Mary Schell Hoke Bacon.

Pictures that every child should know; a selection of the world's art masterpieces for young people online

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A 474474


The ''Every Child Should Know'' Books

Poems Every Child Should Know,

Water Wonders Every Child Should

Edited by Mary E. Burt


Fairy Tales Every Child Should

By Jean M. Thompson


Famous Stories Every Child Should

Edited by H. W. Mabie


Myths Every Child Should Know,

Edited by H. W. Mabie

Edited by H. W. Mabie

Hymns Every Child Should Know,

Songs Every Child Should Know,

Edited by Dolores Bacon

Edited by Dolores Bacon

Heroines Every Child Should Know,

Legends Every Child Should

Co-edited by H. W. Mabie and


Kate Stephens

Edited by H. W. Mabie

Essays Every Child Should Know,

Heroes Every Child Should

Edited by H. W. Mabie


Prose Every Child Should Know,

Edited by H. W. Mabie

Edited by Mary E. Burt

Birds Every Child Should Know,

Pictures Every Child Should Know,

By Neltje Blanchan

By Dolores Bacon

The Holy Family — Andrea del Sarto

The beauty-loving • artist is here seen
at his best. All the four are charming






"crumbs and his times," "a king's divinity,'* ETC»


Garden City ' New York


' ^ 4-2^^

Q ^ '^




C • • •

• • • c c , '

• • •»€•••• o

«•• ••• *• ,


Besides making ackrxOwledgments to the
many authoritative writers upon artists and
pictures, here quoted, thanks are due to
such excellent compilers of books on art
subjects as Sadakichi Hartmann, Muther,
C. H. Caffin, Ida Prentice Whitcomb,
Russell S'turgis and others.

* • ' t

• «


Man*s inclination to decorate his belongings
has always been one of the earliest signs of
civilisation. Art had its beginning in the lines
indented in clay, perhaps, or hollowed in the
wood of family utensils ; after that came crude
colouring and drawing.

Among the first serious efforts to draw were
the Egyptian square and pointed things, ani-
mals and men. The most that artists of that
day succeeded in doing was to preserve the
fashions of the time. Their drawings tell us
that men wore their beards in bags. They
show us, also, many peculiar head-dresses and
strange agricultural implements. Artists of
that day put down what they saw, and they
saw with an imtrained eye and made the record
with an untrained hand; but they did not put
in false details for the sake of glorifying the
subject. One can distinguish a man from a
mountain in their work, but the arms and legs
embroidered upon Mathilde's tapestry, or the
figures representing family history on an Orien-
tal rug, are quite as correct in drawing and as
little of a puzzle. As m.en became more in-
telligent, hence spiritualised, they began to
express themselves in ideal ways; to glorify
the commonplace; and thus they passed from


viii Pictures Every Child Should Know

Egyptian geometry to gracious lines and beau-
tiful colouring.

Indian pottery was the first development
of art in America and it led to the working
of metals, followed by drawing and portraiture.
Among the Americans, as soon as that term
ceased to mean Indians, art took a most dis-
tracting turn. Europe was old in pictures,
great and beautiful, when America was wor-
shipping at the shrine of the chromo; but the
chromo served a good turn, bad as it was. It
was a link between the black and white of
the admirable wood-cut and the true colour

Some of the Colonists brought over here the
portraits of their ancestors, but those paintings
could not be considered "American" art, nor
were those early settlers Americans; but the
generation that followed gave to the world
Benjamin West. He left his Mother Country
for England, where he found a knighthood and
honours of every kind awaiting him.

The earliest artists of America had to go
away to do their work, because there was no
place here for any men but those engaged in
clearing land, planting corn, and fighting
Indians. Sir Benjamin West was President of
the Royal Academy while America was still
revelling in chromos. The artists who re-
mained chose such objects as Davy Crockett
in the trackless forest, or made pictures of the
Continental Congress.

Introduction ix

After the chromo in America came the pic-
ture known as the "buckeye," painted by re-
lays of artists. Great canvases were stretched
and blocked off into lengths. The scene was
drawn in by one man, who was followed by
** artists," each in turn painting sky, water,
foliage, figures, according to his specialty.
Thus whole yards of canvas could be painted
in a day, with more artists to the square inch
than are now employed to paint advertisements
on a bam.

