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square feet and will be mulched from time to time with hay of known mineral
composition; Plot 2 received Fiberglass wool of 2-3 inches in thickness; and
Plot 3 was left fallow and will be cultivated in the usual manner.

Soil samples were taken at two systematically located positions under each
tree before mulching was started. At each sampling location four samples were
taken at specified depths so that any movement of mineral nutrients resulting
from mulching might be detected when further samples are obtained and analyzed.

The samples of soil were stored in sealed glass jars to prevent loss of moisture
and the subsequent fixing of potassium and other mineral nutrients. After the
moisture in the soil had been determined, samples were extracted by the neutral
ammonium acetate method and the extracts were analyzed for the exchangeable
ions: hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

From the analysis it has been observed that the base saturation of this soil
was very low and conversely the hydrogen saturation was very high. In one
surface sample the base saturation was as low as 5.2 percent. The amount of
exchangeable potassium in the surface soils ranged from 100 to 200 pounds of
pocassium per acre for a 6-inch depth. This amount of potassium is usually
considered adequate for good crop production but may become a limiting factor
as the other elements are increased since the subsurface soils contain a much
smaller amount of this element. The exchangeable calcium was exceptionally



34 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

low, especially in the subsoils, where only 28 pounds of calcium were found per
acre for each 6-inch depth. The calcium level of the surface soils was higher
but in no case exceeded 270 pounds per acre for a 6-inch depth.

The exchangeable magnesium ranged from an amount too small to be meas-
ured by the niethod employed to 43.2 pounds per 6-inch layer of an acre. It
might be suspected that magnesium deficiency would occur on these trees under
certain growing conditions, since these amounts of magnesium are considered
inadequate for normal plant production.

Total and available phosphorus will be determined on the soils previously
collected and on those obtained in the future, to see if the addition of organic
matter has any mobilizing effect on phosphate. Mineral analyses will also be
made of the samples collected in the future to determine the influence of mulch
on the amount or mobilization of the various mineral nutrient elements.

The Fixation of Arsenic in Soils and the Influence of Arsenic Compounds
on the Liberation of Fixed Phosphates. (Dale H. Sieling.) Anion fixation in
soils is very important from the standpoint of the decrease in availability of phos-
phates added as fertilizers to the soil. This study was undertaken to see whether
arsenates were fixed in a similar manner to phosphates and would replace fixed
phosphates. If the arsenic from spray residues were fixed, it would show to some
extent the reason why such quantities of arsenic do not depress the growth of
plants in soils while growth cf plants is inhibited in cultural solutions containing
the same amount of arsenic. The fundamentals involved in anion exchange or
fixation by the soil can best be studied by using pure clay fractions found naturally
in soils.

Purified Kaolinite and Halloysite, clay minerals commonly found in soils,
have been investigated for their property to adsorb arsenates. It has been found
that these clay minerals, as they ordinarily exist in large deposits, do not fix
appreciable quantities of either phosphates or arsenates at pH 3.0. Grinding of
these minerals in a ball mill for a period of 20 days reduced the particle size to
more nearly that of soil clay particles and increased the activity of both minerals
in fixing arsenates and phosphates.

Five-gram samples of these minerals were shaken continuously for 24 to 72
hours in stoppered bottles containing measured quantities of a normal solution
of either phosphoric or arsenic acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with sodium hydroxide.
The fixation was measured by determining the decrease in concentration of the
ion in the solution after removal of the clay by centrifuging. Fixation was not
instantaneous but followed a pattern somewhat similar to th?t reported for
phosphate by other workers and confirmed in these tests. Arsenate was fixed
in quantities practically equivalent to phosphate by the Kaolinite clay but in
somewhat smaller amounts than phosphate by the Halloysite; however both
arsenate and phosphate fixation by pulverized Halloysite exceeded the amounts
of these ions fixed by Kaolinite.

