Copyright
Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station.

Bulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) online

. (page 13 of 77)
Online LibraryMassachusetts Agricultural Experiment StationBulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) → online text (page 13 of 77)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


(105). L^'ntreated cuttings of western catalpa rooted 77 percent (33).
Equivalent concentrations of indolebutyric acid for April cuttings are 5
to 12 mg./gm. talc or, by the concentrated solution-dip method, 4
mg./cc. (49).



* Stevens, Robert F. The genus Camellia with special reference to the propagation by
cuttings. Thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Science, Massachusetts State
College, May 15, 193 S.



16 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 382

Ceanolhus. Cuttings root readily in sand if taken in summer (105), Septem-
ber (51), or earlier. July cuttings of C. Dclilianus rooted 100 percent in
30 days after treatment with indoleacetic acid (100 mg./l., 24 hr.), 40
percent if untreated (87). Rooting of fall cuttings was hastened by treat-
ment with 20 mg./l., 24 hr. (113).

Cedrus libani, cedar of Lebanon, is not easily propagated by cuttings (61)
although there is some rooting of those taken in the fall (80) Untreated
cuttings taken here in November rooted 30 percent in sand-peat, less
well in sand.

Celastrus. Untreated softwood cuttings of American bittersweet root read-
ily in sand (125) but treatment may hasten rooting. July cuttings rooted
90 percent in 70 days without treatment and in half that time after treat-
ment with indolebutyric acid (50 mg./l., 20 hr.) (125). Their rooting wa>?
similarly hastened, 100 percent rooting in 50 days, by treatment with 30
mg./l., 6 hr. (83). Hardwood, April cuttings of oriental bittersweet pro-
duced more roots after treatment with indolebutyric acid (40 mg./l., 24
hr.), and there was even more benefit by naphthaleneacetic acid (48).
Equivalent concentrations of indolebutyric acid for treating hardwood,
winter cuttings of tliis species are 40 mg./l., 24 hr.; 2 mg./gm. talc; or,
by the concentrated solution-dip method, 1 to 4 mg./cc. (49).

Ccphalaufhus occidentalis, buttonbush. Cuttings taken here in late July
and early August rooted 100 percent in sand-peat in one month whether
or not they were treated. Hardwood cuttings also root readily (51).

Cercis, redbud. Softwood cuttings of C. chincnsis and C. canadensis which
were taken in June or July, or when one leaf of the new growth was al-
most full grown and the smallest leaves of CI canadensis were about a half
inch in diameter, rooted 75 to 90 percent in sand at 72° F. in about four
weeks (111).

Chacuomclcs. Japan quince has been considered diflficult to propagate by
cuttings (113) but treated softwood cuttings, taken in late spring or early
summer, root well. Those which were taken here in early June, when
fruits were about a half inch in diameter, rooted at least 90 percent in
sand in four weeks after treatment with indolebutyric acid (12.5 mg./l.,
24 hr.), not more than 30 percent without treatment. Rooting of July-
cuttings of C. japonica was hastened by treatment with naphthaleneacetic acid,
1:1000. in talc (104).

Chaniaccyparis Lawsoniana, Lawson cypress, is easily propagated by fall
cuttings. Untreated, they rooted 90 percent or more in sand-peat when
taken here in October, equally well but more slowly when taken in Jan-
uary. Rooting of cuttings of the variety Fletcheri was improved by indole-
butyric acid 40 to 80 mg./l., 24 hr., or 12 mg./gm. talc (61).

Chamaecypans obtusa, Hinoki cypress. Rooting of cuttings of the varieties,
sometimes poor otherwise, is better if they are treated with indolebutyric
acid (40 to 80 mg./l., 24 hr., or 12 mg./gm. talc) (61). Cuttings of the
varieties nana and compacta which were taken here in November rooted,
in sand-peat, not more than 40 percent in 12 months without treatment, not
less than 90 percent in 5 months after treatment (100 mg./l. , 20 hr.). Root-
ing of late December cuttings of the varieties niagnifica and filicoidcs was
similarly improved by SO mg./l., 24 hr. Cuttings of the varieties named
rooted in about the same percentages when taken here in October, November,
and December. Cuttings of the variety compacta which were taken here in
mid-July rooted 22 percent without treatment, 55 percent after treatment



"^ PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS 17

with indolebutyric acid (25 mg./l., 16 hr.). Untreated cuttings of the variety
filicoides rooted better in sand-peat than in sandy soil, better in sandy soil
than in sand.

