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3 1833 01076 2778


Dear Sir :

The Prixce Society has r.ow ready for delivery to Mem-
bers a \o]u;ne entitled Sir Walter Ralegh and his Colony
IN America, edited by the Rev. Increase N. Tirbox, D.D. I'he
volume contains 329 pages.

On remitting Fi'»UR t)ollars in a Check payable to t'le order
of the undersigned on Boston, New York, Philadelijliia, Baliimore,
(Mv'cago, or San Irancisoo, or in a Postal money-order on Bosion,
your copy will be forwarded to y<;>u ; or if no order be received
from you. your copy will be forwarded to you by express, " to col-
lect on delivery."

A dividend of three dollars to each member of this date, who
shall receive this volume, has been declared, which reduces the
amount to be paid on the volunie, as vvill be seen below.

By order of the Council,


Boston, October 7, 18S4.

Cosi of Vvluvii c;:!it!i(t SiR V/ai.ter Ralec;h

AND HIS Colony in America . . $7.00

ZiVj- Di-jiJcrUf ....... -x.oo



P- S. — ric:Lse direct to ELBRff-r-E H. Goss, X')- iS Somerset
S^rt-er, Boston, Mass.

Digitized by the Internet Arciiive

in 2010 with funding from

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center


^ptii^Itcationi^ of i!)e ^UMt motut^.

Eilablifhed May 25th, 185S.

Sir Walter Ralp:gh '



By John Wilson and Son.
. 1884.






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1SS4, by

Th3 Prin'ce Society,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

:j y.;:>VH


Sir Walter Ralegh















We prcfunt two heliotype copies of early engravings of
Sir Walter Ralegh. The frontUpiece is taken from a copy
of Ralegh's "Hiftory of the World," printed in 1677, now in
the poffcHion of the New England Pllftoric Genealogical Society.
The other, at page 95, is from an engraving in the porfellion
of the Rev. Edmund F. Slafter. It bears the following
infcription : _/. Houhrakcn Jculj'jl.t, Amjl. In the PoffeJ]lon of
Peter Burrel Efqr. Jmpenjls J. 6^ F. Knapton^ Londini, lyjg-




Portrait of Sir Walter Ralegh, 1677 Fronfljjvdce

Memoir of Sir Walter Ralegh 1-93

Portrait of Sir Walter Ralegk, 1739 95

Charter to Sir Walter Raliigh, 1584 95-^^5

The First Voyage to America 107-127

The Second Voyage to America 129-181

The Third Voyage to America 133-2-54

The Fourth Voyage to America 2 45~-'73

The Fifth Voyage to America 275-299

Officers of the Prince Society 5-'.3

The Prince Society, 1SS4 2>°^~l^'^

Publications of the Prince Society - • 3°9

Volumes in Preparation by the Prince Society .... 310

Index 3U

yv.r> -^


Y.-. '•.;-.';'






^?^#|^! Devon, whole cathedral tov/n h
|J:i|g|y county lies in the Ibuthweftern

SALTER RALEGH was born in the count;y of

is Exeter. Tins
corner of Eng-
^'^^^M land, dividing, with the county of Cornwall, the
W^^^m j^g^]^ Qf i^nd lying between the Briflol and Eng-
lidi Channels. Thomas Fuller, in his great work entitled
The Worthies of Ejiglamt pubhflied in London, 1662, goes
over the feveral counties of England in alphabetical order,
giving the notable perfons and events belonging to each.
He thus defcribes Devonfliire, as it v/as known two hundred
and fifty years ago : —

" Devonjhi-re hath the narrow feci on the South, the ^^■:'-
er7i on the North, Cornivall o\\ the Weft, Dorfei and Somer-
fet Shire on the Eaft. A goodly Province, tlie lecx-nrl in
England for oreatneffe, clear in vieu without vicafHrinc^,
as being a fquare of fifty miles. Some part thereoi, as the
South-Hams, is {o fruitful it needs no art ; fome fo barren as

I Dartmore,

,, v^.^^w

Alevwir of

Dartmoie, it will hardly be bettered by art; but generally
(though not running of itfelf) it to llie fpur of indnf-
try. ... As for the Natives thereof, generally they are dex-
terous in any imploynient, and Queen ElizabetJi was wont to
fay of their Gentry, TJiey uere all born courllers with a decod-
ing conjidencer

It is not unnatural to luppofe that the Queen may have
had Ralegh^ efpecially in her mind in this faying of hers
about the Devonlhire Gentry. The words feem to fit his
characler remarkably well, for there was a tinie when Ralegh
had a very fpecial place in the Queen's fancy, and, without
intrufion, he knew hov/ to ufe his opportunities.

