Maryland. Commission on Higher Education of Negroe.

Report of the Commission on Higher Education of Negroes to the Governor and Legislature of Maryland, January 15, 1937 online

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Online LibraryMaryland. Commission on Higher Education of NegroeReport of the Commission on Higher Education of Negroes to the Governor and Legislature of Maryland, January 15, 1937 → online text (page 1 of 14)
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Governor and Legislature
OF Maryland

JANUARY 15, 1937





Governor and Legislature
OF Maryland

JANUARY 15, 1937


Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation

- 1.



Letter of Transmittal - - - - - - - -_____ ±

Abstract of Recommendations - - - - - - - - - 2

Recommendations of the Commission - - - - - - _- 3

Foreword - - - - - - - - - _____ 3

Section I - Inadequacy of Provision for Higher Education

of Negroes in Maryland - - - - - __ 5

Section II- Recommendations - - - __-__-___ 10

1. Undergraduate Training - - - - - ___ 10

a. Princess Anne Acadeny - - - - - - - n

b. Morgan College - - -__ - _ - _ - _ 13

c. Bowie Normal School - - - - - -___ 15

d. Coppin Normal School - - - - - - - 15

2. Graduate and Professional Training - - - 17

3. Scholarships - - - - - - -_______ 17

4. Board of Control - - - - ______ iq

Report of Appropriations for Scholarships - - ____-_ 19
Chapter I - Findings and Recommendations of the Consultant

Relative to the Higher Education of Negroes in

Maryland - _ - -_ - _ - - - ____ 26

I. Findings 26

II. Nfeister Conclusions - - -____-_ ______ 29

III. What Plan may ultimately provide an equivalence of

white and Negro Higher Education at State expense

in Maryland?- - - - _ - __ - _____ 31

Plan A 31

Plan B 36

Plan C _ 36

Plan D 37

Chapter II - Statistics of the Maryland Negro Population

Pertinent to Higher Education _______ 33

I. The Negro Population in General ___________ 33

1. Distribution of the Maryland Negro Population - - 39

2, Occ\Q)ational Distribution - - - - - - 41

II. Estimates of the Future Student Load of Negro Insti-
tutions of Higher Education in Maryland - - -__ 43

1. Estimate based upon Elementary and High School
Statistics -_______ - - -_ _____ 43

2. Estimate based upon Enrollment in Higher

Education _ - _______ _____ 45

3. Low and High Estimates of Negro Higher Education
Enrollment _______ _ 45

Chapter III - An Institutional Evaluation of Negro Higher Edu-
cation in Maryland ________ ___ __ 47

1. Existing Institutions and Their Control ______ 47

2. Enrollments and Graduates of White and Negro State-
owned and State-aided Institutions of Higher Edu-
cation (1935-36) 50

3. The Capital Investments of Maiyland White and Negro
Higher Education — 51

- ii.

4. The Financial Support of State-owned and State-aided
Institutions of Higher Education - - - - - 54

5. Average einnual instinictional costs per student
(including adninistration and maintenance) of white

and Negro Higher Education - - - - - - - 59

6. Financial Aid Afforded By the State to IndividuEuL

Negro Students - - - - - - - - 50

Definition of "Scholarship" — 61

7. Ciirricular Offerings by Courses and Semester Hours
of White and Negro Institutions of Hl^er Education
(Excluding graduate and professional courses) - - - 64

8. Standards 67

(a) Approval by accrediting agencies - - - - 67

(b) Entrance standards - - - - - - - 67

(c) Quality of Instruction 68

9. Salaries and Teaching Loads of Instructors - - - - 69

(a) Salaries - - - - - - - - - - 69

(b) Teaching Loads 70

Chapter IV - A Functional Analysis of Maryland Higher Edu-
cation for Negroes - - - - - - - 71