Chauiaccyparis pisifcra. Sawara cypress. Cuttings of the variety plumosa
rooted well in sand-peat or sand if taken in November or December, less
well if taken in February (31). Treated cuttings rooted equally well in
sand-peat when taken here in October, November, or December, less well
in sand. Effective treatments for cuttings of five varieties were indolebutyric
acid 40 to 80 mg./l., 24 hr., dr 12 mg./gm. ta)lc (61). Cuttings of the va-
rieties filifcra and squarrosa which were taken here in late November rooted
90 to 100 percent after treatment with indolebutyric acid (75 mg./l., 24 hr.),
45 to 63 percent, and more slowly, without treatment. October cuttings of
the variety plumosa rooted 100 percent in 12 weeks with that treatment and
in 19 weeks without treatment.

Chamaccyparis thyoidcs, white cedar, has not been easy to propagate by
cuttings (5), but cuttings which were taken here in mid-November and
treated with indolebutyric acid (125 mg./l., 24 hr.) rooted 96 percent in
sand-peat in 6 months. Results were less good with lower concentra-
tions, and only ii percent of the untreated cuttings rooted.

Chiogcnes bispidula. creeping snowberry. Cuttings root readil}*. Taken
here in mid-July and not treated, they rooted 100 percetu m sand-peat in
8 weeks, less well in sand.

Cladrastis lutea, yellow-wood. Untreated softwood, summer cuttings rooted
100 percent in sand-peat in 6 weeks (87).

Clematis. Cuttings are taken in summer, late summer in the case of most
of the small-flowered kinds (71). Untreated cuttings of C. lanuginosa, in
sand or sandy soil, rooted more than 90 percent in 45 days when taken here
in late June and early July. Cuttings of C. Lawsoniana and C. tangutica are
successfully taken in July (116). Cuttings root equally well with the basal
cut made at a node or between two nodes, and single node, internodal, cut-
tings of the large-flowered sorts give good results (71). June cuttings of
C. vedraricnsis which had been treated with indolebutyric acid (33 mg./l.,
24 hr.) rooted 75 percent more in 3 weeks than did untreated cuttings. In-
doleacetic acid (100 mg./l., 18 hr.) hastened the rooting of cuttings of C.
vwntana var. rubcus (20).

Clcthra alnifolia, sweet pepperbush. Summer cuttings root readily (113),
up to 100 percent in sand-peat, less well in sand, without treatment (66)
but treatments may hasten rooting. Late June cuttings rooted 100 per-
cent in 20 davs after treatment with indolebutyric acid (10 mg./l., 24
hr.) (57).

Coriaria. Early July cuttings rooted 85 percent in sand in 18 days after
treatment with naphthaleneacetic acid (1:1000, in talc), about 57 percent
without treatment (97).

Cornus alba. Late June cuttings rooted 80 percent in 30 days after treat-
ment with indolebutyric acid (50 mg./l., 24 hr.), not at all meanwhile
without it (57).

Cornus Amomiim. July cuttings rooted so well without treatment that the
only result of treatment (indolebutyric acid 30 mg./l., 20 hr.) was more
roots per cutting (125).

Cornus florida, flowering dogwood. L^ntreated cuttings rooled 100 percent
in 3 weeks if taken in spring when flowering period was ending, less well
if taken later (111). June cuttings rooted equally well with or without



18 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 382

a heel (46), more quickly with four leaves than with two (111); but if
there is much danger of wilting, half the leaves may well be removed
(57). Cuttings root well in sand (57, 111), sometimes better in sandy
soil. Taken here in early June, they rooted 47 percent in sand, 64 percent
in sandy soil without treatment; IZ percent in sand, 95 percent in sandy
soil in 34 days after treatment with indolebutyric acid (12.5 mg./l., 24 hr.).
Other effective concentrations are 10 mg./l., 24 hr. (57) or 5 mg./gm.
talc. (49).