The place of Ralegh's birth was the parifli of Budeley.^
It was near the coail, and the llran2;e fafcination of the fea
played its part upon the opening mind of the boy." The

^ At the time v/hen Ralegh lived, and
for a century anenvard, the way of fpell-
ing proper np.mes was utterly lawlefs.
Each one acted according to his own
fancy. A name of great publicity was
almoft certain to be fpelled by every
poffible combination of letters which
might feem to till out the found of the
word. Some of the ways of fpelling the
name Ralegh are the following: Rawly,
Rawlye, Rawley, Rawlegh, Rawleigh,
Rauly, Rauley, Raulegh, Rauleigh, Ra-
leigh, &c. Wc have adopted the form
ufed by the biographers Oldys and
Birch, which is faid to have been Ra-
legh's own way of writing his name.
In the charter or letters-patent given
him by Elizabeth in 15S4 his name as
printed by Haklu\t, a fam.ihar acquaint-
ance and friend, is uniformly fpelled

2 Written alio as Budleigh, Dudley,
and Badlev.



3 "As there are conflicting pedi-
grees, lb are there alfo r'val claimants
to the honour of being th.e birth-place
of Ralegh. Such claims have been ad-
vanced in favour both of an old houfe
near the Palace in Exeter, and of the
venerable raanor-houfe of Fardell on
the lldrts of Dartmoor. But the pre-
tenlloiis of the Exeter houfe have
ceafed to be put forv.-ard ; they have, in
truth, no claim to a moment's aitentioa.
Fardell is Ifill occallonally vifited by
the devout touriif, under the intfuence
of traditions which are relblutely — nr>t
to fay ftubbornly — upheld by the in-
habitants of the village. . . . They will
be verv angry if you tell them that al-
though Sir Walter Ralegii's forefathers
lived in the houfe and worihipped i.a
the Chapel, for verv many generadons,
the great man himfulf was born, not at
Fardell, but at Hajes, far away in the
eartera corner of South Devon. . . .


Sir Walter' Ralegh,


]v:ilcL(hs had been people of rank in Devonlliire for many
o;cncrations, tliough the family was now in a reduced condi-
tion as to wealth. The name appears in the ollicial records
of the county for three or four hundred years previous to
this time.

Walter Ralegh bore the fame name with his father. It
was, however, from his mother chiefly that he derived thofo
qualities which helped to give him diilintftion. Ralegh's
father was three times married. His third wife was Cailia-
rine, daughter of Sir Philip Champernown, ipclled alio
Chanipernoun, Champernoon, and Champernon. She was
tiie widow of Otho Gilbert, Efq. As the wife of Gilbert
ihc had given birth to three fons, who all became lb
diilinguiihed as to receive knigiithood at the hand^ of
Queen Elizabeth. Thefe were Sir John, Sir Humphrey, and
Sir Adrian Gilbert. After her marriage vvith Ralegh, ihe
became the mother of two more fons, the youngeff of whom,
the fubjecl of this fketch, was alfo knighted by Elizabeth.
The Cliampernown family was one of Ibmewhat higher rank
in the county than that of the Raleghs at the time of tliis

In tlie following paffage taken from Fuller's Worthies, in

his is, indeel. fmall room for con- England," near Portfmouth, N. H. It

troverl'y aijout Uiele contiictincj claims, does not appear that Sir Arcluir cv.-r

fmce Sir Walter has put the faci out came to tliel'e ihores. Caplain Francjs

ot'doulit by a letter of his own." Life Champernown, his fon, came foon aiter

cf Sir Walter Ralr-^h, by Edward Ed- the grant was made, and took [iOiiViUon,

wardiS, i86S, pp. 9, '0. ' and herr; lived and died. \ u'd article

* Sir Arthur Champernown was a by Charles W. Tuttlc, A.Nt., in .\;'.v

couf.n of Walter Ralegh. In the vear Eng. Hijiorical and Gt:ncalr..;i^\il P.'-^/.-

\yr/) he received large tracls of land ijicr for Janua.'-y, 1S74, and follj'.vav.;

IrMin Sir Ferdinando Gorge; ia the numbers, in which the name is Ipclled

" I'rovince of New Sorameriett, in New Champernowne.