1. Teacher Education - - - - - - - - - 71

a. The Norme.l Schools - - - - - - - 71

(1) Cost of Normal Schools 72

(2) Differences in Standards 73

(3) Congjarative Enrollments - - - - - 73

(4) Objectives of the Norms.l Schools 73

(5) Teaching in the Normal Schools - _ _ 74

(6) Curricula of the Normal Schools - - - 74

(7) Elemsntaiy Teacher Supply and Demand - - - 76

b. Teacher Training in Institutions Other Than the

State Normal Schools 77

(1) Facilities and Courses - - - - - - 77

(2) Financial provisions - -_ 78

c. Conclusions Relative to Teacher Education - - -

2. Agricultviral and Vocational Education 78

a. Collegiate opportunities for agriciiltural and
vocational education - - - - - - - 80

b. The Need of Negro Vocational Education on the

College Level 82

3. Education on the Liberal Arts; and the Physical,
Biological, and Social Sciences - - - - - 86

4. Health and Physical Education - - - - - - 87

5. Education in the Fine Arts 88

a. Provision for Fine Arts Education - - - - 89

(1) Fine Arts Education in the Normal Schools - 89

(2) Fine Arts Education in the Colleges - - - - 89

(3) Special Schools for the Fine Arts 90

b« Need of Negro Fine Arts Education - - - - 91

c. Conclusions relative to Fine Arts Education - - 92

6. University Extension - - - - - - - - 92

- lii,

7. Research Graduate Education - - - - - - - 95

a. Provisions for graduate study - - - - - - 95

b. Need of Negro Graduate Education - - - - - 98

c. Conclusions Relative to Negro Graduate Study - - - lOO

8. Professional Education (including Pre-professional) - - 100

a. Provisions for Professional Education - - - - loi

(1) Tlie Teaching Profession 101

(2) The Nursing Profession 102

(3) The Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical
Professions - - - - - - - - - 102

(4) The Legal Profession 103

(5) Pre-professional Education 103

(6) The Professional Librarians 103

b. Need for Negro Professional Education - - - - 103

Chapter V - Negro State-owned Colleges in States Con5)arable

to Maryland 106

1, Ifethods of Control in Other States 107

2, Types of College Organization in Other States - - - 108

3, Outstanding Features in Other States - - - - - 108

4, Negro College Enrollments in Other States _ - 109

5, Capital Investment in Negro Colleges in Other States - 111

6, Income of Negro Land Grant Colleges in Other States - - 112

7, Instructional Expenditures of Negro land Grant

Colleges in Other States - - - - - _- 114

8, Bi5)loyed Staffs of Negro Land Grant Colleges in

Other States 117

(1) Administration 118

(2) Teaching 118

9, Functions Exercised by State-owned Negro Colleges

in Other States 119

Chapter "71 - Comparative Historical Aspects of Negro Educa-
tion in Maryland - - - - - - ___ __ 122

I. Comparative Negro Education in Colonial Times - - 122

1, Apprenticeship - - - - - - - - - 122

2, Public Schools 122

3, Private Schools 123

4, Religiovis Schools -__ - - -___ __ 123

H. Con5)arative Education in the State of Maryland before

Emancipation - - -_-_ - - - ____ __ 124

1. Apprentice Education - - - - - - 125

2. Private Schools 125

3. Religious and Charitable Schools - - - - - 125

4. The Academies - - - - _-____-_ __ 126

5. Public Elementary Schools _-_ __ 126

6. Public Secondaiy, Vocational and Teacher Training
Schools 127

7. Higher Education 127

in. Conqjarative Education in Maryland since Emancipation - 129

1, Differences in the Financial Support of the White

and Negro Public Schools - — 129

- 15.

2. Coii5)arative Public Secondary Education 131

3. Con5)arative Public Vocational Education 133

4, Comparative Teacher Education 134

5, CoiEparative Higher Education 135

IV. The Historic Policy o± the State of Maryland Relative

to Education with Special Reference to the Higher Edu-
cation for Negroes -__- 137


united states circuit judge, chairma^

Edward N. Wilson


W. A. C. Hughes. Jr.


Dr. Arthur O. Lovejoy


Dr. Ivan E. McDougle


Carl J. Murphy


Dr. David Allan Robertson


Barnett M. Rhetta, M. D.

Robert Davids Ph.D.


(Cmiuuisawn an ^tgljer ^bucatioxi of ^'pgroca
^jtltimnre, ^iHarglanb

Dr. William Rosenau


Dr. Francis M. Wood


Robert P. McGuinn


January 15, 1937,

To the Governor and Legislature of Jferyland,
State House,
Annapolis, Maryland.


We herewith submit our report on the Higher Education
of Negroes in Maryland, in accordance with the Act of the General
Assembly of Maryland of 1935, Chapter 537.