The Centennial Exhibition of 1876 came as
a glorious flashlight. For the first time real
art was seen by a large part of our nation.
Every farmer took home with him a new idea
of the possibilities of drawing and colour.
The change that instantly followed could
have occurred in no other country than the
United States, because no other people would
have travelled from the four points of the
compass to see such an exhibition. Thus it
was the American's penchant for travel which
first opened to him the art world, for he
was conscious even then of the educational
advantages to be found somewhere, although
there seemed to be few of them in the
United States.

After the Centennial arose a taste for the
painting of "plaques," upon which were the
heads of ladies with strange-coloured hair;
of leather-covered flatirons bearing flowers
of unnatural colour, or of shovels decorated

X Pictures Every Child Should Know

with "snow scenes." The whole nation began
to revel in "art." It was a low variety, yet
it started toward a goal which left the chromo
at the rear end of the course, and it was a better
effort than the mottoes worked in worsted,
which had till then been the chief decoration
in most homes. If the "buckeye" was hand-
painting, this was "single-hand" painting,
and it did not take a generation to bring the
change about , only a season. After the Phila-
delphia exhibition the daughter of the house-
hold "painted a little" just as she played the
piano "a little." To-day, much less than a
man's lifetime since then, there is in America
a universal love for refined art and a fair tech-
nical appreciation of pictures, while already
the nation has worthily contributed to the
world of artists. Sir Benjamin West, Sully,
and Sargent are ours: Inness, Inman, and

The curator of the Metropolitan Museum in
New York has declared that portrait-painting
must be the means which shall save the modem
artists from their sins. To quote him: "An
artist may paint a bright green cow, if he is so
minded: the cow has no redress, the cow must
suffer and be silent; but himian beings who
sit for portraits seem to lean toward portraits
in which they can recognise their own features
when they have commissioned an artist to
paint them. A man will insist upon even the
most brilliant artist painting him in trousers,

Introduction xi

for instance, instead of in petticoats, however
the artist-whim may direct otherwise; and a
woman is likely to insist that the artist who
paints her portrait shall maintain some recog-
nised shade of brown or blue or gray when he
paints her eye, instead of indulging in a burnt
orange or maybe pink! These personal pref-
erences certainly put a limit to an artist's
genius and keep him from writing himself down
a madman. Thus, in portrait-painting, with
the exactions of truth upon it, lies the hope
of art-lovers!"

It is the same authority who calls attention
to the danger that lies in extremes; either in
finding no value in art outside the "old mas-
ters," or in admiring pictures so impressionistic
that the objects in them need to be labelled
before they can be recognised.

The true art-lover has a catholic taste, is
interested in all forms of art; but he finds
beauty where it truly exists and does not allow
the nightmare of imagination to mislead him.
That which is not beautiful from one point of
v^'ew or another is not art, but decadence.
That which is technical to the exclusion of
other elements remains technique pure and
simple , workmanship — the bare bones of art.
A thing is not art simply because it is fantastic.
It may be interesting as showing to what degree
some imaginations can become diseased, but
it is not pleasing nor is it art. There are fully
a thousand pictures that every child should

xii Pictures Every Child Should Know

know, since he can hardly know too much
of a good thing; but there is room in this
volume only to acquaint him with forty-eight
and possibly inspire him with the wish to
look up the neglected nine hundred and
fifty- two.


Introduction . . . . . vii
I. Andrea del Sarto, Florentine

School, 1486-153 1 ... 3
II. Michael Angelo (Buonarroti),

Florentine School, 1475-1564 15

III. Arnold Bocklin, Modern German

School, 1827-1901 ... 32

IV. Marie-Rosa Bonheur, French

School, 1822-1899 ... 36
V. Alessandro Botticelli, Florentine

School, 1447-15 10 ... 42
VI. William Adolphe Bouguereau,
French (Genre) School 1825-

1905 47

VII. Sir Edward Burne- Jones, English

(Pre-Raphaelite) School, 1833-
1898 ..... 49
VIII. John Constable, English School,

1776-1837 .... 51
IX. John Singleton Copley, English

School, 1 73 7-18 1 5 . . 63

X. Jean Baptiste Camille Corot, Fon-
tainebleau-Barbizon School,
1796-1875 .... 65
XI. Correggio (Antonio Allegri), School

of Parma, i494(?)-i534 . . 71


xiv Pictures Every Child Should Know

XII. Paul Gustave Dore, French

School, 1833-1883 . . 77

XIII. Albrecht Diirer. Nuremberg

School, 1471-1528 . . 79

XIV. Mariano Fortuny, Spanish

School, 1838-1874 . . 93

XV. Thomas Gainsborough, Eng-
lish School, 172 7-1 788 . 96
XVI. Jean Leon Gerome, French
Semi-classical School, 1824-
1904 . . . .Ill
XVII. Ghirlandajo, Florentine

