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(O. S. 6) June, 1610 in Calendar State Papers Venetian, xi, No. 945.


"James by the grace of god king of England ffrance and Ireland
defendo' of the faith &c. To the Trer and Undertrer of o* Excheqr
greeting. Whereas the Queene our dearef t wife hath refolued for our
greater honour and contentement to make vsa mafke fhortly attended by
moft of the greatest Ladyes of the kingdome (forasmuch as fhee is
pleafed that the Earle of Suffolk chamberlayne of our houfes and the
Earle of Worcester Maf ter of o r horf e fhall take f ome paines to look into
the omptions and provif ions of all things neceffarie for the fame Wee
doe hereby require and authorize you to yffue fo much of ourtreafure
at f uch tymes and by fuch porcons as they fhall require vnder their
hands and to fuch perfons as they fhall af signe to receaue the fame for
doing whereof this fhalbe yo r f ufficient warrant and difcharge. Given
vnder o r priuy feale at o r Pallace of Westm' the fourth day of March
in the feaventh yeare of o* raigne of England ffrance and Irelande
and of Scotland the three and f ortith. " Exchequer of Receipt, Warrants
for Issue, Bundle, 141.


"On Tuesday the Prince gave his Masque which was very beautiful
hroughout, very decorative, but most remarkable for the grace of the
Prince's every movement.

The King was pleased that the Spanish Ambassador and I should
be present. The Ambassador of the United Provinces was also invited,
but perhaps by agreement he feigned displeasure, as he is accustomed
to find himself with the Ambassador of his Catholic Majesty, to whom

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222 Court Masques of James I

it is unpleasant that by this title of Ambassador other Sovereigns should
authenticate the independence of those states. The Queen next whom
I sat said that on Sunday next she intended to give her Masque, and she
hoped the King would invite me to it. She then said some words in
English to the Earl of Salisbury, from which I gathered that they are
not pleased at M. de Laverdin*s delay which looked as though he had not
understood the honour done him by the King and the Prince. " Correr
to the Doge and Senate. 14 January (O. S. 4), in Calendar of State Papers
Venetian, xii, No. 159.


"Pendant cette periode d 'agitation, interieure, Marie de Medicis
8'etait rapprochee de rEspagne. Au commencement de 1 61 1 EUe avait
dite a Madrid que volontiers EUe entendrait reparler des .manages
pourvu que Louis XIII, obtfnt la main de l'afnee des infantes et que
les deux couronnes conclussent une ligue defensive. L'idee de cette
ligue etait de Villeroy qui voulait etre sur de Philippe III contre le
mecontentement possible des puissances protestantes. La cour d'-
Espagne accepta les deux conditions. Des articles preliminaires signes
a Fontainebleau par Villeroy et don Inigo de Cardenas, Ambassadeur
d'Espagne reglaient la question des manages au gre* de Marie (30 Avril
161 1 ) Le meme jour, et dans le meme lieu, fut signe* entre les deux
rois un traits d'alliance defensive par lequel ils se promettaient de se
8ecourir 'mutuellement contre ceux qui intreprendroient quelque chose
contre eux et leurs 6tats de m&me que contre ceux qui Se revdteroient
contre leur autoriteV " Ernest Lavisse, Histoire de France, Tome
sixieme, ii, par Jean H. Mariejol, 153-4.


"Pour ne pas irriter les huguenots qui elisaient en ce moment 1'-
Assemblee de Soumur, les negodations avoient 6t& tenues secretes.
Mais quand Marie crut n'avoir plus rien a crandre d'eux, elle annonca
I* accord franco-espagnol dans un conseil 6u elle reunit les ministres et
les grands (26 Janvier 1612). " Ibid., Lavisse, 154.