Respectfully submitted,

Morris A, Soper, Chairman
Arthxir 0, Lovejoy
W. A. C. Hughes, Jr.
Ivan S, McDougle
David A, Robertson
Barnett M. Rhetta
William Rosenau
Edward N. Wilson
Francis M. Wood


Robert Davids, Consultant

Robert P. McGuinn, Executive Secretary

Note: Carl J, Murphy did not sign this Report.

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We recomnend a Bi-racial Board of Regents of Negro Higher Ed-
ucation, having powers corresponding to those now held by the Board of
Regents of the University of Maryland , to include the government of a
state college for Negroes to be established, the government of Princess
Anne Academy, if it is to be retained, and the administration of the
scholarship funds for Negro students to be appropriated by the Legisla-


We recommend the establishment of a state college for Negroes
aroxmd Morgan College as a nucleus if the State can acquire the same
from its present owners upon reasonable terms; and if not there, at some
other location in the State.


We recommend that if Morgan College is acquired by the State,
the present Board of Trustees of Morgan College be permitted to retain
a small amount of land, to be occupied and administered by the present


We recommend the abandonment of Princess Anne Academy as a
college for Negroes; but if it is to be retained as an educational in-
stitution, that it be conducted as a high school with special emphasis
upon vocational training.


We recommend the appropriation by the Legislature of $55,000
for each of the fiscal years, 1937 and 1938, for Negro scholarships and
the cost of administration thereof.

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to the


A crisis has arisen in the field of higher education for
Negroes in Maryland which the State is called upon to meet. The cause
is that the State has failed to make adequate provision for Negroes in
this branch of education, and the situation has recently been brought
to a head by an assertion of rights by individual members of the race,
which has met the approval of the courts.

Some appreciation of the need for action on the part of the
State was manifested by the last Legislature of the preceding State Ad-
ministration when by Ch. 234 of the Acts of 1933, Code of 1935, Article
77, Section 214A, the Board of Regents of the University of iJlaryland was
authorized to allocate such part of the State appropriation for Princess
Anne Academy, a Negro institution maintained by the State in Somerset
County, as the Board might deem advisable, to establish partial scholar-
ships at Morgein College or at institutions outside the State, to be
awarded to Negro students qualified to take professional courses or
other work offered at the University of Maryland but not offered at
Princess Anne Academy. No scholarships have been awarded under this act.

The present State Administration, during the legislative ses-
sion of 1935, took several additional steps in the same direction. It
increased the annual appropriation of Morgan College for the years 1936
and 1937 from $25,000 to $35,000; authorized the payment to Morgan Col-
lege of the capital sum of $100,000 in foxir annual installments of
$25,000 each for the property at Princess Anne Academy, vrtiich belonged
to Morgan College and had been used without compensation and maintained
by the State since 1919 ; created the Maryland Commission on Higher Edu-
cation of Negroes, gave it |3,000, a year during 1936 and 1937 for
salaries and expenses, and an additional $10,000 a year for the same two
years, to be used for scholarships for Negro students. (Acts of 1935,
Ch. 92, pp. 220, 284, 293, 294 and 297; Ch. 548, p. 1136; and Ch. 577,
p. 1203.) Subsequently in 1936, the Board of Public Works added |2500
to the Commission's funds to enable it to secure expert assistemce and
meet the expenses necessary in the preparation and printing of a report
to the Legislature of 1937.

The undersigned members of the Commission, with the exception
of one substitution to fill a vacancy caused by resignation, were named
in the legislative act. In the appropriation act $3,000 was provided in
order that a Commission, originally appointed by the Governor, shoiild
"make a study of and further the interest of Morgan College, and $10,000
to Morgan College Commission for university scholarships pending submis-
sion of the report to the Legislat\ire in 1937." In a subsequent Act,
(Ch. 577, p. 1203) the Maryland Commission on Higher Education of Negroes,
was formally created and the "appropriation in the State budget for^a
study of the interest and needs of higher education for Negroes in Mary-

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land, including Morgan College," was made arailable for the Commis-
sion's needs.

The Commission was clothed with two duties: (1) to make a
study and survey of the needs of higher education of Negroes in Mary-
land, including Morgan College, eind to make such recommendations to be
submitted in a report to the Governor and General Assembly not later
than JanuaiT- 15, 1937, as may be necessary to provide facilities for
higher education of Negroes in the State: (2) to administer the sum of
#10,000 for the scholastic years 1935-5 and 1936-7, for scholarships to
Negroes to attend colleges outside of the State, the main purpose being
to give the benefit of college and professional courses to the colored
youth of the State who do not have such facilities in the State, but
with the authority to award any of said scholarships to Morgan College,
The scholarships were not to exceed $200 each in value.

