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Flavor Score 22.5 23.25

Fat (percent) 3.0 4.0

Skim (percent) — .01

Total solids (percent) 11,395 12.35

Bacteria per c. c 1500 2400

Curd tension 60 57.5

■ Creaming (pint bottle) 2 inches 1)/^ inches

Standardization, in addition to providing a milk of desired fat content, seems
also to give milk of slightly better flavor. Standardization with a mechanical
standardizer is, in our judgment, more practical and economical than standardiza-
tion by siphoning or foremilking.

Some Factors Affecting the Wheying Off of Cultured Buttermilk. (L. R.

Glazier and H. G. Lindquist.) \\'hen cultured buttermilk is allowed to stand in
storage, it frequently separates into a layer of curd and whey. In this study it was
found that the higher the developed acidity, the less curd separation and wheying
off occurred. Pasteurization at a temperature of 200° F. was more desirable
for the milk to be used for culturing than was pasteurization at 180° F., and
temperatures below 180° F. should be avoided. Storage temperatures as high as
50° F. should be avoided. Storage at 33° F. gave the best results of any of the
temperatures used, in preventing wheying off of buttermilk in storage. The
longer the buttermilk is held, the more separation and wheying off there is likely
to be. Therefore, smaller batches should be made in order to eliminate long
storage periods. (Published in Milk Plant Monthly, 30 (5): 27-30, 1941.)



DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

Alexander E. Cance in Charge

Land-Use Problems in Massachusetts in Relation to a Balanced Program of
Land Utilization. (David Rozman.) The major phase of this project has been
completed and the results presented for publication as Experiment Station Bulle-
tin 387. This study deals with the interrelationship of major uses of land on a
State and local basis. To an analysis of the historical trend in agricultural and
forest land uses is added consideration of other important land uses such as
recreational, part-time farming, residential, and industrial. The summary and
main conclusions are as follows:



48 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

1. The classification of land on the basis of soil and topography indicates
that 50.2 percent of the total area of the State is suitable for agricultural utiliza-
tion.

2. The percentage of agricultural suitability varies from 31 percent in Barn-
stable County to 62.7 percent in Worcester County.

3. In 1880, before the decline in agricultural land use set in, 41.4 percent of the
State area was represented by inaproved farm land. In 1940 this proportion had
declined to 15.4 percent.

4. The major local land-use factors responsible for the decline of improved
farm land relate in varying degrees to changing types and systems of farming;
soil erosion and deterioration; non-resident land ownership; the disappearance of
town industries; and the growth of residential, recreational, commercial, and
other more intensive uses of land.

5. Non-resident ownership of about one-third of all land in rural towns has
contributed to the increasing amount of land under wooded cover.

6. Of the total State area, 64.3 percent is under wooded cover. The highest
proportion is in Barnstable and Berkshire counties, 73.1 and 71.8 percent, re-
spectively; the lowest in Essex and Middlesex counties, 52.0 and 57.8 percent,
respectively.

7. In the towns below 10,000 population there are 89 with no existing local
industries. In each of 87 of the remaining 184 towns, local industries provide
employment for less than 100 persons.

8. The demand for more intensive uses of land has affected farming through
higher land values and taxes.

9. The average value per acre of farm land and buildings is $37.38 in the
lowest third of the towns below 10,000 population. In the highest third the
average value is $284.57 per acre.

10. From the standpoint of land-use pattern and land-use adjustments
needed, five types of rural towns are indicated in Massachusetts:

A. Towns characterized by predominantly poor land, declining population,

limited amount of agricultural land utilization, and extensive areas
under wooded cover.
Major adjustments needed: Extension of public ownership of forest land,
elimination of isolated settlement, development of recreational facilities,
possible discontinuation of the town as an independent political unit.

B. Towns with a fair agricultural background, experiencing recent disloca-

tion in local industries.
Major adjustments needed: Realignment of town expenditures, fuller utiliza-
tion of land resources for agriculture and other uses, rehabilitation of
industrial opportunities.

C. Towns with favorable physical background for well-rounded agricultural

land utilization.
Major adjustments needed: Conservation of soil, better adaptation of crops,
and better care of woodlots.

D. Towns with receding agricultural land utilization as a result of expansion

in more intensive uses of land.
Major adjustments needed: Prevention of increase of idle land held for
speculative purposes, primarily by moie equitable taxation of land used
in agriculture.