4 Memoir of

his chapter on Devonihire, the author rambles on In his
quaint and pccuhar way ; but we have chofcn to give him
free range, for it would only mar the whole effccl if ^^■e
\vere to cut it ihort, or attem})t to tranflatc it into modern
modes of exprelTion.

"SIR WALTER RALEIGH. The /on s of lieth >/^
^c/iio Abraham, ^koic art a great Prince amo7iQji 7is, in the
cJioice of our Sepulchres biiry they dead, none jhail uithhold
them from thee. So may we fay to the memory of this
worthy Knight, repofe yonrfelf in this our Catalogue iinder
what Topick you plcafe, of States-man, Sea-man, Souldier,
Learned Writer, and what not ? His worth zirdocks our-
clofefi Cabinets, and provides both room and IVcU-come to
entertain him.

" He was born at Budeley in this County (The Houfe
its name was called Hayes ;) of an Ancient Family, but de-
caied in Estate, and he the youngeft brother thereof. He
was bred in Oriel Colledg in Oxford^ and thence coming to
Court, found fomxC hopes of the Queens favours reflecling
upon him. This made him write in a glaffe Window,
obvious to the Queens eye. .,;•.■..:.•;.;;:.:.',
" * Fain would I climb, yet fear I to fall,

" Her Majejly either efpying, or hdngfiown It, did under-

" ' If thy heart fails thee climb not at all.'

" However

^ There was another Devnnlliire bo}', famous Richard Hooker, wlio ftudied

born a year later than Ralei;h, near alio at Oxford Univerlity, where he

Exeter, of humble parentacre, but who was for a time made deputy-proieflor of

became one of the chief ornaments of Hebrew. His great work is entitled

the Elizabethan period. This was the Of iJie Laws of E-clefiajUcal Polity.

r ; . ; , >


ti i«-;-v>:;;,_^ rii.jd vj ,,i.-!i . '.'t j lOil^i. "^'v:\:^^^

J j;;

■f,', iv.c; :

;,'(.. 1 'I

Sir Walter Ralegh, 5

" However lie at Lift clunbcd up by the JIairs of his own
dcfort. But his introduction into the Court bare an elder
date. Froni this occafion: This Captain Raleigh^ comuvj^
out of Ire/and to the Ev.glifJi Court in good habit (his
Cloaths being then a confiderable part of his eftate) found
the Queen walking, till coming to a PlaJJiy place, flie fccmcd
to fcruple going thereon. Prefently Raleigh caft and
fpred his new Plufli Cloak on the ground, whereon the
Queen trod gently, rcwarding him after wards with many
fu'Us for his fo free and feafonable offer of fo fair a fool
cloatJi. Indeed it zuas true of liiui, njhat ivas faid of Cato
Utifenfis:' tJiat he J'eeincd to be born to that o>ily Tohieh lie
ii'e)it about : So dexterous was he in all his undertakings, in
Court, in Camp, by Sea by Land, with Siuord with Pcu^'

Ralegh was a child of fix years old when Elizabeth began
her long and notable reign of forty-five years.'^' Five of the
fix years covered the brief and bloody reign of Mary. It
would be interefting to know far more minutely than we <exO
how his boyhood vvas paffed, and how he was fitted for Ox-
ford, where he was entered at an early age. Many of tiio.
great Hnglilli claffical fchools, nov/ fo celebrated, had then
no exidence. But Eton was more than two hundred years
old when Ralegh was born. Harrow and Weffminflcr
fchools were founded during the reign of Elizabeth. It
does not appear, howe\-er, that he was font away from home
anywhere for fludv until he went to Oxford. Tytlcr fays,