School, 1 449-1 494 . . 113

XVIII. Giotto (di Bordone), Floren-
tine School, 12 76 -1 33 7 121
XIX. Franz Hals, Dutch School,

1580-84-1666 . . . 125

XX. Meyndert Hobbema, Dutch

School, 1637-1709 . . 128

XXI. V/illiam Hogarth, School of
Hogarth (English) , 1697-
1764 .... 132

XXII. Hans Holbein, the Younger,

German School, 1497-1^43 140
XXIII. WilHam Holman Hunt,
English (Pre-Raphaelite)
School, 1827- . -151

XXIV. George Inness, American,

1825-1897 . . . 164

XXV. Sir Edwin Henry Landseer,

English School, 1802-1873 166
XXVI. Claude Lorrain (Gellee), Clas-
sical French School, 1600-
1682 .... 179













Masaccio (Tommaso Guidi),
Florentine School, 1401-
1428 .... 183

Jean Louis Ernest Meisson-
ier, French School, 1815-
1891 .... 188

Jean Francois Millet,
Fontainebleau - Barbizon
School, 1814-1875 . . 194

Claude Monet, Impressionist

School of France, 1840- 206

Murillo (Bartolome Esteban) ,
Andalusian School, 161 7-
1682 .... 210

Raphael (Sanzio), Umbrian,
Florentine, and Roman
Schools, 1483-1520 . 224

Rembrandt (Van Rijn),
Dutch School, 1606-1669 239

Sir Joshua Reynolds, Eng-
lish School, 1 723-1 792 . 253

Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish

School, 1 5 77-1 640. . 265

John Singer Sargent, Ameri-
can and Foreign Schools,
1856- .... 283

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) ,
Venetian School, 1518-
1594 . . . .285

Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) , Ve-
netian School, 1 48 9- 1576 291

Joseph Mallord William Tur-
ner, English, 1775-185 1 . 308

xvi Pictures Every Child Should Know


Sir Anthony Van Dyck,
Flemish School, 1599-

1641 ....



Velasquez (Diego Rodriguez
de Silva) , Castilian School,




Paul Veronese (Paolo Cag-
;iari), Venetian School,

1528-1588 .



Leonardo da Vinci, Floren-

tine School, 1452-15 19 .



Jean Antoine Watteau,
French (Genre) School,




Sir Benjamin Vv^est, Ameri-

can, 1 738-1820



• • • e • •




Infanta Maria Theresa . . Velasque:^


The Visitation . . . Ghirlandajo


The Holy Family . . Andrea del Sarto

Madonna of the Sack — Andrea del Sarto i6

Daniel — Michael Angela {Buonarroti) . 32

The Isle of the Dead — Arnold Bocklin . 2>Z

The Horse Fair — Rosa Bonheur . . 34

Spring — Alessandro Botticelli . . 35
The Virgin as Consoler — Wm. Adolphe

Botiguereaii ..... 46
The Love Song — Sir Edward Burne-

Jones ... . . 47

The Hay Wain — John Constable . . 48
A Family Picture — John Singleton Cop-
ley . . . . . -49
Dance of the Nymphs — Jean Baptiste

Camille Ccrot .... 64
The Holy Night — Correggio {Antonio

Allegri) ..... 65
The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine —

Correggio . . . ... 70


xviii Pictures Every Child Should Know

Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law —

Paul Gustave Dore . . .71

The Nativity — Alhrecht Durer , . 74

The Spanish Marriage — Mariano For-

tuny ...... 75

Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan — Thomas

Gainsborough . . . • . 96

The Sword Dance — Jean Leon Gerome . 97
Portrait of Gio vanna degU Albizi — Ghir-

landajo {Donienico Bigordi) , . 112

The Meeting of St. John and St. Anna at

Jerusalem — Giotto (Di Bordone) . 113
The Nurse and the Child — Franz Hals . 128
The Avenue — Meyjidert Hobbema . 129

The Marriage Contract — Wm. Hogarth . 144
Robert Cheseman with his Falcon —

Hans Holbein, the Younger . .145

The Light of the Vv^orid — William

Holman Hunt . . . .160

The Berkshire Hills — George Inness . 161
The Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner —

Sir Edivin Henry Landseer . , 176

Acis and Galatea — Claude Lor rain . 177
The Artist's Portrait — Tommaso Masaccio 192
Retreat from Moscow — Jean Louis