E. Towns with a balanced system of agricultural and other land uses.
Major adjustments needed: Maintenance and improvement of local condi-
tions through farsighted policies of local people and their planning
agencies.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 49

Problems of Rural Youth in Massachusetts. (David Rozman, Gilbert Mel-
tlrum, Ruth E. Sherburne.) This study was undertaken during the past year
in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture to determine
and analyze the most important problems of rural youth in Massachusetts.
Nearly 600 schedules were obtained in selected towns in four counties, including
young people, both in school and out of school, ranging in age from 16 to 25.
For 40 percent of the boys the main problem had to do with finding a job, making
a living, or getting started in farming. For one-fourth of the girls the major prob-
lems were also economic. Of the problems mentioned by both boys and girls,
25 percent concerned education and vocational guidance.

The results of this study have been analyzed and presented as E.xperiment
Station Bulletin 386.



DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING
C. I. Gunness in Charge

Cranberry Storage Investigation. (C. I. Gunness, H. J. Franklin, and C. R.
Fellers.) The storage of Earh Black cranberries in a modified atmosphere was
continued during the 1941 season. All the berries were picked and stored on
September 8 and removed from storage and screened on November 14. Three
lots of berries were stored at 35 degrees and three lots at 45 degrees. One lot
at each temperature was kept in normal atmosphere, one lot in an atmosphere
containing 5 percent ca"rbon dioxide and 2 percent oxygen, and one lot in an
atmosphere containing 10 percent carbon dioxide and 10 percent oxygen. The
berries stored in modified atmospheres were kept in sealed sheet iron cabinets
having a capacitN' of 2 barrels each. Means were provided for removal of excess
carbon dioxide by circulating the air from the cabinets through a solution of
sodium-hydroxide. Excess moisture was removed from the cabinets by circulat-
ing the air through calcium chloride.

Apparently this process was ineffective as the berries were covered with mois-
ture when the cabinets were opened at the end of the test.

Berries stored in normal air at 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed the usual
differences in storage loss which have been observed in former years. Those
stored at 35 degrees showed a storage loss of 4.7 percent, while those at 45 degrees
showed a loss of 11.6 percent. All the berries stored in the modified atmospheres
showed greater losses than those stored in normal air. It is not known, however,
whether this increased loss was due to the composition of the atmosphere or to the
excessive moisture in the cabinets. The experiment will have to be repeated
next year with more efficient equipment for removing excess moisture from the
cabinets.

Berries stored in normal air developed very much better color at 45 degrees
than at 35 degrees. Berries stored in modified atmospheres on the other hand,
developed no better color at 45 degrees than at 35 degrees; and berries stored in
modified atmospheres at 35 degrees were not as well colored as those kept in
normal air at 35 degrees.

Apple Storage Investigation. (C. I. Gunness in cooperation with Department
of Pomology.) A small room for the storage of apples in a modified atmosphere
was prepared during the summer of 1940 and filled with Mcintosh apples that
fall. The room had a small leak and it was not possible to reduce the oxygen
content to the desired 2 percent. Considerable variation in temperature in-
creased air circulation through the leak, and it was not possible to reduce the



50 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

oxygen below 11 percent. The results obtained with the storage were, therefore,,
unsatisfactory, the fruit on removal being in about the same condition as fruit
kept at 32 degrees in a normal atmosphere.

During the past summer the leak was stopped and a new cooling unit installed
with a sensitive thermostat. The room is now operating with an atmosphere
of 5 percent carbon dioxide and 2 percent oxygen. Results will not be available
until the room is opened in the spring.

Frost Protection on Cranberry Bogs. (C. I. Gunness.) The wind machine
used for frost protection was moved to a dry bog in the spring of 1941. It was
operated both in the spring and in the fall. The results were in general unsatis-
factory in that protection was given over too small an area.

Poultry House Investigation. (C. I. Gunness and \V. C. Sanctuary.) The
investigation on the operation of electric brooders in colony houses was con-
tinued during 1941. The purpose of the investigation was to see whether litter
could be kept dry in a brooder house through the use of soil heating cable. Very
wet sawdust litter was placed in the houses and while the litter in the house
equipped with soil cable was drier than in the others, it wa« not sufficiently dry to
be considered satisfactory. It was felt, however, that the litter was too wet at
the start to make a fair test of the effect of the soil cable. Good chicks were
reared in spite of the damp litter conditions. The test is being repeated this year.