"Marie triomphait. Aussi passa-t-elle gaiement le carnaval et le
car&me de 1612. Tous les dimanches de fevrier elle fit danser un ballet
au Louvre par les dues de Vendome et de Chevreuse et Bassompiere.
Les ffttes qu'elle donna, Place Royale, a 1 'occasion des financailles, furent
celdbrees pour leur magnificence. Elles durerent trois jours (5, 6 et 7
avril). Le jeudi, a trois heures d'apres — midi, devant la Reine, les
princesses et les dames assises 'aut echafauds et sous les yeux de deux
cent mille spectateurs dgfilerent vingt-quatre trompettes, douze tam-
bours a cheval, cinq gaents avec arcs et fleches, et deux machines, Tune
*fait[e] en rocher et couvertfe] d'arbrisseaux' plus les dues de Guise et

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Appendix 223

de Nevers, et les autres 'chevaliers de la gloire' et 'soustenans du
chateau de la Felicity' habilles de broderie d'or et d'argent, portant
lanses Standards rouges. " Ibid,, 154-5.

"Venaient ensuite dix compagnies d'assaillants, menees par Conti,
Vendome, etc., et snivies d'une troupe bigarre6: ecuyers, musiques,
chevauz dardes, rois captifo, deux elephants, deux 'reinocerot' (rhino-
ceros), un chariot trame* par des cerfs et nombre de machines.

Des sibylles parurent, chantant des vers que Malherbe avait composes
a la gloire de la Regente.

La calvalcade finie 'les tenants coururent contre les assaillants'
A la nuit, apres une sonnerie de trompettes, tambours et clairons le
feu fut mis au chateau de la Felicity 'plein d 'artifice* et tandis qu'il
brulait 'on voyoit changer plusieurs sortes de figures tout en feu. *

Le vendredi, nouveau d£file\ Comme tout le peuple de Paris n'
avoit pu voir cette fete, la brillante cavalcade se promena par les rues,
8ur la rive droite et la rive gauche, jusqu'au Pont-neuf 6u elle se dispersa.
Le Samedi vn courut la bague. La soir, feu d'artifice, salve de deux
cents coups de canon, grand feu de joie devant l'Hotel de Ville et illu-
mination de Paris avec 'lanternes faites en papier de couleur en si
grande quantity et a chaque fenestre que toute la ville sembloit estre en
feu!'" Ibid.


"A Description of the Sea-fights and Fireworks with other Royal
occurrences which were accomplished at the Princely celebration
[marriage of Princess Elizabeth] I did not write nor publish this descrip-
tion of Fire and Water Triumphs to the intent that they should onely
reade the relation that were spectators of them; for to such persons it
will relish somewhat tedious, like a tale that is too often told, but I
did write these things, that those who are farre re mo ted, not onely in
his Majestie's dominions but also in forraine territories, may have
an understanding of the glorious pomp and magnificent dominion of our
high and mighty monarch King James; and further to demonstrate the
skills and knowledges that our warlike nation hath in engines, fire-workes
and other military discipline, that thereby may be knowne, that how-
soever warre seemes to Sleepe yet (upon any lawful ground or occasion)
the command of our dread Soveraigne can rouse her to the terrour of
all malignant opposers of his Royall state and dignity." By John
Taylor the water poet in John Nichols, The Royal Progresses of James I,
ii f 527-8.


"The Memorable Masque of the Two Honourable Hovses or Innes of
Court; the Middle Temple, and Lyncolnes Inne.

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224 Court Masques of James I

As it was Performed Before the King, at White-hall on Shroue-Mun-
day at night; being the 15. of Febr. 161 3.

At the Princely Celebration of the Moft royall Nuptials of the PaK-
graue, and his thrice gratkms Princeffe Elizabeth, etc

With a def cription of their whole fhow, in the manner of their march
on horfe-backe to the Court, from the Mafter of the Rolls his houfe;
with all their right Noble contorts, and moft
fhowfull attendants.
Inuented, and fafhioned, with the ground, and fpecial ftructure of the
whole worker

By our Kingdoms moft Artfull and Ingenus

Architect Innigo Jones.

Supplied, Applied, Digefted, and written

By Geo. Chapman.

