vocal, and chamber music.
108 Women in Music Study of women's
conUibution to music from the Middle Ages to
the present. Extensive listening assignments
109 Mozart: The Man and His Music Study of
Mozart's music, with a focus on his life, times,
and musical analysis. Extensive listening
\ 10 Survey of Jazz Study of America's
indigenous musical art form from early blues
and Dixieland through current trends. A "live"
jazz quartet is an integral part of style analysis.
Concert attendance and listening assignments
are necessary to attain an understanding of the
genesis and development of jazz.
141 Theory I Fundamentals of basic theory,
notation, and nomenclature; introduction to
writing skills; elementary analytic technique;
melodic analysis; correlated sight-singing (using
a moveable DO Kodaly-based system) and aural
Ms. Gratto, Mr Jones
142 Theory II Continuation of wiiting skills;
analysis and writing of chorales; correlated sight-
singing and aural perception skills; keyboard
Mr. Jones, Ms. Gratto
205 Choral Conducting Development of basic
conducting technique. Areas of study include
vocal problems and tonal development, diction,
rehearsal procedures, interpretation, and
suitable repertoire for school, church, and
community. Alternate years.
206 Instrumental Conducting Continued
development of conducting skills and score
analysis. Areas of study include interpretation,
musical styles, balance, intonation, rehearsal
procedures, and suitable repertoire for large
and small ensembles. Alternate years.
241 Theory Mi Study of the common practice
period; extensive written and analytic projects;
study of musical structure through small forms;
correlated sight-singing and aural perception
242 Theory IV Study of romanticism to the
present by means of analytic and written projects.
Correlated sight-singing, aural perception skills,
and keyboard harmony are included.
244 Introduction to Music Literature Study of
major genres, st)'le periods, and composers of
Western music. Extensive use of recorded
materials is included, with emphasis on the
development of aural recognition.
Mr Matsinko, Staff
303 Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint
Introduction to contrapimtal technique of the
sixteenth century through die study of plainsong
and early motets. Composition in the small
forms is a part of course. Offered on demand.
304 Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint
Introduction to tcontrapuntal st)'le of the
eighteenth century and an analysis of the
baroque forms, with attention to linear motion
and fundamental harmonic progression.
Composition in the various forms is required.
313 History of Medieval, Renaissance, and
Baroque Music Study of the major forms and
St) les of music and composers from the pre-
Christian era through the eighteenth century.
Extensive use of musical examples and
recordings is included.
314 Music in the Classic, Romantic, and
Contemporary Periods Study of principal st)'listic
tendencies from c. 1770 to the present. Extensive
listening to, and examination of, illustrative
materials is an essendal part of course.
320 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music
in the Elementary School Study and evaluation
of methods, materials, and techniques of
teaching music in the elementary grades.
Various approaches to guiding children to listen
to, understand, create, and perform music are
included. Classroom instrument competencies
are developed. Alternate years.
32 1 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music
in the Secondary School Study and evaluadon of
methods, materials, and techniques of teaching
music in secondary grades. A personal
philosophy of music education is developed, as
are competencies in selected classroom
instruments. Alternate years.
34 1 Theory V (Orchestration) Study of
capabilides and limitations of the standard wind,
string, and percussion instruments. Included is
score study, transposition, and emphasis on
applied orchestration projects for laboratory
performance and critique, .\lternate years.
342 Theory VI (Form and Analysis) Study of the
structiual organization of music. Included is the
analysis of the larger forms of composition
dra\vn from standard literature of the eighteenth
to twentieth centiunes. Alternate years.
474 Student Teaching Teaching in public schools
in cooperation with, and under the super\'ision
of, experienced teachers. Individual conferences
and seminars with the College super\isor and
supervising teacher are required. Offered
spring semester only. Thiee Course Units
Individualized Study Prerequisite: Approval of
department and directing facult)' member.