Cornus Kousa has not been considered easy to propagate by cuttings (64)
but, treated, they root fairly well in sandy soil. Taken here in early July,
untreated cuttings rooted 20 percent in sand, 53 percent in sandy soil;
and those treated with indolebutyric acid (25 mg./l., 24 hr.) rooted, in
8 weeks, 62 percent in sand, 82 percent in sandy soil. Tips of shoots
make good cuttings (105).

Cornus mas, Cornelian cherry, is less readily propagated by cuttings than
some dogwoods (116), although they root sometimes fairly well in sand
(44, 66), better in sandy soil. L^ntreated cuttings which were taken here
in mid-July rooted only 25 percent in either medium; those which had
been treated with indolebutyric acid (25 mg./l., 20 hr.) rooted 100 per-
cent in sandy soil, but no better than the untreated in sand.

Cornus raccmosa. Cuttings rooted 66 percent following treatment with
indolebutyric acid (80 mg./l, 4 hr.), much less well without it (125).
Rooting of July cuttings was improved by naphthaleneacetic acid dust,
1:1000 (102).

Cornus sangiiiitca, red dogwood. Late June cuttings rooted 68 percent in
3 weeks after treatment with indolebutyric acid (30 mg./l., 12 hr.), 44
percent without it (83).

Cornus stolonifera, red-osier dogwood. Hardwood cuttings, treated or not,
rooted 90 percent in 8 weeks when taken here in mid-April and imme-
diately set in the field. Softwood cuttings, whether or not they were
treated, rooted 100 percent in 5 weeks when taken here in early August.

Coronilla Emeriis, scorpion senna. Summer (51) or early fall cuttings root
in sand without difficulty (105). Taken here in early September and early
October, untreated cuttngs rooted about 70 percent.

Corylopsis, Softwood, late spring cuttings root well if taken while young
shoots are still growing (107). Untreated cuttings of C. pauciflora which
were taken here in early and mid-June, with basal cut at base of the current
year's growth, rooted 100 percent in sand-peat in 8 weeks, less well in sandy
soil. Summer cuttings of C. Willmottiae rooted about 60 percent more after
treatment with indolebutyric acid (17 mg./l., 24 hr.) than did untreated
cuttings (113).

Corylus, hazel. Hardwood, early spring, cuttings of European hazel will
root if kept fresh and in good light after leaves appear (128). Softwood,
summer cuttings rooted 22 percent after treatment with indoleacetic acid
(100 mg./l., 24 hr.), not at all without it (65). Mid-July cuttings of a
filbert rooted 52 percent in 58 days after treatment with indolebutyric
acid (4 mg./gm. talc), not at all meanwhile without treatment (104); and
mid-June cuttings of European hazel responded to treatment with indole-
butyric acid, 5 mg./gm. talc (49).

Cotoneastcr. Softwood cuttings are taken in late spring or early summer.
Untreated cuttings of C. dwaricata rooted 100 percent in 7 weeks when taken



PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS 19

here July 1 and there was good rooting of cuttings of C. acutifolia, C. hori-
sontalis (14), and C. adpressa (67) taken at or about that time. Cuttings of
harder wood are also used. Those of C. microphylla rooted 100 percent when
taken here in September. Cuttings of C. horisontalis which were taken here
in early August rooted 61 percent without treatment, 74 percent after treat-
ment with indolebutyric acid (50 mg./l., 16 hr.). Rooting of October cuttings
of C. microphylla was merely hastened by similar treatment (125). Sand is a
good rooting medium for that species (125), and it is better than sand-peat
for summer cuttings of C. divaricata and C. horisontalis.

Cryptomcria japonica. Summer and fall cuttings will root, although slowly
(124). Effective concentrations of indolebutyric acid for December cut-
tings are 40 to 80 mg./l., 24 hr., 4 to 10 mg./cc. by the concentrated
solution-dip method (49), or 12 mg./gm. talc (61).

Cupressus macrocarpa, Monterey cypress. Cuttings responded to treatment
with indolebutyric acid 40 to 80 mg./l., 24 hr., or 12 mg./gm. talc (61).

Cydonia oblonga, quince. Softwood cuttings which were treated with indole-
butyric acid (20 mg./l., 24 hr.) rooted well if taken in spring while still
growing but not if taken a little later than that (81).