At London.
Printed by F. K. f or George Norton , and are to be fold
at his fhop neere Temple-barre.

At the houfe of the moft worthelie honour'd preferrer and graces of all
honourable Actions, the vertues, (Sir Edward Philips Knight, Mafter
of the Rolls) all the Performers and their affistents made their Rendes-
vous, prepar'd to their performance, and thus fet forth.

Fiftie Gentlemen, richly attirde, and as gallantly mounted, with
Foot-men particularly attending, made the noble vant-guarde of the
nuptiall forces. Next (a fit dif tance obf erued betweene them) march t a
mock-Maf que of Baboons, attired like fantaf tical Trauailers, in Neapoli-
tane f utes, and great ruffes, all horft with Affes ; and dwarfe Palf ries, with
yellow foot-cloathes, and cafting Cockle-demois about, in courtefie,
by way of larges. Torches borne on either hand of them; lighting
their f tate as ridiculouflie, as the reft Nobly. After them was f orted two
carres Triumphall, adorned with great maske-heads, fef tones, fcroules,
and antick leaues, euery part inricht with filuer and golde. Thefe
were through varied with different inuention, and in them aduanc't,
the choice mufitions of our Kingdome, fixe in each ; attir'd like Virginean
Priefts, by whom the Sun is there ador'd; and therefore called the Phoe-
bodes. Their Robes were tuckt vp before; ftrange Hoods of feathers,
and fcallops about their neckes, and on their heads turbants, ftucke
with f euerall colour'd feathers f potted with wings of flies, of extraordi-
nary bigneffe; like thofe of their countrie: and about them march't
two ranks of Torches. Then rode the chiefe Maskers, in Indian habits,
all of a refemblance; the ground cloath of filuer, richly embroidered
with golden Sunnes, & about euery Sunne, ran a traile of gold, imitating

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Appendix 225

Indian worke; their bafes of the fame ftuffe and worke, but betwixt
euery pane of embroidery, went a rowe of white ef tridge feathers, ming-
led with f prigs of golde plate; vnder their breafts they wore bawdricks
of golde, embroidered high with purle; and about their neckes Ruffles
of feathers, fpangled with pearle and filuer. On their heads high
fprig'd-feathers, compaft in Coronets, like the Virginian Princes they
prefented; Betwixt euery fet of feathers, and about their browes, in
the onder-part of their Coronets, fhin'd Sunnes of golde plate, fprinkled
with pearle; from whence fprung rayes of the like plate, that mixing
with the motion of the feathers, fhew'd exceedingly delightfull and
gracious. Their legges were adorn'd with clofe long white f ilke f tock-
ings: curiously embroidered with golde to the middle-legge. The
King being come forth, the Maskers afcended vnfeene to their f cene.
Then for the works —

Firft there appear'd at the louer end of the Hall, an artificiall Rock,
whofe top was neere as high as the hall it f elfe. ... All this Rocke
grew by degrees vp into a gold colour; & was run quite through, with
veines of golde: • . .

At the tinging of the firft Song, full, which was fung by the Virginian
Priefts; called the Phcebodes, to fixe Lutes (being vfed as an Orphean
vertue, for the f tate of the Mines opening) : the vpper part of the rock
was fodainly turn'd to a Cloude, discouering a rich and refulgent Mine
of golde; in which the twelue Maskers were triumphantly feated: . . .

In which Ifland [Poeana] (being yet in command of the Virginian
continent.) A troupe of the nobleft Virginians inhabiting, attended
hether the God of Riches, all triumphantly fhyning in a Mine of gould.
For hearing of the moft royal folemnity, of thefe f acred Nuptialls; they
croft the Ocean in their honor; and are here arriu'd. "