The department offers insuuction in voice,
piano, organ, guitar, and standard band and
orchestral instruments. The repertoire is
adapted to the student's abilit)'. One-quarter
course credit is given for one half-hour private
lesson per week, per semester. Some piano and
voice instruction may be in group classes.
Students majoring in music who are candidates
for the Bachelor of Arts degree are entided to
eight quarter-courses of private instruction, and
those who are candidates for the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Music Education are
entitled to 12 quarter-courses of private
instruction at no additional cost beyond the
The department also sponsors various music
organizations, including the College Choir,
Chapel Choir, Band, and Orchestra. All college
students are eligible to audition for any of these,
either at the beginning of the school year or at
other times by appointment.
121 Voice Private instruction in fundamentals of
voice production, with emphasis on breath
control, resonance, tone quality, diction,
pronunciation, and an appreciation of the best
works of the masters. Repeated spring semester.
Fee for one half-hour lesson per week per
122 Voice Class Study of vocal techniques using
class discussions and demonstrations. Course
has a practical workshop atmosphere: pracdcing
basic vocal producdon with emphasis on posture,
breath control, diction, and vowel formation.
Fee for class lessons per semester. ($460)
123 Piano Private instruction in the development
of die necessary techniques for facility in reading
and interpreting a musical score accurately at
the keyboard. Literature includes representative
compositions of various styles and periods.
Public performance is required of those majoring
in this area of concentration. Fee for one half-
hour lesson per week per semester. ($460)
124 Class Piano Emphasis on sight-reading,
ensemble pla)'ing, and harmonizing melodies
with various types of accompaniment, as well as
playing some standard piano literature. Fee for
class lessons per semester. ( ($460)
125 Organ Private instruction designed to
include literature of various periods, sight-
reading, hymn-playing, chant and anthem
accompaniment. Prerequisites: satisfactory
performance of all major and minor scales (two
octaves) and a Bach Invention. Fee for one half-
hour lesson per week per semester. ($460)
127 Band Instrument Instruction Private
instruction emphasizing fundamentals and
repertoire for the performance of woodwind,
brass, and percussion instruments. Fee for one
half- hour lesson per week per semester. (.$460)
Ms. Bell, Ms. Bowers, Mr Hamm, Mr Moore,
Ms. Rickert, Mr. Ryan, Mr. Shook, Mr. Zellner
128 Guitar Private instruction emphasizing skills
of technique, interpretation, reading, and
fretboard knowledge. Classical and other styles
are offered according to needs of students. Fee
for one-half hour lesson per week per semester.
129 String Instrument Instruction Private
instruction, emphasizing both fundamentals of
string playing and repertory. Fee for one half-
hour lesson per week per semester. ($460)
Mr Botlerbusch, Staff
1 3 1 College Choir Performs sacred and secular
choral literature. In addition to performing on
campus and in nearby cities, the Choir makes an
annual spring concert tour. Oratorios are
presented in conjunction with the Chapel
Choir. Three rehearsals weekly. No credit.
1 32 Chapel Choir Performs a variety of sacred
choral literature for the piupose of supporting
and assisting the campus ministry at Christ
Chapel. The Choir performs in concert in the
community', in nearby cities, and on a long
spring weekend tour. Larger choral works are
performed with the College Choir. Two regular
rehearsals and one service weekly, with
sectionals as needed. No credit.
1 33 Band "Bullet" Marching Band performs
a corps style show at home football games.
Symphonic Band performs a wide variety of
wind literature, including reorchestrated
masterpieces and contemporary works. Symphonic
Band presents campus concerts and a spring
lour of Pennsylvania and neighboring states.
Symphonic Band prerequisiles: Membership in
"Bullet" Marching Band and/or permission of
the conductor. Jazz Ensemble is open (by audition)
to members of the band program. No credit.
135 Orchestra Study and performance of
orchestral music of all areas. Membership is
open to all students of qualifying ability. Wednesday
evening rehearsal 7:00-9:30. No credit.