'' It

° The only fovereicrns of Enc'land nearly <lxty years, and Oacen \\x\^.t\\,

who have occupied the throne for lonzer who at this writing is palling the iorty

periods than Elizabeih are Henry 'H., fixth year of her reign.
who reigned fifty-lix years, George III.,

i 'V \j li-


Memoir of

" It was a happy circumilance that during the fanguinary
domination of Mary he was ftill a boy, and fechided in tlie
retirement of his lather's country-feat, where he received,
eitlier from a domeftic tutor or in fome fchool in the neigh-
bourhood, the rudiments of his education." ' All accounts
agree that he had an aptitude for iludy, and a great facility
for acquiring knowledge. The fludics preparatory to en-
trance upon college life in England, at that period, were
doubtlefs much lefs extended than at prefent. Tytler fays,
" When very young he was fen t to Oriel College, Oxford."
But the exprelTion "very young" is equivocal, though fome
fide-lights may be thrown upon it,. by which we can deter-
mine very nearly the date of his entrance upon college life.
Wood, in his AtJicncu Oxtviicufcsf devotes a large fpace to
Ralegh, evidently regarding him as one of the greater lights
of Oxford Univerfity. We quote a fomewhat extended
paffage from his article : —

" WALTER RALEEIGH, a Perfon in his time of a good
natural Wit, better Judgement and of a plaufible Tongue Son
of Walter Raleigh Efq, by Katharine his Wife, Dai.ighter


' Life of Sir Walter Raleigh, bv
Patrick Frafer Tytler, Efq., F.R.S. :
F.S.A., Edinburgh, 1S33. P- I9-

8 Anthony Wood, author of the
Athena: Oxonienfes. died in 1C95. His
work is an exceedingly valuable one,
thouo-h aboundincc in miftakes. He
wrote at a time when the laws of exact-
nefs, which ou.s^hi to prevail in the prep-
aration of fuch works :us his. had not
become dominant as now amona: fchol-
ars. Ramblins: and hearfay evidmce
was more adrailTible than at the preient

Lord Bacon, in his ApophtJie^^ins,
has preferved tlie tbllowing item of \i it
from the mouth of Rale::;h while he
was yet a member of Oriel Co lecce :
" There was in 0>"ford a cowardly fel-
low that was a very good archer. He
was abufcd groffly by another and
moaned himfelf to'Wafter Ralegh, tlien
a fcholar, and aiked his advice : IVluit
he fhoiild do to repair, the wj-oi'.i: had
been offered hii>: :' Ralegh aniw.^red :
Why cJiallen_^-: Jiii'i at a inatch o/jJioot-
ingy Vide T/ie Works of Fratui.^ Ba-
con, London, A. Millar, 1753, p. 43 S.

i .

Sir Walter Ralegh. 7

of Sir PliiUp CJiavipcrnoGn, Knt. was born at a place calK-d
Hayes in the Parilli of Eafi Bitdclcigh in Devon/Iih'-c an.
IS52. Which Hayes is a Farm, and his Father having had
a remnant of a Leafe of So Years in it, it came after expira-
tion thereof to one Duke: unto whom afterwards our author,
\V. Raleigk having a defire to purchale it, vrrote a Letter
dated from the Court 26 July 15S4, wherein he fays, tliatylv
the U'aiural difpojitioii he has to that place, being bor^i in that
Houfe, he Jiad rather feat Jiinifelf tlicre, tlia7i any zuherc eljc,
&c. I'lis Father v;as the firll: of his Name that lived tliere,
but liis .Vnceilors had poffelTed ////r/^-// (Fardell) in tlie fame
County for feveral Generations before, where they lived in
genteel Eftate, and were efteemed antient Gentlemen. In
1568 or thereabouts he became a Commoner of Oriel Coll.
at what time C. Champenioon, his Kinfman, ftudied there,
where his natural Parts being firangely advanced by Academ-
ical Learning: under the care of an excellent Tutor, became