"on monday night was the middle temple and Lincolns ynne mafke
presented in the hall at Court wheras the Lords was in the banketting
roome, yt went from the Rolles all vp fleet-f treet and the f trand and
made fuch a gallant and glorious fhew that y t is highly commended, they
had forty gentlemen of best choif e owt of both houf es rode before them
in theyre best array vpon the ks horfes; and the twelue Mafkers w**
theyre torch-bearers and pages rode likewife vpon horfes excedingly
well trapped and furnished, befides a doufen litle boyes drest like
babones that ferued for an antimafke (and they fay performed yt
exceedingly well when they came to yt), and three open chariots drawn
w*h foure horfes apeece that caried theyre muficians and other per-
fonages that had parts to f peake, all wch together w*h theyre trumpetters
and other attendants were fo well fet out, that yt is generally held for

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226 Court Masques of James I

the best fbew that hath been f een many a day. the king ftoode in the
gaUerie to behold them and make them ride about the tilt-yard and then
were receued into ft James Park and went all along the galleries into
the hall, where themfelues and theyre deuifes (w<* fay were excellent)
made f uch a glittering fhew that the king and all the companie were
exeedingly pleafed and fpecially wt& theyre daunting., w<& was beyond
all that hath been yet. the king made the Mafkerskifse his hand at part-
ing and gaue them many thanckes, faying he neuer faw f o many proper
men together, and himfelf accompanied them at the banket, and tooke
care yt fhold be well ordered and fpeakes and f trokes thanks to the
mafter of the rolles and Dicke Martin who were the chief e dooers and
vndertakers." John Chamberlain to M*? Carleton, 18 February,
1612-3, in State Papers Domestic James /, lxxii, No. 3a


"The 13 th of Feb' following I was sent by the Lord Chamberlaine
(Earl of Suffolke) from his Majesty to the Arch-Dukes Ambafsador,
Monsieur de Baiscot, with the formal invitation to the manage of the
Princefse that his Majefty (who desireth to performe all things with
conveniency) having invited the french Ambafsador, & the Venetian,
to af sist at the first dayes solemnity, requested him to honour the second,
or third dayes, either dinner, or supper, or both, with his presence.
After some time of pause, his first quef tion was (with a troubled counte-
nance) whether the Spanish Ambafsador were invited? I answered
(answerable to my instructions in case of such demand) that he was sick,
& could not be there; he was yesterday (quoth he) so well, as that the
offer might have very well been made him & perhaps accepted. To
this I reply ed that his Majestie having observed that the french and
Venetian Ambafsadors holding between them one course of correspon-
dence, & the Spanish and Arch-Dukes another, their invitations had
been usually joynt. This he denied (saying) the French had been
sundry times invited to Masques &c. & not the Venetian, the Venetian
and not the French, the Spaniard the like: but He the Arch-Dukes
Ambaf z~ never: that for his owne particular Person (as he was Bois-
cot) he should think himselfe honoured to be called by his Majesty
upon any termes were it to ferve up a Difh to the Princeffes Table;
but as he was the reprefentant of fo great a Prince, as the Arch-Dukes
(one who would never allow (he fayd) f o much as a quef tion or thought
of competition betweene him, a Monarchall Soveraigne, and a mean
Republique, governed by a fort of Burghers, who had but an handful
of territory in comparifon of his mafter; and (as would be averred, he
fayd, by ancient proofes, had ever yielded precedence to the Arch-
Dukes Predeceffors, when they were but Dukes of Burgundie) he could
not be present at the Solemnity. That further hee knew not wherein

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Appendix 227

he had deferred £o ill of his Majef ty , as not to have received any coun-
tenance or favour in all the time of his ref iding here, and the Venetian
(as he himfelfe had bragged) many; that for thefe, and the like confidera-
tions, he would never be received to a fecond place, or day, after one
that fhould have the firft beftowed on him fo unworthily. " Sir John
Finctfs observations, Lord Chamberlain's Office, Class Miscellaneous 5,
No. 1, page 1 f.


