
business. Numerous illustrations of mathematically
formulated economic models are used to
integrate mathematical methods with economic
and business analysis. Prerequisites: Economics
242, 243, 245, and Mathematics 111 or 105-106,
or Mathematics 109 and permission of instructor.
400 Seminar: Topics in Econometrics Study of the
application of mathematical economic theory
and statistical procedures to economic data.
Coverage includes die development of appropriate
techniques for measuring economic relationships
specified by economic models and testing of
economic theorems. Prerequisites: Economics
242, 243, 245, 299, and 351, plus one other 300-
401 Seminar: Advanced Topics in History of
Economic Thought and Alternative Paradigms of
Economic Analysis Investigation of different
perspectives in economics. Close readings of
classic primary texts are used to examine issues
in the history of economics and alternative
approaches to vmderstanding the contemporary
economy. Topics include competition, endogenous
growth, technical change, effective demand,
money and credit, and economic policy.
Prerequisite: Economics 241, 243, 245, 299, plus
two 300-level courses.
402 Seminar: Advanced Topics in Theoretical and
Applied Macro- and Monetary Economics
Examination of advanced topics in
macroeconomics and monetary theory and
applications. Particular focus rotates, and
includes such topics as the new neoclassical
theory, rational expectations and post-Ke)'nesian
theory, monetary issues in internadonal trade
and economic development, econometric studies
of money, regulation, and banking safety.
Prerequisites: Economics 241,243, 245, 299, plus
two 300-level courses. Recommended: 303 as one
of the two 300-level courses.
403 Seminar: Advanced Topics in Theoretical and
Applied Microeconomics Examination of special
topics in adxanced microeconomic theory and
applications. Particular focus varies, and includes
such topics as new household economics,
industrial organization and public policy, game
theory, information costs-structure-behavior,
production and cost functions, welfare economics,
and micro aspects of international trade.
Prerequisites: Economics 241, 243, 245, 299, plus
two 300-level courses.
460 Individualized Study Topics of an advanced
nature for well qualified students. Individual
reading and research, under the supervision of
a faculty member. A student wishing to pursue
independent study must present a proposal at
least one month before the end of the semester
preceding die semester in which the independent
study is to be undertaken. Prerequisites:
Permission of supervising faculty member and
department chairperson. Offered both semesters.
Geography 3 1 Physical and Human Geography
Studies of human activit)' in its locational
context. Topics include basic place name
geography; weather and climate; population
trends and characteristics; health and human
development; culture and language; technolog)'
and economic development; human ecolog)',
and environmental problems.
Professor Brough (Chairperson)
Associate Professor Hofman
Director of Field Experiences and Adjunct Professor Miller
Adjunct Professors Curtis and McLaren
The purposes of the teacher education programs
are to give students a thorough background in
educational philosophy and theoretical concepts
of insU'uction, and to provide an opportunity for
student teaching and other field experiences.
Other departments work cooperatively with the
education deparuiient in the preparation of
teachers in secondary education, elementary
education, music education, and health and
physical education. All education programs in
secondary school subjects, elementary education,
mu.sic education, and health and exercise
sciences are competency based and have received
accreditation from the Pennsylvania Department
of Education. The liberal arts are central to the
College's teacher education programs.
Requirements and Recommendations
Students planning to teach must complete a
major in an academic department of their
choice and fulfill all the requirements for the
bachelor of arts degree or the bachelor of
science degree. Upon completing a program in
teacher education, students are eligible for a
Pennsylvania Certificate, Instructional I,
enabling them to teach in the public schools of
the Commonwealth and other states with similar
requirements. Students who pursue teacher
certification are required to demonstrate
competence in oral and written communication
skills and computer literacy prior to certification.
A minimum of forty hours of observation and
participation in schools is required during the
sophomore and junior years prior to acceptance
into the Education Semester. Students who are
seeking an histructional I Certificate must have
successfully completed the Praxis Series of the
National Teachers' Exams (NTE) in the core
battery (general knowledge, communication
skills, and professional knowledge) , and specialty
area (elementary education or the subject area
for which candidates are seeking certification) .
Students interested in preparing to teach
academic subjects in the secondary schools must
complete one of the following approved
programs for secondary certification: biology,
chemistry, physics, general science, mathematics,
English, German, Latin, French, Spanish,
comprehensive social studies, health and
exercise sciences (K-12), or music (K-12). Early
planning beginning in the first year is essential
for all of these programs. For secondary
education, the Education Semester consists of
Education 303, 304 and 476 (Student Teaching,
worth 2 courses) . Only these courses may be
taken during the Secondary Education Semester.