Cytisus. Cuttings are made of nearly ripe wood (7) in late summer or fall.
Cuttings of C. Beanii and C. ptirgans, treated or not, rooted more than 90
percent in sand when taken here in early November. It is English practice
to root cuttings in sandy soil and to make them with a heel (80, 105). Cut-
tings of C. supinus, made without a heel, rooted better with the basal cut a
half inch below a node rather than at or above one (14). Cuttings of a
hybrid which were taken here in late October rooted 69 percent without
treatment, 100 percent after treatment with indolebutyric acid (75 mg./I.,
20 hr.). Rooting of cuttings of one species was improved by treatment
with indoleacetic acid (40 mg./l, 24 hr.) (47).

Daphne. D. Genkwa is easily propagated by cuttings taken while still very
soft (108). D. Mescreum, mezereum, can be propagated, although not very
easily (73), by cuttings taken in the fall (51). Fall, November, cuttings
of D. Laureola rooted 100 percent in 12 weeks after treatment with indole-
acetic acid (50 mg./l. 24 hr.) (68). Fall cuttings of D. odora rooted 80 per-
cent in 6 weeks after treatment with indoleacetic acid (100 mg./l., 18 hr.),
14 percent without treatment (25). D. Cneo^Mi can be propagated by cut-
tings taken in summer or in fall. Untreated cuttings taken here in July
and December rooted more than 80 percent in sand, less well in sand-
peat. December cuttings rooted 56 percent in 6 weeks after treatment
with indoleacetic acid (100 mg./l, 16 hr.), not at all meanwhile without
treatment (21). Summer cuttings are not very responsive to treatments
with indolebutyric acid (83, 125). Rooting of cuttings taken here in Sep-
tember was at least hastened, however, by 50 mg./l., 5 hr., for, in 9 weeks,
with some unrooted cuttings still living, there was 66 percent rooting of
treated cuttings, 20 percent rooting of the untreated.

Davidia involucrata, dove-tree. Cuttings, made of side shoots or twigs with
a heel (80), are taken in late summer (8) or when the wood is firm (105).
Their rooting, usually not good (64), was somewhat improved by treat-
ment with indoleacetic acid (100 mg./l, 24 hr.) (87).

Deutsia. Untreated softwood, July, cuttings of D. Lcmoinei (66) and
D. gracilis (14) rooted 100 percent in sand but rooting of similar cuttings of
D. scabra was at least hastened by naphthaleneacetic acid or indolebutyric
acid (1:1000, in talc), the former giving the better results (34) Hardwood,



20 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 382

January, cuttings of one species developed more roots per cutting after
treatment with naphthaleneacetic acid (60 mg./l., 24 hr.) and there was
similar, although less response to indolebutyric acid (48).

Dorycnium hirsutwii. Taken here in September and October, untreated
cuttings rooted 100 percent in sand in 3 months.

Elacagnus. Cuttings of E. pungeius rooted 72 percent without treatment,
100 percent in sand if treated with indolebutyric acid (30 mg./l., 4 hr.)
and taken in October; less well if taken earlier or later (125). January
cuttings rooted 30 percent without treatment, 75 percent after treatment
with indolebutyric acid (40 mg./l., 6 lir.) (119). The species are also
propagated by softer wood, summer cuttings made with a heel (80).

Enkianthus. Untreated softwood cuttings of E. campanulatus and E. peru-
latus rooted 80 percent or more when taken here in late May. Cuttings of
the former taken here in early June rooted 100 percent in 6 weeks after
treatment with indolebutyric acid (50 mg./l., 20 hr.), 83 percent in 10
weeks without treatment. Sand-peat is a better rooting medium than
sand (44).

Epigaea repens, mayflower. August or September cuttings, made to include
the current year's growth and, at the base, some of that of the previous
year, rooted in high percentages in sand-peat, peat, sphagnum, or their
native soil, and in higher percentages than did cuttings taken in spring (6).
Untreated cuttings which were taken here in late August rooted 94 per-
cent in sand-peat in about 5 weeks. Treatment is unnecessary, but the
rooting of October cuttings was hastened by naphthaleneacetic acid
(50 mg./l., 24 hr.) (114).