"Or quant an fait present touchant 1' Ambaffadeur de Venife fa
Majefte fait fcavoir au dit Ambaffadeur des Archducs qu'ayant le dit
Ambaffadeur de Venife quatorze 6u quinze joins anant le lour des
noces fait entendre a fa Majefte qu'il auoit ordre de par la dicte RepubH-
que de congratuler aux dictes noces qu'il d&iroit faire ceft' office le
jour mefme d'icelles, & d'autant que pour donner meilleure grace, et
manifeftation plus ouverte que porte la dicte, Republique a fa Majefte,
on luy auoit ordonne* frays pour la pompe, et liurees a fes gens aux
deepens publies (bonneur que fa Majefte n'auoit recu de nul autre
Prince, et qui eft bien extraordinarie et plus de cof tume entre les Princes)
fa Majefte auoit toute raifon de rendre a la dicte Republique la pareille
de llionneur qui par demonftration f i fignalee* elle luy fairoit. " King
James to Boiscot, John Finett, FinetH Phihxenis (1656), 4r7.


" Neither was the wife of the French Amb* cleere of these disputes, for
when I had ushered her up amongst the countefses, & left her there
to the ranging of the Lord Chamberlaine, he ordered she should be
placed at the Table next beneath the Countefses, & above the Baronefses;
but the Viscountefse of effingham standing to her woman's right, &
pof sest already of her proper place (as she called it) would not move
lower so held the hand of the Ambafsatrice, till after dinner the Ambaf-
sador her husband informed of the difference, and opposition, tooke it
for an indignity, and calling for his wives Coach, that by her departure
it might be seen he was sensible, she was by others persuasions stayed,
& was at Supper placed beneath the Countefse of Kildare, and above
the Viscountefse of Haddington who made no scruple of it, the Lady
of effingham in the interim forbearing (with rather too much than too
little stomach) both her supper & the company. " Ibid.


"Throughout the whole of these events Spain acts the part of
villain of the piece. Both in Italy and in Germany their high-handed
procedure caused general alarm among the smaller powers. By the

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228 Court Masques of James I

double marriages they hoped to win over their old enemy France and
even to range her on their side. There remained England and the
danger that James might step into the position rendered vacant by the
death of Henry IV. To meet this danger the Spaniards devoted their
powers to rendering James innocuous by flattering his vanity, by
making a great show of friendship and by amusing him with negotia-
tions." Allen B. Hinds in Calendar of Stale Papers Venetian, xiii,
Preface. xviiL


"They [Venetian despatches] give the impression that the King was
far more strongly anti-Spanish than he is generally credited with being,
even at a time when he is usually represented as completely under the
influence of Sarmiento and desirous of obtaining a Spanish bride for his
son. His steady policy in Europe was to build up a league of all the
powers threatened by the overweening greatness of the Austro-Spanish
house and to resist the idea of a Catholic world State." Calendar of
State Papers Venetian, xiii., Preface, xxvii.

See also Jansen, Gesckichte des Deutschen Volkes, v, 692.

See also Calendar of State Papers Venetian, xiii, passim.


" . . . the loftie mafkers were fo well liked at court the last
week that they were appointed to performe yt again on Monday yet
theyre deuife (w^ was a enimicaU imitation of t[he] Irish) was not fo
pleafing to many, w° h thincke [this] no time (as the cafe ftands ) to
exasperat that*nat[ion] by making it ridiculous, on newyearefday was
the tilting of ten against ten. The bafes trappings and apl] other furni-
ture of the one partie was murrey and wh[ite] w^ were the brides colours,
the other greene and yello for the bridegroome, there were two hand-
fome chari[ots] or pageants that brought in two cupids, whofe con-
tention] was whether were the truer his or hers, each maintained by
theyre champions, but the current and prife you muft thincke ran on
her fide, the whole fhew (they say) was very fayre and well fet out.
I do not readilie remember all theyre names nor how they were fided,
bu[t] bufides the D. of Lennox, there were the Earles of Rutl[and] Pem-
broke mongomerie Dorfet, the LLs chaundos fcno [ ] Compton,
North, Haye Dingwell, the L Walden and his brethren S r Henry Carie
and I know not who else the L Horns who when the millitie was on
lute and in forwardnes (not knowing fhe was fo well prouided) made
tender of himself to the L Chamberlain for this daughter, yf he might
be rid of his lady (wc* 1 he thought an eafie matter to do) but was
reiected now fine rifn of all that heard of yt — the L mayor was fent to