The elementary education program is distinctive
in giving students the opportunit)' to
concentrate on liberal arts studies and complete
an academic major, thus qualifying for the
bachelor of arts degree. Students interested in
this program should consult with the education
department no later than the fall semester of the
first year. For elementary education, the
Education Semester consists of Education 334,
306 or pre-arranged independent study, and 476
(Student teaching, worth 2 courses) . Education
334 includes an intensive school-based reading
internship. Only these courses may be taken
during the Elementary Education Semester.
Students, in consultation with their major
department, will select either the fall or spring
semester of the senior year as the Education
Semester. A Ninth Semester Option offers the
Education Semester the fall semester following
graduation. This option, which includes only the
Education Semester, is provided at cost to these
recent Gettysburg College graduates who have
been accepted into the program. (Cost for 1997:
$2,000, plus room, board, and certification fees.)
Student teaching experiences are completed at a
school district in proximit)' to the College, or tiie
student may elect to apply to student teach
abroad, in an urban setting, or in other
The admission of a student to the Education
Semester depends upon the student's academic
achievement, demonstrated competence in
communication skills, and a recommendation
from the major department. Guidelines for
evaluating a student's academic achievement are
a minimum accumulative grade point average of
2.5 and a grade point average of 2.66 in the
major. The successful applicant must have
earned a C grade or higher in all education
courses. The student is also evaluated on such
professional traits as responsibilit)', integrity,
enthusiasm, and timeliness. Applications for the
Education Semester may be obtained in the
Department of Education office and must be
completed and submitted for approval by the
Teacher Education Committee by October 15 of
the academic year prior to student teaching.
Students interested in teaching in states other
tiian Pennsylvania will find that a number of
states certify teachers who have completed
baccalaureate programs in education at colleges
approved by its own state department of
education. Numerous states require specific
scores on portions of the National Teacher
Exams (NTE) . See the department for details.
A student seeking teacher certification may also
choose to minor in education. The minor in
secondary education consists of six courses:
Education 201, 209, 303, 304, and 476 (wortii
two courses) . A minor in elementary education
consists of six courses. Education 201, 209, and
476 are required for the minor. The student
then designates three of the following five
courses to complete die minor: Education 180,
306, 331, 370, or 334. Completion of all eight
courses is required for teacher certification in
elementary education. A student who elects to
student teach during the Ninth Semester Option
is not eligible for a minor in education, but will
have a concentration in education.
1 80 Methods and Concepts of Mathematics
Instruction C.ourse includes teaching mathematics
based on recent research efforts that focus on
such topics as early number, geometry, rational
number, multiplication and division concepts;
development of estimation strategies and
processes; influence of gender/minority-related
variables on mathematics performance; impact
of calculators and computers; and children's
development of mathematics concepts. Spring
semester only. Prerequisite: Education 201, 209,
or permission of instructor.
20 1 Educational Psychology Study of psychological
principles and theories of development, cognition
and learning, motivation, classroom manageinent,
and assessment related to pupil evaluation.
Repeated spring semester. Prerequisite:
209 Social Foundations of Education Study of
professional aspects of teaching, historical and
philosophical development of American
education, and the relationship of schools to
society. Current issues affecting schools, such as
organizadon, reform, and national legislation,
are examined. Repeated spring semester.
303 Educational Purposes, Methods and
Educational Media: Secondary Emphasis is placed
on methods and techniques of the teaching-
learning process. Course includes an examination
of content, foundations for approaches other
than didactic, interdisciplinary connections,
reading in the content areas, development of
lesson plans and a major unit of study, logisdcs
of classroom management, needs of special
students in secondary schools, and uses of
evaluadon. Prerequisites: Education 201, 209, and
acceptance into the Education Semester.
Recommended: the subject methods course.
Repeated spring semester.
304 Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of
Secondary Subject Secondary subjects, including
biology, chemistry, physics, English, French,
Spanish, German, Ladn, mathematics, health
and physical education, and social studies. Course
is taught by a staff metiiber of the appropriate
academic department who has students in the
Education Semester. Prerequisites: Consent of
the major department and acceptance into the
Education Semester. Repeated spring semester.
306 Educational Purposes, Methods, and
Instructional Media in Social Studies, Art, and
Music Applicadon of principles of learning and
human development to teaching social studies
in the elementary school. Included is the