Erica, heath. Summer cuttings root readily in a sandy, peaty soil (105) or
in sand-peat. Untreated cuttings of cross-leafed heath rooted 93 percent in
8 weeks when taken here in late June, less well when taken in August. Root-
ing is sometimes improved or hastened by indolebutyric acid (40 mg./l., 24
hr. or 12 mg./gm. talc) (61). July cuttings of E. darlcyensis rooted 100 per-
cent in 4 weeks with treatment, 77 percent without it (88).

Eiwnymus, spindle-tree. Softwood, summer, cuttings of evergreen species
usually root readily, more readily than those of the deciduous species (7),
and cuttings of both may be taken later and rooted in sand. Untreated cut-
tings of E. japonica which were taken here in October rooted 100 percent.
October cuttings of E. kiautschovica (125) also rooted well. Hardwood cut-
tings of winged spindle-tree which were taken here in early April and im-
mediately set in the field rooted 100 percent in 4 months whether or
not they were treated. November and March cuttings of that species and of
E. latifolia also rooted well (29). Rooting of cuttings of several species was
hastened by treatment with indolebutyric acid (16, 49, 83, 125), concentra-
tions to which there was a response being as follows : European spindle-
tree (August), 100 mg./l., 24 hr. ; E. japonica (September), 60 mg./l., 24 hr. ;
strawberry-bush, winged spindle-tree, and E. kiaiitschoznca 5 to 10 mg./l., 24
hr. ; E. Fortunei, 1 to 5 mg./gm. talc

Exochorda, pearl bush. Softwood, June or July, cuttings will root although
not very well (7,105). July cuttings of E. raccmosa rooted 40 percent in
sphagnum peat, not at all in sand (66).

Fagiis, beech. Cuttings do not root at all readily O'i), but European beech
has been propagated by softwood cuttings taken in early summer when
tlie last one or two leaves on the twig were beginning to develop (42, 67).



PROPAGATION OF TREES AND SHRUBS 21

Such cuttings responded to treatment witli indoleacetic acid (200 mg./l.,
24 hr.), 50 percent of them rooting in sand-peat in 2>7 days (87).

Foiitancsia Fortunei is easily propagated by softwood cuttings. Taken here
in mid-July, they rooted 100 percent in sand in 8 weeks without treat-
ment. Sandy soil may also be used (80). Late June cuttings rooted 53
percent in 3 weeks after treatment with indolebutyric acid (5 mg./l., 24
hr.), less well with greater concentrations (57).-

Forsythia, golden bell. The species are easily propagated by hardwood and
softwood cuttings. Untreated cuttings of F. ititeniicdia (14) and F. viridis-
sima (66) rooted 100 percent when taken in July; also very well, in sand, when
taken from May through September (44). Rooting of late June cuttings was
hastened by treatment with indolebutyric acid, F. suspensa responding to 50
mg./l., 6 hr. (83) and F. intermedia to 5 mg./l, 24 hr. (57).

Fothergilla. Cuttings are considered difficult to root {73), but July cut-
tings of F. Gardeni rooted 100 percent in sand-peat in 42 days after treat-
ment with indoleacetic acid (200 mg./l., 24 hr.), 67 percent without it (87).
Untreated softwood cuttings of F. monticola which were taken here in spring,
when the shrubs were in flower, failed to root in sand but rooted 67 percent
in sandy soil in 60 days.

Franklinia alatamaha (Gordonia) is not difficult to propagate by late sum-
mer or fall cuttings. August cuttings rooted 83 percent in sand in 29
days after treatment with indolebutyric acid (30 mg./l., 24 hr.), equally-
well but more slowly without treatment (125). Cuttings which were
taken here in early November rooted 93 percent in 64 days after treat-
ment with indolebutyric acid (50 mg./l., 24 hr.), 67 percent without it;
and these November cuttings proceeded to make more top growth than
did cuttings taken in August.

Gardenia. Cuttings respond to treatment with indolebutyric acid (40 mg./l.,
24 hr. or 2 mg./gm. talc) (61) but sometimes the only effect is to hasten
rooting. Untreated cuttings which were taken here in late November,
from greenhouse plants, rooted equally well, 94 to 100 percent in 40 days,
in sand, sand-peat, or sandy soil and the only benefit of treatment was
to hasten rooting by about a week. April cuttings rooted 88 percent in
53 days after treatment with indolebutyric acid, 56 percent without it (16).
While cuttings taken about December 1 were rooting 57 percent without
treatment, there was more than 80 percent rooting of cuttings which had
been treated with Rootone or Hormodin (120).