150-151 Woodwind Instrument Class Instruction
in the technique of teaching and playing
woodwind instruments, using the clarinet as the
Two 1/4 Courses
152-153 Brass Instrument Class Instruction in
the technique of teaching and playing brass
instruments. Trumpet or cornet is used as the
basic brass instrument.
Tiuo 1/4 Courses
154-155 Stringed Instrument Class Instruction
and practice in the techniques of stringed
instruments and the organization of a string
Tivo 1/4 Courses
1 56 Percussion Class Organization of practical
and theoretical materials concerning all
percussion instriunents, their performance
techniques, and teaching procedures.
456 Senior Recital Solo presentation of
representative literature of various stylistic periods
of the student's major applied area, widi emphasis
on historical performance practice.
Associate Professors Portmess (Chairperson) and
Assistant Professors Bulhofand MacKendrick
Departmental objectives are to promote inquiry
into perennial philosophical questions, such as
the nature of justice, happiness, knowledge, and
freedom; to produce awareness of the answers
that have been proposed in response to these
questions; to teach the tools for the analysis of
the assumptions and values that underlie
different intellectual disciplines; and to promote
the application of philosophical analysis to issues
of public policy, law, and morality. The study of
philosophy encourages the student to develop
the ability to analyze problems, understand
central issues, and develop alternative solutions.
It challenges the student to reflect upon
problems involving values, to examine problems
in an interdisciplinary way, to examine
alternative world views and forms of knowledge,
and to develop an awareness of intellectual
history. Classes encourage discussion and
writing. The study of philosophy is an integral
part of an education in the liberal arts tradition.
A major in philosophy is excellent preparation
for graduate .school or for professional schools
in almost any field. It is especially good
background for law and the ministry. It will also
prove valuable in any occupation that demands
clear thinking and the ability to understand the
points of \iew of other people. Individually,
philosophy courses are useful supplements to
course work in other areas. The department is
interested in assisting and encouraging students
to design special majors in which philosophy is
an integral part.
Requirements and Recommendations
Philosophy 101, 103, 105, 107, and 211 have
no prerequisites. Any 100 level course is
recommended as preparadon for a 200 or 300
level course, though the instructor may grant
permission on an individual basis to equivalently
A philosophy minor consists of any .six courses
in the department, only two of which may be 100
level courses. A philosophy major consists of
nine courses in philosophy, including 211; at
least two out of 205, 207, and 208; 400 (Senior
Seminar) and 460 (Senior Thesis). No more
than two 100 level courses may be counted
toward the major, and the major must include
at least one 300 level course.
101 Introduction to Philosophy Study of selected
philosophical texts, which deal with perennial
themes such as knowledge, happiness, justice,
death, and the nature of reality. Goal is to
develop an ability to read about, reflect on, and
comment on philosophical issues.
103 Critical Thinking Informal logic course
designed to help students reflect on and
enhance their ability to think analytically and
creatively. Discussions and exercises focus on
techniques characteristic of informal logic
(classification or arguments, analysis and
evaluation of arguments, identifying informal
fallacies, etc.), as well as strategies for intuitive
and creative thinking.
1 05 Contemporary Moral Issues Study of moral
problems and larger philosophical questions
they raise about such issues as the defensible use
of violence, limits of freedom, extent of our
obligations to others and to nature, rightful
state authority, and the nature of duties and
obligations. Selected readings focus on moral
disputes as they arise in law and medicine, in
international affairs, and in private moral
reflection. Particular attention is given to ethical
theories and to worldxaews that shape positions
on moral issues and guide moral decision-making.
107 Environmental Ethics Exploradon of ethical
issues that arise regarding what responsibilities
human beings have to the natural world. Specific
issues such as population, land use, wilderness
preservation, biodiversity, and our treatment of
animals are examined in light of larger
philosophical questions regarding nature and
human pui-pose, obligations to future generations,
the aesthetic and religious value of nature, and
the possibility of an environmental ethic.
205 Ancient Philosophy Study of philosophers
and philosophies of ancient Greece and Rome.