Further study is being conducted to establish the relative ability of each of
these two negative ions to replace the other when it has been fixed by these clays.



CONTROL SERVICE

Philip H. Smith in Charge

The Fertilizer, Feed, and Seed Control Laws and the Dairy Law are all ad-
ministered as one service. In addition, a large amount of work is done not only
for other departments of the institution, but also for other State institutions
and for citizens as well.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 35

Fertilizer Inspection. Records for the year show that 118 firms have reg-
istered 501 brands of mixed fertilizers and fertilizing materials and 45 brands of
agricultural lime and gypsum. The gross receipts from the registration of the
fertilizer and lime products and from fertilizer tonnage fees were $14,711.41.

For inspection purposes 1,746 samples, representing 490 brands and 8,433
tons of materials, were drawn from stock found in the possession of 393 agents
or owners located in 144 towns and cities of the State.

The following summary shows the character of these substances, as well as
statistics with reference to their inspection.

Brands Brands Samples

Registered Collected Drawn

Mixed fertilizers 330 299 1,021

Ground bone, tankage and fish 35 35 190

Nitrogen products, mineral and organic 48 41 151

Phosphoric acid products 26 23 112

Potash products 24 23 85

Dried pulverized natural manures 23 22 73

Nitrate of potash 3 3 9

Peat products 3 2 2

Wood and cotton hull ashes 6 4 6

Emieo (30% magnesium oxide) 1 — —

Miscellaneous 2 1 5

Lime products 45 37 92

Totals 546 490 1,746

Feed Inspection. During the fiscal year 1,331 samples of feeding stuffs were
officially collected and examined in the control laboratcries. The gross receipts
from the registration of feeding stuffs in 1941 were $27,220, derived from 1,361
brands at $20 each.

Dairy Law. During the year ending December 1, 1941, 6,738 pieces of Bab-
cock glassware were tested; 107 certificates of proficiency were awarded; and
239 creameries, milk depots, and milk inspectors' laboratories were visited in order
to check methods and to pass upon equipment in use. As a result of this inspec-
tion, four machines were condemned. These will be either replaced or put into
condition to operate satisfactorily.

Miscellaneous Analytical Work. (Fertilizer and Feed Laboratory.) In addi-
tion to the work required by the several regulatory activities under its adminis-
tration. Control Service is interested in collaborative work with other depart-
ments of the Experiment Station and College; the examination of samples of
feeds, fertilizers, and other agricultural products submitted by citizens of the
State; the testing of feeds and fertilizer bought by State institutions; and in-
vestigational work on new methods of chemical analysis fcr the Association of
Official Agricultural Chemists.

In order to indicate the wide scope of the work, the following statistical data
are appended: —

Fruit spray residue 16

Feeds, from farmers and dealers 57

Feeds, from State institutions 892

Feeds and forage crops, Experiment Station 182

Fertilizer mixtures 12

Ice Cream 130



36 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

Insecticides and fungicides 2

Limestone (AAA distribution) 12

Milk 362

Ore 8

Peat 1

Poultr}' feces (In connection with experiments) 9

Poultry grits 6

Referee and check samples, fertilizer and feed 11

Specimens for mineral poison 3

Superphosphate (AAA administration) 11

Water 4

Miscellaneous 19

Seed Control. From December 1, 1940, to December 1, 1941, the Seed Lab-
oratory received and worked 3024 samples of seed, of which 942 were collected
by the State Commissioner of Agriculture and 2082 were sent in by seedsmen,
farmers, and various State institutions. In addition, 209 samples of flower
seeds, for field tests only, were received from the State Commissioner of Agri-
culture.

Classification of these samples, with the total number of laboratory tests in-
volved, is shown in the following summary. It will be noted that 3998 tests were
required for the 3024 samples; 672 for purity, and 3326 for germination.