the Ornament of the Juniors, and was worthily efteemed a
proficient in Oratory and Philofophy. After he had fpent
about three Years in that Houfe," where he had laid a good
Ground and fure Foundation to build thereon, he left the
Univerfiiy without a Degree and went to \ki^ Middle -Temple
to improve himfelf in the intricate Knowledge of the munici-
pal Laws. How long he tarried there t' is uncertain, yet
fure I am, from an Epiflle, or Copy of Verfes of his Com-
pofition, which I have feen that he was abiding in the faid
Temple in Apr 1576 at which time his Vein for Ditty and
amorous Ode was efteemed tnojl lofty, condolent and paffoii-
ate. As for the remaining Dart of his Life, it was fometimes
low, and fometimes in a m.ddlc condition, and often tolled

J J 1,.

*:■ '.•>■■"• v; f




■:. I -; -'!

.'). 'f-'

8 Memoir of

by Fortune to and fro, and feldom at reft. He was one that
fortune had pick'd up on purpole, of whom to make an
example, or to ufe as her Tennis-Bail, thereby to lliow what
flie could do ; for ilie toft him up out of nothing, and to and
fro to greatnefs, and from thence down to little more than to
that wherein llie found him, a bare Gentleman, not that he
was lefs, for he was well delcended and of good Alliance,
but poor in his beginnings. . . . France was the firft School
wherein he learn'd the Rudiments of War, and the Lozu
Coiintries and Irehmd made him Mafter of that Difcipline ;

for in both places he expofed himfelf afterwards to Land-

S* »)

We muft take this nailage for the information there is in

it, without accepting its authority in certain particulars. In-

deed, as a record for authority, it is exceedingly poor. The

date here given for his entrance upon his college life is " in

156S or thereabouts," and the time of his ftay there ''about

three years." This would retain him at the college till 1571,

and it is very certain that he was not there at fo late a date.

A more probable ftatement is that he left Oxford for the

French wars in 1569, when he was feventeen years old.

Tytler makes him join the Muguenot army during the year

when the battle of Jarnac occurred. This battle, which was

difaftrous to the Huguenots, was fought March 13, 1569.

It is doubtful whether Ralegh had then reached France,

but it is wellnigh certain that he was prefent at the battle

of jMonconiOur,^ which took place Oclober 3d of that fame

year. " j^

^ The flrong reafon for fuppofing contour is found in a pafTage inci den-
that Ralegh was in this baitU? ol: -Moxi- tally introduced into his Hijlory of


Sir Waller Ralee'/L


It Is made almoft certain by a variety of evidence that he left
the quiet l]iades of Oxford for the dangers and tumults of war
in the year 1569, when he was feventeen years old. If he
had fpent .three years at the Univerfity, he rnuft have entered
at the age of fourteen, which was then, and for a hundred
years afterwards, a common age for the entrance of bo\-s at
the Engh!lh colleges. Some were even younger, and Ibme
were older. John Cotton was a member of Trinity College,
Cambridge, in 1597, at the age of thirteen. John Norton
entered Peterhoufe, at Cambridge, in 1620, at the age of four-
teen. John Wilfon was admitted into King's College, Cam-
bridge, in 1602, when fourteen years old. John Davenport
was a member of Brafennofe College, Oxford, in 161 1, when
not yet quite fourteen. Fourteen was, therefore, a common
age for boys to enter college in England two hundred and
filly years ago, as it was the common age for entrance at
Harvard College, New England, in the early years of its exifl-
cnce. It is poffible, therefore, that young Ralegh fpent
three years at Oxford, though the ftatement to that effecl
by Wood is of little account, fnice he puts his entrance
there in 1568, and, befides, fends him from Oxford to his
law ffudios in the Middle -Temple before his warlike expe-
riences began. This is a double confufion. It is very cer-
tain that Ralegh received a good meafure of claffical culture,


//v IVorld, in which he fays: "And cot'//'/£'/>, and was one of thofe tliat hid

y.'t that worthy ;,^entleman Count Lii- caule'to thank him for it." /'/</<• 27:^:

tiowick of NalTau. brother to the late Works of Sir IVa/tcr Kalc'^^h, Kf., to

f.iawus Prince of Oran-e made the re- which are prefixed the Lives of the

treat at Moncontour with fo ,e;rcat relb- author, by Oldvs and Birch. In ei-;ht

hition as he faved the one-half of the volumes. Vol.' I., T/ie Lives. 0.x-

Pr.jtellant army, then broken and dif- ford, at the Univcrlity Prefs, iS:y.

banded, of which myfelf was an eye- Vol. VI. p. 211.