Genista. Summer cuttings of most species root well in sandy soil (7, 105).
Some of them may also be taken in fall. Untireated cuttings of G. pilosa
rooted at least 90 percent in sand when taken here in September and
October, less well if taken in December.

Ginkgo biloba, maidenhair-tree. Softwood, July, cuttings root fairly read-
ily (45). Such cuttings rooted 90 percent in sand in 36 days after treat-
ment with indolebutyric acid (50 mg./l., 24 hr.), but untreated cuttings
rooted almost as well (125).

Halesia, silverbell-tree. Cuttings of H. Carolina and H. monticola which
were taken here in mid-July rooted 80 percent in sandy soil in 6 weeks
after treatment with indolebutj^ric acid (25 mg./l., 20 hr.), not more
than 40 percent without treatment; and decidedly less well in sand,
whether treated or not (27). Cuttings have also rooted well in sand-peat
(87) and better in peat moss than in sand (66).



22 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 382

Hamamelis. Witch-hazels have not been easily propagated by cuttings {.72),
80). Cuttings of H. mollis which were taken here in July rooted 59 percent
in sandy soil, less well in sand, without treatment; and those which were
treated with indolebutyric acid (50 mg./l., 20 hr.) rooted 72> percent in
sandy soil, less well in sand.

Hedera Helix, English ivy, with the possible exceptioin of the variety con-
glomerata (5), is easily propagated by softwood cuttings, made of growing
tips (69, 83), inserted in sandy soil (80) or sand. Benefits of treatment
are not great (83) but rooting is sometimes hastened (113). Optimum
concentrations of indolebutyric acid are 10 mg./l., 24 hr., or 2 mg./gm.
talc (61).

Helianthcmutn, sun-rose, is easily propagated by summer and early fall cut-
tings. Taken here in early October, cuttings of H. nummidariutu rooted 100
percent in sandy soil whether or not they were treated.

Hclwingia japonica is not difficult to propagate by fall cuttings. Untreated
cuttings rooted 90 percent in sand when taken here in early November,
less well if taken in July.

Hibiscus syriacus, shrubby althaea. Softwood cuttings which were taken
in July, a good month for this species (14), rooted 100 percent in 36 days
after treatment with indolebutyric acid (50 mg./l., 6 hr.), 52 percent
without it (83). Such cuttings are successfully made of side shoots, with
a heel, and rooted in sand (105). Rooting of hardwood cuttings, which
should be made of the basal or middle parts of the shoot rather than its
tip, was improved by treatment (48). Such cuttings, taken from October
to February, responded to treatment with indolebutyric acid 40 to 60
mg./l., 24 hr., 4 to 10 mg./cc. by the concentrated solution-dip method,
or 2 to 12 mg./gm. talc (49).

Hydrangea. With the exception of H. petiolaris (18, 7Z, 113) and possibly
H. quercifolia, the species are easy to propagate by softwood cuttings taken
in summer, although those of H. arborescens (121) and H. petiolaris may root
more readily if taken in spring (102). At least for H. paniculata (16), H.
quercifolia, and H. macrophylla (87), sand-peat is a good rooting medium.
Rooting of cuttings of H. paniculata was hastened by indolebutyric acid (20
mg./l., 24 hr. (87). July cuttings of H. quercifolia rooted 100 percent in
sand in 39 days after treatment with Hormodin No. 2, 10 percent without
it (102). Their rooting was also improved or hastened by treatment with
indolebutyric acid, 1:250, in talc (104) or 30 mg./l., 10 hr. (83).

Hypericum. St. John's-worts are not difficult to propagate by summer
cuttings made of tips of branches (105) and rooted in sandy soil (7).
Cuttings of H. frondostim, treated or not, rooted 100 percent in sand in 7
weeks when taken here in early August, less well if taken in June.

Idesia polycarpa. Cuttings taken here in late July rooted 76 percent in sandy



Online LibraryMassachusetts Agricultural Experiment StationBulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) → online text (page 13 of 77)