Number of Number of Tests

Samples Purity Germination

544 Field Crops for Purity and Germination 544 544

2 Field Crops for Purity Only 2 —

235 Field Crops for Germination Only — 235

81 Lawn and Other Types of Mixtures for Purity, Ger-
minations involving 393 ingredients 81 393

35 Lawn Mixtures for Purity Only 35 —

7 Lawn Mixtures for Germination Only, Germinations

involving 36 ingredients — 36

1926 Vegetables for Germination Only — 1926

46 Herbs for Germination Only — 46

16 Flower Seeds for Germination Only — 16

2 Flower Seeds for Purity Only 2

8 Flower Seeds for Purity and Germination 8 8

13 Tree Seeds for Germination Only — 13

109 Tobacco Seeds for Germination Only. . . .' — 109

3024 Totals 672 3326

Field tests to determine trueness to type were conducted in cooperation with
the Departments of Olericulture, Floriculture, and Agronomy, which tested
220 samples of vegetable seeds, 209 samples of flower seeds, and 30 samples of
oats, respectively.

The Seed Laboratory cleaned 90 lots of tobacco seed for Connecticut Valley
farmers. The gross weight of the tobacco seed was 131.28 pounds and the net
weight for the cleaned seed was 102.17 pounds.

Corn, oats, barley, and wheat, (162 samples), purchased by various State
institutions, were examined for conformity to grade purchased; and 98 samples
of ground cattle and poultry feed, collected by inspectors or sent in by dealers and
farmers, were examined microscopically.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 37

THE CRANBERRY STATION
East Wareham, Massachusetts

H. J. Franklin in Charge
Injurious and Beneficial Insects Affecting the Cranberry. (H. J. Franklin.)

Hill Fireworm {Tlascala finitella (Walker)). One and a half acres of the Summit
Cranberry Company's bog at Greene, R. I., replanted in the spring of 1941, were
seriously infested in the hills by this insect in mid-July. Vines planted there in
1940 were also attacked but less severely and mere along the runners lying on the
sand than in the hills. These infestations were curbed completely by spraying
and dusting heavily with rotenone materials.

About 50 acres of heavy vines of the Burrage bog at South Hanson, Mass.,
were found to be infested throughout by this insect from July 12 to August 12,
1941. The worms were everywhere rather plentiful there in the thicker clusters
of vines during the latter half of July, being mostly in their tubes of frass and
silk well down among the vines but considerably above the bog floor. They did
considerahle, but not severe, damage by devouring under leaves and blossoms.
The superintendent of the bog said it had been similarly attacked by this pest
in 1940.

Many of the worms were about full grown on July 19, 1941. A few were still
present in their tubes among the vines of the Burrage bog on August 12. The
largest were about thirteen sixteenths of an inch long, with the head black, the
cervical shield black with a much-broken pale yellow stripe along its front margin,
the body dark brown, striped lengthwise on the back and sides, except toward
the hind end, with about eight narrow and broken pale yellow stripes, these being
most conspicuous toward the front end. The first moths to appear in confine-
ment emerged August 8 and more came out from August 10 to 20. Many live
pupae remained on November 18.

Some of these worms were found in their tubes among the foliage of cultivated
swamp blueberry bushes at the station.

Cranberry Root Grub {Amphicoma vulpina). Some of these grubs were sent
to the Japanese and Asiatic beetle laboratory at Moorestown, New Jersey, in
January 1941, to have their susceptibility to the milky disease organism deter-
mined. Mr. C. H. Hadley, in charge of the laboratory, reported later as follows:

With further reference to my letter of January 10th regarding tests to
determine the susceptibility of the cranberry root grub, Amphicoma
vulpina, to the milky disease organism, we have completed the prelim-
inary tests with the material which you sent me in January. Negative
results were obtained both by injection tests and feeding tests with the
type A milky disease organism, Bacillus popilliae. No evidence of milky
disease development was observed either by macroscopic examination or
upon microscopic examination of the blood of the injected individuals.
Neither was there any indication of development of the organism in larvae
which had been given opportunity to feed in infected soil. We must,
therefore, conclude that this species of larva is not susceptible to milky
disease infection.