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Appendix 229

by the K. to entertain this new maried couple w^ theyre frends and
followers, but he making an excufe that his houfe was too little to
receue them yt was not accepted, but word fent back that he might
command the biggest hall in the towne: whereupon calling a counfaile
yt was refolued to do yt at the charge of the citie in the Marchant-
taylers hall vpon foure dayes warning and the[n] there they went
yesternight about fixe a clocke, through cheapfide all by torch-light
accompanied by the father and mother of the bride, and all the Lords
and Ladies about the court — the men were well mounted and richly
arrayed making a gudly fhew, the women all in coaches. I do not heare
yet how all things pafsed there for I haue not ben abrode, only I vnder.
ftand that after fupper they had a play and a mafke and after that a
banket. . . .

' ' M* Atturneyes mafke is for tomorrow and for a concluf ion of Christ-
mas and thefe fhewes together for the K fayes he wilbe gon toward
Roifton vpon friday. [before the holy-dayes the french and Venetian
ambaf sadors were inuited to this mafke w** 1 excufe that they could not
i fo well be at the first vpon the manage night, foravoyding of competition
of place and precedence w^ the fpanish ambafsador who had neuer
feen any of our fhewes before: but the best mafke was referued for them,
the french feemed to take yt well enough: but the Venetian ftormed
he fhold be excluded and the archdukes admitted who he prefumed
wold not once make offer to take place where he was. from London this
5 th of January 1613

" Yo r Lop 8 to command

"John Chamberlain"
[ In State Papers Domestic, James I, lxxvi, No. 2. '


"The same day I was also with the agents of Savoy and of Florence
& having invited them to supper & to the masque after it the Florentine
said that howsoever there pafsed a friendly correspondence between
him & the other and that their discretions might be like enough to keep
them from incounters; he must yet protest, & stand for the maintain-
ance of his Masters right of precedence, whensoever he should meet
any that would oppose or question it? To this I replyed that howsoever
his Majesty took no such notice of any that resided here as agents (&
not Amb™ for their Masters as that to invite them or not to invite them
was efsential; yet my Lord chamberlaine having told me, there was a
table to be both served & sit at in state, was all on the Queenes side, as
on the Kings & that if the Agents would come to either of them the
first come might make his first choyce, there was no doubt, but his
Lordships provident care for his placeing at the Maske, would keepe

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230 Court Masques of James I

them out of distance, & danger of dispute for precedence. So they both
came but the Savoyard getting the start & siding allwayes close to the
Spanish Amb* was both at the supper & Maske the more conspicuous,
while the other kept himself retyred as Iconofinto. " John Ftnnett,
PkOoxems, in Lord Chamberlain's Office, Class (5) Miscellaneous,
No. 1.


"The Arch-Dukes Ambaffador received from me an Invitation the
fame day that I delivered one to another, and accepted it though he
were then (in earneft) f Xck in his bed of a cold he had taken) both for
Dinner and Supper without scruple or quef tkm (I will not fay without
intention not to be at either) but his cold increafing that night with a
Loofeneffe, he wrote to me to come to him (as I did) the next morning
and there defired his ab fence might be exeufed to her Majefty."
Finnett, FinncUi Philoxenis.


"The first of February 1613(14], the Lord Vifcount Lyfle; Lord
Chamberlaine to the Queen, fent me to invite (in his Majefties name)
the French Ambaffador to the marriage of the Lady Jane Dromond to
be Solemnized the next day at Somerfet Houfe. He accepted the
Invitation with humble thankes, as an efpetiall favour (he faid) done
to him by his Majefty, but defired (if his defire might be prefented to

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