Emphasis is on the Pre-Socradcs, Plato,
Aristotle, Stoicism, and Skepticism.
206 Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy Study
of leading thinkers in the western philosophical
tradition, from the fifth to the fifteenth century.
Special emphasis is on such figures as
Augustine, Bonaventure, Anselm, and Thomas
207 Early Modern Philosophy Study of such
major figures as Descartes, Locke, Berkeley,
Hume, and Kant in seventeenth- and
eighteenth- century European philosophy.
208. Kant and Nineteenth Century Philosophy
Study of the philosophy of Immanuel Kant and
selected nineteenth-century European
philosophers such as Hegel and Nietzsche.
21 1 Logic and Semantics Introduction to formal
logic and a study of the formal uses of language,
with particular reference to the nature of
inference from premises to conclusion; rules for
deductive inference; construcdon of formal
proofs in sentential and predicate logic; and the
nature of language.
230 Ethical Theory Study of major figures and
schools in the Western ethical tradition. Attention
is paid to selections from representative
philosophers, from Plato through Rawls.
Specific issues examined include the nature of
rights and responsibilities, virtue, and moral
240 World Philosophy Study of selected writings
from the world's philosophical traditions. Such
themes as self and world, knowledge and its
limits, the meaning and purpose of life, the
nature of reality and ideals of moral perfection
are explored in diverse philosophical traditions.
330 Metaphysics Study of some major
contemporary efforts related to traditional
metaphysical issues. Topics include: Can
philosophy tell us anything about the nature of
our world? If so, how and what? To what extent
is reality mind dependent? WTiat is the
relationship between language and reality?
333 Philosophy and Science Study of what
philosophy has to say about science and what
science has to say about philosophy. Course
examines such questions as: What is the
relationship between science and truth? Does
truth extend beyond science? Is the purpose
of a scientific theory merely to predict, or to
explain? Do we live in a determined world or
d chaotic one? WTiat are the philosophical
implications of such theories as quantum
mechanics, evolution, and relativity?
334 Philosophy of Art Survey of important
problems and issues in the history of philosophical
aesthetics. Such issues as the nature and function
of art, the social role of art, and the relationship
of aesthetics to other branches of philosophy
336 Rights and Revolution Study of the
philosophical foundations of political societ)'
and the question of whether and when revolution
is justifiable. Course explores through both
historical and contemporary readings what the
purpose of government is, what the proper
limits of governmental power are, and what the
proper reactions to governments overstepping
those bounds should be.
337 Philosophy of Religion Study of
philosophical efforts to understand and justify
religious beliefs. Course examines writings of
philosophers who have answered .such questions
as: What is Religion? Is a natural theology
possible? What is the importance or significance
of specifically religious experiences? WTiat
account can we give of the meaning of religious
claims? How can we mediate between
apparently conflicting religious beliefs?
340 American Philosophy Study of major figures
in colonial, early republic, nineteenth- and
twentieth-century U.S. philosophy. Detailed
attention is given to four primary schools of
thought: deism, transcendentalism, pragmatism
and historicism. Important secondary movements
such as puritanism and evolutionism are also
364 Philosophy of Law Study of enduring themes
of legal philosophy, such as the nature of law,
law and morality, liberty, responsibility, and
justice, as well as such specific issues as civil
disobedience, freedom of expression, privacy,
compensation, and punishment. Emphasis is
placed on differing philosophical perspectives
that underlie disagreements about the law and
on ethical questions that arise from the practice
400 Senior Seminar Discussion of important
texts by twentieth-century philosophers who
represent major movements in analytic and
continental philosophy. Recent seminars have
focused on Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Foucault,
and Rorty. Particular attention is paid to the
question of what role philosophy plays in the
460 Senior Thesis Individualized study project
invohang the research of a topic and
preparation of a major paper. Normally done
during fall or spring semester of the senior year.
Prerequisite: major or minor in philoscjphy.