Ceiling temperatures were taken during the winter months of 1941 in insulated
and non-insulated pens through the use of thermocouples. Ventilation was
adjusted so as to keep the same temperature in insulated and uninsulated pens.
It was found that on cold nights the ceiling temperatures in insulated pens would
run one degree lower than air temperatures within the pen, while in uninsulated
pens the ceiling temperature would run 4.5 degrees lower than the air temperature.
This would indicate that insulated pens are more comfortable for the birds even
though there ma> be but slight difference in air temperatures.

Observations taken during the late summer showed ceiling temperatures from
5 to 13 degrees higher in uninsulated pens than in insulated pens with equal air
temperatures. In sections where the black composition roof had been painted
with aluminum paint, the ceiling temperature in uninsulated pens was reduced
from 85 degrees to 82 degrees on the rear slope when compared with sections
which had not been painted. In insulated pens the aluminum paint produced a
difference of 3 degrees in ceiling temperatures on the rear slope. On the front
slope the black surface gave a ceiling temperature of 101 degrees in the unin-
sulated pens with a temperature of 92 under the aluminum paint. In the in-
sulated pen the black gave 88 degrees and the aluminum 85 degrees on the front
slope.



DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY

Charles P. Alexander in Charge

Investigation of Materials which Promise Value in Insect Control.

Oil sprays for dormant applications. (A. 1. Bourne and W. D VVhitcomb.)
The early season of 1941 was unusual in many respects. March was character-
ized by cold, windy weather with the average temperature below normal and
snowfall above the average. April, however, was marked by abnormally high
temperature which persisted throughout the month and culminated in the peak of
90 degrees reached on the 20th. The transition from winter to spring was very



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 51

abrupt, and since it was not accompanied with the usual amount of rainfall the
snow and frost disappeared rapidly and the soil dried quickly, furnishing excellent
ground conditions for early spring spra\'ing. Plant and animal life responded to the
unusualh- warm weather. Seasonal development began early and progressed
rapidly. In most orchards the period for delayed dormant application of oil
sprays was very brief so that many growers were unable to complete this appli-
cation before bud development progressed to the pre-pink stage. In the college
orchards the delayed dormant period was passed in 4 to 5 days, and some blocks
received the pre-pink spray 3 days after the delayed dormant. In the experimental
blocks the trees had received the dormant, delayed dormant, pre-pink, and pink
sprays by April 28 in contrast to 1940 when in the same blocks the delayed dor-
mant spray was applied April 29. Verj' few instances of damage to fruit buds or
foliage by oil sprays were obser\'cd or reported in spite of the unseasonable tem-
perature. This was probably due in large measure to the relative!}' small amount
of oil spraying done.

In the cooperative project with the Dow Chemical Company on the investiga-
tion of DN .sprays, attention was focused on the relative tolerance of various types
of ornamentals (coniferous and deciduous) to dormant applications of DN-oil
sprays. In these tests different concentrations of dinitro-ortho-cyclo-hexylphenol
(DNOCHP) compounds were used. None of the common deciduous ornamentals
showed any ill effects from the application aside from a .slight retardation in some
cases. Moderate burning was noted on Irish juniper and more serious injury
resulted on rhododendron and laurel.

In strictly dormant application on apples for the control of overwintering eggs
of European red mite, 2 dry-mix DN compositions containing 40 percent
DNOCHP and DNOC (dinitro-orthocresol) respectively were combined with
2 standard types of commercial oil sprays. Application of a DNOCHP — oil
solution of 7.9 pH caused no injury to fruit or leaf buds nor retardation in de-
velopment. A DNOCHP-oil solution of 6.6 pH caused noticeable retardation in
development but no actual killing of buds. The DNOC-cil solutions of 5.8
pH and 4.8 pH both caused marked retardation of bud development. The
combinations containing the DN compounds were somewhat less effective against
red mite eggs than were the oils alone.

Counts of young mites on the test trees showed 1,660 mites per 100 spurs
following DNOCHP-oil emulsion; 675 following DNOC-oil emulsion; and 465
following the oil emulsion alone. Check trees showed 13,055 mites per 100 spurs.
Following DNOCHP-fmiscible oil, counts showed 20 mites, DNOC + miscible
oil, 80 mites; and miscible oil alone, 15 mites per 100 spurs.