In accordance with this legislation, we submit the following
report which includes an account of oui- administration of the scholar-
ship fvmds. We also append a study of the higher education of Negroes
in Maryland prepared by the Commission's consultant. Dr. Robert Davids.
It is fortunate that we could avail ourselves of his servxces for eil-
thoxigh we were unable to bring him into the work until the latter part
of 1935, he had previously made an exhaustive study of Negro education
in Maryland as a thesis for his doctorate at Johns Hopkins University,
and was therefore familiar with the ground. We have used his stirvey as
the factual basis of our report, for we believe that it describes the
situation with substantial accuracy, notwithstanding the haste with which
it was necessarily compiled.

The accuracy of the legislative foresight which discerned the
necessity of a study of the situation at this particular time was demon-
strated by an important decision of the highest coiirt of the state which
was rendered on January 15, 1936, in the case of University vs. Murray,
169 Md. 479. Donald G. Murray, a Negro graduate of Amherst College, hav-
ing been denied admission to the Law School of the University of Mary-
land solely on the ground of his color, brought suit against the Uni-
versity; and its defense was that the exclusion was justified because
the State had established quality of treatment for Negroes by providing
them with scholarships for study in law schools beyond the borders of
the State. The Court of Appeals rejected this defense and ordered the
University to admit the student, holding that even if the student should
be successful in securing a scholarship under the Act of 1935, the fi-
nancial allowance would be inadequate in view of the increased expense
involved in absence from the state; and furthermore, that the student
wovild not have the advantage of instruction in Maryland law primarily
and of attendance upon the courts of the state in which he intended to
practice. The court referred to the well established doctrine laid down
by the Supreme Court of the United States that equality of treatment \inder
the federal constitution does not require that privileges be provided
members of the two races at the same place, and the state may choose to
separate the races; but if it does so, that which it accords to one race
must be equivalent to what it gives the other. It was pointed out that

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the Supreme Court had never passed on the question whether finemcial aid
in any amount to enable Negroes to secure the desired education outside
the State woiild be a constitutional equivalent and the Court of Appeals
did not find it necessary to discuss the problem.

Obviously, it is not the function of this Commission to decide
this point of law which in the absence of controlling decisions, must re-
main in abeyance. We can say as the result of our inquiries only that
competent legal opinion upon it is divided. Nor do we regard it as the
function of this Commission to advise the Legislature as to the wisdom or
justice of the policy of segregation - that must be decided by constitut-
ed authority. It is obvious, however, that the problem may have differ-
ent aspects when considered in connection with the graduate as distin-
guished from undergraduate study; that the question has been settled by
the Court of Appeals, so feir as the Law School of the University of Mary-
land is concerned; and that eqxial treatment through segregation neces-
sarily involves the outlay of large sums of money both in capital invest-
ment and annual maintenance in order to provide educational facilities
for the colored race equivalent to those which the State has provided for
the White.

The institutions in Maryland devoted to the higher education of
Negroes, if this Commission temporarily established to explore the field
and administer the scholarships be excluded, are four in number. They
are described hereafter as Princess Anne Academy (pp. 11 to 13) ; Morgam
College (pp. 13 to 15); Bowie Normal School, (pp.15 to 16) and Coppin Normal
School (p.l5). We first consider in the following pages the inadequacy
of these institutions.

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At the outset of this report, we said that the State had failed
to make adequate provision for Negroes in the field of higher education.
This statement is abtindantly supported by the facts disclosed in the at-
tached report of Dr. Davids, particvilarly Chapters lY and Y. By way of
illustration we cite ilrst a few examples wherein educational facilities
for Negro students are compared first, with those for White students in
Maryland, and secondly, with the facilities for Negro students In other
border states where conditions are similar to those In Maryland.

Capital Investment

University of Marylemd:

College Park - $4,291,106 Princess Anne - $100,000

Baltimore 2,698,950


The investment in building and equipment at Morgan College, a private
institution, is ten times as great as the investment at Princess Anne.
The total instructional expenditure of Princess Anne in this year was
|32,385 as compared with total instructional expenditures at Morgan of
$89,539. (See Table XI, page 56* )

Normal Schools

Towson $1,477,509 Bowie $217,106

Salisbiiry 799,516

Frostburg 416 , 742


The total enrollment at these schools during 1935-1936 was 662 at the
White schools and 93 at Bowie. (Compare Table DC, page 50 and Table XXI,
page 72.