Ernest Meissonier . . . .193

The Angel us — Jean Francois Millet 208
Haystack in Sunshine — Claude Monet 209
The Immaculate Conception — Murillo

(Bariolome Esteban) . . .224

The Sistine Madonna — Raphael {San-
zio) ...... 225

Illiisirations xix

The Night Watch — Rembrandt {Van Rijn) 240
The Duchess of Devonshire and Her

Daughter — Sir Joshua Reynolds . 241
The Infant Jesus and St. John — Peter

Paul Rubens . . . .272

Carmencita — John Singer Sargent . 273

The Artist's Two Sons — Peter Paul Ruh ens 281
The Miracle of St. Mark — Tintoretto

{Jacopo Robusti) . . . .288

The Artist's Daughter, Lavinia — Titian

(Tiziano VecelU) . . . .289

The Fighting Tememire —Joseph Mal-
lard William Turner , , .320
The Children of Charles the First — Sir

Anthony Van Dyck . . .321

Equestrian Portrait of Don Balthasar
Carlos — Velasquez (Diego Rodriguez
de Silva) . . . . -33^

The Marriage at Cana — Paul Veronese 337
The Last Supper — Leonardo da Vinci , 364
Fete Champetre — Jean Antoine Watteau 365
The Death of Wolfe — Sir Benjamin West 374



(Pronounced Ahn'dray-ah del Sar'to)

Florentine School 1486-1531

Pupil of Piero di Cosimo

ITALIAN painters received their names in
peculiar ways. This man's father was a
tailor; and the artist was named after his
father's profession. He was in fact " the
Tailor's Andrea," and his father's name was

One story of this brilliant painter which
reads from first to last like a romance has been
told by the poet, Browning, who dresses up
fact so as to smother it a little, but there is
truth at the bottom.

Andrea married a wife whom he loved
tenderly. She had a beautiful face that
seemed full of spirituality and feeling, and
Andrea painted it over and over again. The
artist loved his work and dreamed always of
the great things that he should do ; but he was
so much in love with his wife that he was
dependent on her smile for all that he did
which was well done, and her frown plunged
him into despair.

Andrea's wife cared nothing for his genius,


4 Pictures Every Child Should Know

painting did not interest her, and she had no
worthy ambition for her husband, but she
loved fine clothes and good living, and so
encouraged him enough to keep him earning
these things for her. As soon as some money
was made she would persuade him to work no
more till it was spent; and even when he had
made agreements to paint certain pictures
for which he was paid in advance she would
torment him till he gave all of his time to her
whims, neglected his duty and spent the
money for which he had rendered no service.
Thus in time he became actually dishonest, as
we shall see. It is a sad sort of story to tell
of so brilliant a young man.

Andrea was bom in the Gualfonda quarter
of Florence, and there is some record of his
ancestors for a hundred years before that,
although their lives were quite unimportant.
Andrea was one of four children, and as usual
with Italians of artistic temperament, he was
set to work under the eye of a goldsmith. This
craftsmanship of a fine order was as near to
art as a man could get with any certainty of
making his li\dng. It was a time when the
Italian world bedecked itself with rare golden
trinkets, wreaths for women's hair, girdles,
brooches, and the like, and the finest skill was
needed to satisfy the taste. Thus it required
talent of no mean order for a man to become a
successful goldsmith.

Andrea did not like the work, and instead

Andrea del Sarto 5

of fashioning ornaments from his master's
models he made original drawings which did
not do at all in a shop where an apprentice was
expected to earn his salt. Certain fashions
had to be followed and people did not welcome
fantastic or new designs. Because of this,
Andrea was early put out of his master's shop
and set to learn the only business that he could
be got to learn, painting. This meant for him
a very different teacher from the goldsmith.

The artist may be said to have been his own
master, because, even when he was apprenticed
to a painter he v/as taught less than he already

That first teacher was Barile, a coarse and
unpleasing man, as well as an incapable one;
but he was fair minded, after a fashion, and
put Andrea into the w^ay of finding better
help. After a few years imder the direction
of Piero di Cosimo, Andrea and a friend,
Francia Bigio, decided to set up shop for

The two devoted friends pitched their tent
in the Piazza del Grano, and made a meagre
beginning out of which great things were to
grow. They began a series of pictures which
was to lead at least one of them to fame. It
was in the little Piazza del Grano studio that
the " Baptism of Christ" was painted, a partner-
ship work that had been planned in the Cam-
pagnia dello Scalzo.