In applications at Waltham en April 8, 1941, no noticeable injury resulted to
bark or twigs from DN-oil mixtures having a pH value of 8.0, 7.45, or 6.75.
All of the mixtures retarded bud development slightly, and when trees were in
full bloom there was slightly more retardation on Mcintosh and Wealthy from
the alkaline mixture than from the more acid mixture. It was also observed that
a dinitro-orthocresol-oil mixture retarded bud development slightly less than
dinitro-ortho-cyclo-hexylphenol in combination with either alkaline or acid oil
emulsion.

All of the sprays gave good control of the European red mite eggs and reduced
the average number of living mites per spur on April 30 by 90 percent or more.
No significant differences between the materials resulted, but the dinitro-ortho-
cresol-oil mixture, which is generally considered safer than the DNOCHP mix-
ture, gave very .satisfactory control of the red mite.

At the college, incidental records on the overwintering eggs of aphids, includ-
ing heavy infestations on birch and pine and moderate infestations on several
ornamentals, showed practically perfect kill following the use of DN compounds.



52 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

The contrast between spra\ ed and unsprayed specimens of \ iburnum was con-
spicuous. (See page 54.) The foHage of unsprayed checks was tightly curled
and distorted and the the plants were of little use as ornamentals, while on the
sprayed plants freedom from aphid attack allowed full and perfect foliage, a con-
dition that is rarely seen in this reg-'on.

Dormant application of a commercial oil emulsion at 5 percent dilution com-
bined with dry-mix DNOCHP gave excellent control of oystershell scale on lilac
and willow. Light to moderate infestations were eliminated. On heav}' infes-
tations with thick encrustation of the bark, some slight hatching took place but
from a commercial standpoint it was negligible.

Summer Treatments for the Control of European Red Mite. (A. I. Bourne and
W. D. Whitcomb.) Another abnormal feature of a very unusual season was the
comparative scarcity of European red mite in most orchards in midsummer
and late summer. The infestation was negligible in the college orchard. A heavy
outbreak in a Berkshire County orchard offered opportunit)- for checking the
efificiency of a DN dust (a L7 dicyclohexylamine salt of DNOCHP). The red
mite population before dusting amounted to 54.8 mites per leaf. Counts 24
hours after treatment showed an average of 9.6 mites per leaf, and similar counts
made 8 to 9 days after treatment showed an average of one mite per leaf — an
82.5 percent reduction in 24 hours and a 98.1 percent reduction after an 8- to
9-day period.

Tolerance tests of this dust and of a DN spra>' containing 20 percent of the
toxicant designed for summer use, on 28 different types of fruit and shade trees,
ornamentals, and garden plants subject to mite attack showed no injur\ follow-
ing either the dust or the spray.

In August, tests of new materials for the control of the European red mite
on apple were made both at a commercial orchard in Gleasondale and at the
Waltham Field Station. The most effective material was a dicyclohexylamine
salt of dinitro-ortho-cyclo-hexylphenol mixture containing 20 percent of the
toxicant together with dispersing and wetting agent. In four tests of this material
at the rate of 20, 24, and 30 ounces in 100 gallons of spray, the average reduction
of living red mites was 94.2 percent. There was no significant difference between
the dosages used, indicating that the smallest amount (20 ounces in 100 gallons)
was adequate. A 40 percent DNOCHP mixture used at 4 ounces in 100 gallons
gave 88.1 percent reduction and apparently' lacked sufficient wetting agent.
A DN dust containing 1.5 percent of the toxicant averaged 95.3 percent reduction
when applied from both sides of the tree and reduced the living mites 89.3 per-
cent when the tree was dusted from one side only.

Five tests of spray materials containing rotenonc averaged 88.5 percent reduc-
tion, including one moderately effective combination which gave only 78.7 percent
reduction. A pyrethrum spray containing an excellent spreading agent was one
of the most effective materials used and reduced an infestation of 20.04 red mites
per leaf to 0.69 live mites per leaf, a control of 97.05 percent. A mixture containing
ricin, the toxic ingredient in castor-bean, was the least effective material used.
None of the materials caused injury to the fruit, bark, or foliage which was ab-
normally "hard" following the summer drought.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941



53





Figure 2

Topsoil 3.5 feel deep, accumu-
lated al the foot of a short culti-
vated slope through the action
of sheet erosion. (Broken white
line separates topsoil and
subsoil.)



Figure 1

Left: Merrimac fine sandy loam.

Right: Memphis silt loam.