Net Annual State Appropriation for Current Expenses
1935 - 1936

University of Maryland:

College Park $ 335,199 Princess Anne - $ 15,513

Baltimore 26,708

I 361,907

- 7

Notvflthstanding the inadequacy of Princess Anne and the small
a-nmiHi expenditure, the cost per student to the State, due to the small
number of students, was much greater than at the University of Maryland:
At the UnlTersity of Marylemd, College Park, $91, at Princess Anne $434.
(See Chapter TV, page 59, Table No. XIV, of Davids' Report.)

State Appropriation for Current Expenses

Normal Schools

Towson $108,142 Bowie $23,397

Salisbury 29,225

Frostb\arg 53,746


For the ten years from 1927 to 1936 inclusive, the state appro-
priation to educational institutions, state and private, for White stu-
dents was $10,916,116 and for colored students $774,178. (See Table
nil, p. 58.

The total net appropriation to all state-owned and state-aided
White institutions for the year 1935-1936 was $803,021 and the total net
appropriation to all state-owned smd state-aided Negro institutions was

A ccsnparison of the «nTiiifti appropriation for the biennum ending
October 1, 1937, to two sample White private institutions, Washington
College and St. John's College on the one hand, and the colored private
institution, Morgan College, on the other, shows the following:

Number of Students Annual Appropriation

Washington College 269 $60,500

St. John's College 270 67,000

Morgan College 355 35,000

Many other illustrations of the same sort may be found in Chap-
ters IV and V of the Davids' survey. No less striking is the material to
be found in Chapter VI where important facts ajid figures are disclosed
with reggird to state-owned colleges for Negroes in eight border and
Southern states comparable to Maryland. (Chapter V, Tables X2Z and XXXI.)
In financial resources, Maryland exceeds all of these states in the per
capita assessed value of its property, Table XXVI, page 106; and its per
capita gross state debt does not exceed the average. It is fair to as-
stmie, therefore, that Maryland is as well able as ajiy of these states to
supply the needs of its colored citizens. How poorly it has performed
this duty in comparison with other jurisdictions is shovm by the follow-
ing examples:

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1935 - 1936


Number of






























North Carolina














W. Virginia





These figures are taken from Tables XXVI to XXXTV in the appended sur-
vey. We call particular attention to Table XXVIII in which the capital
resources of Negro public colleges in these states are compared with
those of Maryland in proportion to the investment per Negro inhabitant.
From this it appears that the largest investment per Negro inhabitant is
$16. in Delaware and the smallest is 365^ in Maryland. North Carolina,
which is the nearest in its percentage in investment to that of Maryland
has three times Maryland's investment. The comparison with each of the
states is graphically shown by the following figure from page 112 of the
report :

Comparison* Investment in State Negro Land
Grant Colleges in Value of Plant Per Negro Inhabitant .

North Carolina
West Virginia



It is not suggested that higher education is merely a matter of
capital investment and current maintenance; but that these items are of
prime importance no one doubts who is associated with the distribution
of public fTinds or the administration of educational establishments. So
we find that the Negro has been deprived of many privileges in Maryland
which seem to be his due. Not only is it true that the provision for the
training of White teachers is superior to that afforded colored teachers,
(Ch. IV, pp. 71-79 ) , but the deficiencies in agricvilture and vocational
education for Negroes are most marked. Practical subjects have Invaded

*( Table XXVI indicates that North Carolina has five times as great invest-
ment per capita as Maryland; while figure 3, page 1L2, Indicates that
North Carolina has only three times as great investment as Maryland.
Perhaps the difference is due to the fact that the Investment of Maryland
in Table XXVI is put down as 78,057 whereas it is probable that Maryland's
investment vras taken at the figure $100,000 in Figure 3, page 112).

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the field for the higher education of White students to a great extent.
Agriculture, commerce, industry, engineering, library science and home

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Online LibraryMaryland. Commission on Higher Education of NegroeReport of the Commission on Higher Education of Negroes to the Governor and Legislature of Maryland, January 15, 1937 → online text (page 1 of 14)