"The Baptism" was not much of a picture

6 Pictures Every Child Should Know

as great pictures go, but it was a beginning and
it was looked at and talked about, which was
something at a time when Titian and Leonardo
had set the standard of great work. In the
Piazza del Grano, Andrea and his friend lived
in the stables of the Tuscan Grand Dukes,
with a host of other fine artists, and they had
gay times together.

Andrea was a shy youth, a little timid, and
by no means vain of his own work, but he
painted with surprising swiftness and sureness,
and had a very brilliant imagination. It
was his main trouble that he had more imagina-
tion than true manhood; he sacrificed every-
thing good to his imagination.

After the partnership with his friend, he
undertook to paint some frescoes independently,
and that work earned for him the name of
"Andrea senza Errori" — iVndrea the Unerring.
Then, as now, each artist had his own way of
working, and Andrea's was perhaps the most
difficult of all, yet the most genius-like. There
were those, Michael Angelo for example, who
laid in backgrounds for their paintings; but
Andrea painted his subject upon the wet
plaster, precisely as he meant it to be when

He was unlike the moody Michael Angelo;
unlike the gentle Raphael ; unlike the fastidious
Van Dyck who came long afterward; he was
hail-fellow-well-met among his associates,
though often given over to dreaminess. He

Andrea del Sarto 7

belonged to a jolly club named the "Kettle
Club," literally, the Company of the Kettle;
and to another called "The Trowel," both
suggesting an all aroimd good time and much
good fellowship. The members of these clubs
were expected to contribute to their wonderful
suppers, and Andrea on one occasion made a
great temple, in imitation of the Baptistry,
of jelly \vith columns of sausages, white birds
and pigeons represented the choir and priests.
Besides being "Andrew the Unerring," and a
"Merry Andrew," he was also the "Tailor's
Andrew," a man in short upon whom a nick-
name sat comfortably. He helped to make
the history of the "Company of the Kettle,'*
for he recited and probably composed a
touching ballad called "The Battle of the Mice
and the Frogs," which doubtless had its
origin in a poem of Homer's. But all at once,
in the midst of his gay careless life came his
tragedy; he fell in love with a hatter's wife.
This was quite bad enough, but worse was to
come, for the hatter shortly died, and the
widow was free to marry Andrea.

After his marriage Andrea began painting
a series of Madonnas, seemingly for no better
purpose than to exhibit his wife's beauty over
and over again. He lost his ambition and
forgot everything but his love for this un-
worthy woman. She was entirely common-
place, incapable of inspiring true genius or
honesty of purpose.

8 Pictures Every Child Should Know

A great art critic, Vasari, who was Andrea's
pupil during this time, has written that the
wife, Lucre tia, was abominable in every way.
A vixen, she tormented Andrea from morning
till night with her bitter tongue. She did not
love him in the least, but only what his money
could buy for her, for she was extravagant,
and drove the sensitive artist to his grave
while she outlived him forty years.

About the time of the artist's marriage he
painted one fresco, "The Procession of the
Magi," in which he placed a very splendid
substitute for his wife, namely himself. After-
ward he painted the Dead Christ which found
its way to France and it laid the foundation
for Andrea's wrongdoing. This picture was
greatly admired by the King of France who
above all else was a lover of art. Francis I.
asked Andrea to go to his court, as he had
commissions for him. He made Andrea a
money offer and to court he went.

He took a pupil with him, but he left his
wife at home. At the court of Francis I,
he was received with great honours, and amid
those new and gracious surroundings, away
from the tantalising charms of his wife and her
shrewish tongue, he began to have an honest
ambition to do great things. His work for
France was undertaken with enthusiasm, but
no sooner was he settled and at peace, than the
irrepressible wife began to torment him with
letters to return. Each letter distracted him

Andrea del Sarto 9

more and more, till he told the King in his
despair, that he must return home, but that
he would come back to France and continue
his work, almost at once. Francis I., little
suspecting the cause of Andrea's uneasiness,
gave him permission to go, and also a large
sum of money to spend upon certain fine
works of art which he was to bring back to

We can well believe that Andrea started
back to his home with every good intention;
that he meant to appease his wife and also
his own longing to see her; to buy the King
his pictures with the money entrusted to him,
and to return to France and finish his work;
but, alas, he no sooner got back to his wife
. than his virtuous purpose fled. She wanted
this ; she wanted that — and especially she
wanted a fine house which could just about be
built for the sum of money which the King of
France had entrusted to Andrea.

Andrea is a pitiable figure, but he was also
a vagabond, if we are to believe Vasari. He

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