Professors Aebersold and Marschall
Associate Professors Aldinger, Coimn, and Pella
Assistant Professor Good
Laboratory Instructors Cooper and Hayden
Within wide limits, a physics major can be tailored
to meet the needs and desires of individual
students. A major in physics is appropriate for
those who enjoy the subject and who have no
particular career in mind. It is also suitable
preparation for careers ranging from government
and law to theoretical physics and molecular
biologv'. Gettv'sburg College physics majors have
selected a wide range of fields for graduate
study, including astronomy; astrophysics;
biophysics; business; geophysics; environmental,
electrical, nuclear and ocean engineering
physics; and physiological psychology.
Physics majors should be curious about the ways
of nature and have a strong urge to satisfv' this
curiositv'. Their success depends upon an abilitv'
to devise and perform meaningful experiments.
intuitive understanding of the way nature behaves,
and skill in casting ideas into mathematical
forms. No two majors are endowed with precisely
the same division of these talents, but all must
develop some proficiency in each.
Courses emphasize theories and principles that
give a broad, unifying understanding of nature
and the analytical reasoning needed for their
use. Laboratory training stresses the design of
experiments, the techniques of precise
measurement, and the interpretation of data.
Requirements and Recommendations
The department offers both a Bachelor of
Science and Bachelor of Arts degree for the
B.A. requirements: A minimum of nine physics
courses, including the following eight core
courses: Physics 111, 112, 213, 240, 310, 319,
325, 330, and one additional course at the 300
or 400 level are required of all majors. This
minimum major is more than adequate
preparation for physics certification for secondary
school teaching and industrial or government
laboratory work. Anyone for whom gradviate
study is a possibility should plan to take the
additional courses described under the B.S.
requirements below. Students are not permitted
to take more than twelve courses in the
department without the permission of the
department, unless the thirteenth course is
Physics 462 (Independent Study). In addition,
all majors must complete mathematics courses
through Mathematics 212 or its eqiuvalent.
Majors are expected to exhibit increasing
competence with computers as they progress
through the courses in the physics curriculum.
First-year students who are considering a major
in physics should enroll in Physics 111, 112, and
Mathematics 111, 112, if possible. However,
prospective first-year majors may also accomplish
a full major in physics by taking Physics 101 in
the fall semester of their first year before taking
Physics 111, 112 in their sophomore year.
B.S. requirements: In addition to the eight core
courses specified above, the B.S. degree requires
Physics 462 (Independent Study), 341, and two
additional courses in physics chosen from 312,
352, or 381. Candidates for the B.S. degree must
also complete Mathematics 363. Students
planning to continue graduate work in physics
should plan on following this course of study.
Minor Reuirements: A minor in physics consists of
Physics III, 112, 213, 240 and two additional
courses in physics at the 200 level and above.
The laboratory science distribution requirement
may be satisfied by taking Physics 101 and either
Physics 102, 104, or 112; Physics III and either
Physics 104 or 112; Physics 103 and either
Physics 104 or 1 12; or by taking Astronomy 101
and 102. Prerequisites are meant only as guides.
Any course is open to students who have the
permission of the department.
In addition to well-equipped laboratories in
nuclear physics, atomic physics, electronics,
optics, and plasma physics, the facilities of the
department include a planetarium and an
observatory. The observatory featiues a 16"
Cassegrain telescope with a computer-controlled
drive, a UBV photometer, and an astronomical
Computational resoinces include a
microcomputer- equipped introductory
laboratory, a microcomputer resource room, a
microvax, two Sun workstations, and terminals
to access the College mainframe computers, a
VAX 6210 and a Sun 4/690. In addition, the
department is networked to all other computing
resources on campus, including Internet.
Support facilities in Masters Hall include the
physics library, a machine shop, and an
The department administers the Dual-Degree
Engineering Program with Columbia University,
Washington University in St. Louis, and
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Students
selecting this program graduate from Gettysburg
College with a major in physics upon successful