,. v


Mevioir of

fomewhere, and at fome time in his life ; and from the age
of feventeen to fifty his days were paffcd amid fuch iVirring
fcenes, that he could hardly have made much progrefs in
claffical ftudies unlets he had laid a good foundation for
them in his youth. His Ilijlory of the World, as x'/ell as
his other works, written in the later years of his life, Ihows a
wide acquaintance wdth the old Latin authors, from whom,
according to the fafliion of that age, he quotes freely.

Ralegh left Oxford to join a company of gentlemen which
bis coufm, Henry Champernown, had been commilTioned
by Queen Elizabeth to enlift for the help of the Huguenots
in France. It was a troop of one hundred choice and le-
le6led men, whose firft warlike fervice in France feem.s to
have been at the battle of Moncontour, which was fought j
on the 3d of October, 1569, when the Huguenots were
defeated. j

The hiftory of France during the years following the j
Huo-uenot effort at reformation is complex and hard to be j
thoroughly undeniood. Still harder is it to comprehend the |
exact relations of the Queen and government of England to j
the French wars, in the years when Ralegh was doing fer- j
vice in the Huguenot army. It might feem, at firfl glance, |
that Elizabeth heartily efpoufed the Proteflant intereils on
the continent, and was ready to furnifli men and money
in the good caufe. But a clofer ftudy of thofe times reveals \
the fa6t that Elizabeth was really playing a diplomatic
o-ame. Her lupport of Proteftantifm on the continent was of
a tvpe ver)' different from that of Oliver Cromvv-ell, Protec-
tor, in the next centuiy. Edwards, in his Life of Ralegh,
fays • " Henry Champernoun muft, one is led to think, have
^ left

['. i; ' *,


•J .■

Sir Walter Ralegh, 1 1

I'-ft College long before Ralegh, as we find him engaged in
tedious negotiations at Court for the affiftance of the lu-eriCh
Proteftants many months before the actual outfet of the
expedition. Very charaCleriilic are thole negotiations of
the tricky and tortuous policy of Elizabeth's government
towards the conflicling parties in France. ... At the time
of the battle of Jarnac, a long courfe of double-dealing, in
which the Englilli minilters, whilil keeping the Huguenots
in i^lay with fair words and promifes of help, were equally
anxious to amufe and pacify the ro}-al ambaifador witli allur-
anccs of true alliance and friendihip, had almoii iifucd in
open rupture with both. The Huguenots were again get-
ting weary of fine words, diverfified by pieces of fervice
wliich looked more likely to help Englifh ambition tJian to
fecure Proteffant liberties in France," -^"^

It is a fittino; fugro-eftion of the author from whom we have
•juil; quoted, that it was becaufe of this crooked and half-hearted
policy that we almoft lofe fight of Ralegh and the heroic
company to Vv-hich he had joined himfelf during the fix or
fevcn years of their flay in France. Not that he and his
alTociates were acting in any other than good faith, but they
f'iund themfelves fo encompaffed by this crafty net-work
of public policy, that wifdom and fafety feemed to dwell
with filence. It is therefore impoffible to recover anything
more than fmall fragments of the hiftory of thofe adventu-
rous years. If, however, this whole courfe of events were
plainly open to the view, it would not be confiilcnt with the
plan of this fketch that we fliould paufe to take a minute


'^'^ Life of Sir Walter Ralegh, by Edward Edwards, iS63, p. 27.

1 ' "'/ijl!


■■I ''-Hi' J : ;;! ' -J .iv

m: •::.-•. rvi ,■; :>l, Y, :

;-t ; t \; '.i'v!;:. rlJ, ,/


Mevioir of

furvey of them. Sufficient for our purpofe is it to know

Online LibraryMass.) cn Prince Society (BostonThe publications of the Prince society .. (Volume 15) → online text (page 1 of 26)