Equal weights of soil dispersed in
equal amounts of water and allowed to
settle the same length of time.



54



MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388




Viburnum
L.pper Bran:.. Untreated: Leaves tight.y curled, twigs deformed.

c^ ^ ;.h nM ■ Free from aphids. leaves normal.

Lower Branch Sprayed with DN . tree irom i



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941



55




Defoliation of Rose by the Common Red Spider
Plant at left sprayed
Plant at right unsprayed




Injury to Ears of Sweet Corn from Oil — Pyethrum
applied for control of Corn Ear Worm

Left: Not treated
Right: Treated



56



MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 338




Rooting of Cuttings of Canadian Hemlock
Top: After 10 weeks at 75" F.
Left : Not treated.
Riglit: Treated with Hormodin A, 30 BTI units for 24 hours.

Bottom: After 15 weeks at 65" F.

Treated with Indolebutryric Acid. 7.5 mg. 100 c. c. for 24 hours.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 57

Summer Sprays for Apples. (A. I. Bourne in cooperation with Departments of
Pomology and Botany.) Studies of the value of modifications of the standard
spray program were continued. The yield was light, and the prolonged drought
in the early season greatly influenced the prevalence of disease, particularly apple
scab. The standard spray program, involving lime-sulfur in all spra\s through the
caK X with wettable sulfur thereafter, was contrasted with a similar program with
the addition of a midbloom application of wettable sulfur, and an optional stand-
ard in which no lime was used in the cover sprays. The standard schedule was
also contrasted with a program of wettable sulfur throughout the season. Lead
arsenate was used in all applications except the pre-pink and midbloom sprays.
The dosage was 4 pounds to 100 gallons in the calyx, and 1st and 2d cover sprays;
3 pounds in the pink and .3d cover sprays, and 2 pounds in the 4th cover spray.
Liquid lime-sulfur was used at the rate of Ij^ gallons per 100 and wettable sulfur
at 8 pounds per 100 gallons.

The pathologist reported that scab infection was appearing on the foliage
of Mcintosh check trees in the period of May 23 to 26, and a few infected fruits
were observed May 31. On the sprayed trees the spur leaves and fruits were
evidently protected b>' the pre-blossom sprays and the infection was confined
to the shoot leaves. The record of Mcintosh fruit at harvest supported these
observations. The fruit from unsprayed trees showed 44 to 45 percent scab, while
on sprayed trees it varied from to 1.8 percent.

The season also was not conducive to spray injury on cither leaves or fruit.
Distinct injury, however, occurred in all plots where liquid lime-sulfur was applied
although this was not of so serious a nature or extent as in years of more normal
rainfall. Russeting of fruit was noted in all plots where lime-sulfur was applied.

The control of insect pests was consistent throughout the entire orchard and
there was no significant difference between the standard program and the mod-
ified schedules. The record of unsprayed Mcintosh fruit was illuminating. Three
anplcs, or 0.6 percent were clean; 80 to 81 percent of the fruit was scarred by
curculio, and nearly 50- percent damaged by codling moth. Scab occurred on 44
to 45 percent of the apples (in a season very unfavorable for its development).
Detailed counts showed that on nearly 50 percent of the fruit there were injuries
by three or more insects or diseases on the same apple.

Control of Cabbage Maggot. (W. D. Whitcomb, W'altham.) Definite infor-
mation showing that one of the largest sources of cabbage maggot flies in the
spring is late-planted cruciferous crops was obtained by sifting the soil in a six-
inch square and six inches deep around roots of cabbage, broccoli, and turnip
which had remained in the ground over winter. These plants were apparenth-
infested by a third generation of the maggot in September. Soil examination on
April 18, 1941, showed a maximum of 51 pupae per plant, with an average of
19.9, on a small planting of yellow turnip; a maximum of 14 per plant with an av-
erage of 4.9, on a small planting of broccoli; and a maximum of 11 per plant, with
an average of 1.9, on a large planting of cabbage.

The first eggs of the cabbage maggot in the spring of 1941 were found on May 1,
which is five days earlier than the average date for the past ten years. The
normal field infestation was 85.72 percent commercial injury on the Golden Acre
variety. One application of corrosive sublimate solution on May 3 gave 92.04
percent commercial protection and yielded 78 percent large and medium heads.
Two applications of corrosive sublimate solution gave 96.67 percent commercial



Online LibraryMassachusetts Agricultural Experiment StationBulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) → online text (page 35 of 77)