Late in the spring, one of the cranberry growers started further tests of paradi-
chlorobenzene as a control for this pest, applying the chemical with a fertilizer
spreader at the rate of 1200 pounds an acre and covering it at once with about an
inch of sand. His plots were examined late in August and nearly all the grubs
were found to have been killed, even where flooding foi frost protection and for
insect control had been done soon after the treatment was applied. This treat-
ment probably will be useful in special situations, as on bogs that cannot be
treated with cyanide because they drain into public water supplies, or perhaps
on bogs with a surface soil too dense to take in the cyanide solution readily.



38 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

Quite a number of bogs were reflowed from mid-May to mid-July, 1941, to
check severe infestations of the root grub. This treatment was generally fairly
successful, as it usually has been heretofore, but it was found that in several
cases some grubs survived.

Cranberry Fruit Worm {Mineola vaccinii). Arsenate of lead, 8 pounds in 100
gallons of water with a casein spreader, applied at the rate of 400 gallons per acre
at the times when derris and cryolite are most effective, controlled this insect
very well on experimental plots, but less completely than derris or cryolite.
Xanthone, both in a spray and in a dust, failed to affect it appreciably.

Gypsy Moth {Porthetria dispar). Cryolite, 14 pounds in 100 gallons of water,
400 gallons an acre, failed to cause much reduction in the number of maturing
caterpillars on a bog, as did also dusting with 100 pounds of natural cryolite
per acre.

Cranberry Girdler {Crambtis hortuellus). Fifty pounds of 4 percent rotenone
derris dust (without activator) to an acre killed nearly all the moths of this pest
on a treated area, but was not quite so effective as pyrethrum.

Black-headed Fireworm (Rhopobota). An interesting development was the
use of a mixture of cryolite and impregnated pyrethrum dust. Treatments with
this mixture cost no more than those with clear pyrethrum dust and seemed to
have greater value, especially with the first brood. The cryolite provides a con-
siderable control after the pyrethrum ceases to act and so takes care of most of
the young worms as the eggs continue to hatch.

Prevalence of Cranberry Pests. The relative general abundance cf insect pests
on Massachusetts bogs in the 1941 season was as follows:

1. Gypsy moth more abundant and destructive in Plymouth County than for
many years, but much reduced on the middle and outer Cape, not giving much
trouble there.

2. Blunt-nosed leafhopper {Ophiola) reduced as in recent years, because of
general treatment.

3. Cranberry fruit worm only moderately troublesome and through working
early; much less prevalent than in 1940, less eggs being laid by the moths, and the
eggs being attacked by the Trichogramma parasite more severely and generally
than usual.

4. Black-headed fireworm less abundant than usual and less than in 1940.

5. Firebeetle (Cryptocephalus) generally very scarce, but abundant on lOacres
of a bog in Norton.

6. Spanworms about the same as in 1940.

7. False armyworm {Xylena) even more prevalent than in 1940; more trouble-
some than for many years. Blossom worm even less prevalent than in 1940.

8. Cranberry girdler more harmful than in 1940.

9. Cranberry weevil about as in 1940.

10. Cranberry spittle insect {Clastoptera) and tipworm (Dasyneura) rather
more troublesome than in 1940.

11. Spotted fireworms (Cacoecia) very few.

Control of Cranberry Bog Weeds. (Chester E. Cross.) Paradichlorobenzene,
naphthalene, ferric sulfate, ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate, borax, kerosene, and
a special petroleum oil, PD-428D, were tried on various kinds of bog weeds,
276 plots being treated. The results of many experiments have shown that many
cranberry weeds can be killed in May and early June by treatments largely in-
effective later in the season.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 39

Paradichlorohenzene. It was observed



Online LibraryMassachusetts Agricultural Experiment StationBulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) → online text (page 33 of 77)