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24.5 infested tips, indicating high susceptibility. At the same time no infested
tips were found on 15 Macoun trees.

Continued experiments with naphthalene broadcasted at the rate of 2 pounds
per 100 square feet showed that the treatment reduced the number of midge
flies emerging from the soil and duff 79 percent at the first generation and 97
percent at the second generation.

Larvae and pupae in cocoons under the rough bark on the trunk of the trees
were killed by experimental spraving with dormant sprays. Applications to the
bark were made Apri! 1 1 and July 1 using Elgetol (Standard Agricultural Cheniical
Company) 1 percent, Spra-Cream (B. G. Pratt Company) 3 percent actual oil,
and Spra-Cream 3 percent plus DNOCHP (Dow Chemical Company) 15 ounces
per 100 gallons. Cages enclosing 3 feet of the tree trunk were built around the
sprayed trees. In these cages 84 flies of the first generation and 40 flies of the
second generation were collected from the unsprayed tree, while only 2 flies were
found in any of the cages on sprayed trees. Emergence of flies from mulch col-
lected under trees where the above dormant sprays were applied at the rate of
2 gallons per 100 square feet indicated that considerable mortality of the midge
resulted where Elgetol was applied but that the oil emulsion treatment was not
effective.

Control of Plum Curculio in Apples. (W. D. Whitcomb, Waltham.) In spite of
unseasonably' warm weather during the pre-blossom and blossom period of apples,
the critical period of curculio activity did not occur until May 20-23 which was
five to eight days after the petal-fall stage. This period was characterized by
maximum temperatures above 85° P., but it was apparent that the suitable
development of the fruit for feeding and oviposition was the most important
attraction to the beetles.

Blocks of eight trees each were sprayed with lead arsenate 4 pounds, wettable



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 65

sulfur 4 pounds, fish oil 1 pint in 100 gallons of water when the fruit was 4/16,
5/16, and 6/16 of an inch in diameter, as determined by the measurement of
200 apples with calipers.

Variety



Wealthy



Mcintosh



Diam


eter of Apples


Date
— Sprayed


Apples

Stung

(Percent)


Estimated
(Inches)


Actual Average
(Inches)


4

16"


4.10
16


May 20


18.72


5
16


5.10
16


May 22


8.12


6
16


5,94
16


May 23


18.70


4
16


3.84
16


May 20


11.53


5
16


4.99
16


May 22


3.88


6
16


5.92
16


May 23


5.42



These records, based on the examination of 57,835 apples, show least injury
by the plum curculio to apples sprayed when they measured approximately
5/16 of an inch in diameter. This difference is the more significant since the
"5/16" trees were located near a stone wall and fence row where much curculio
injury has occurred in the past. In the Wealthy apples the curculio injury was
1 percent greater on dropped fruit than on picked fruit; but in Mcintosh the
dropped fruit showed 3 to 12 percent more injury.

Biology and Control of the Grape Plume Moth and Grape Cane Girdler. (W. D.

Whitcomb and Wm. E. Tomlinson, Jr., Waltham)

Grape Plume Moth. A study of the parasitism of the grape plume moth yielded
two new species (undetermined), but the total parasitism in the larvae collected
was less than 1 percent.

The application of dormant sprays on April 10, just before the larvae hatched,
showed that dinitro compounds are more effective than oil emulsion. In one
experiment the addition of a DNOCHP compound at the rate of 15 ounces
in 100 gallons increased the control from 74 to 86 percent over oil emulsion at
the rate of 3 percent actual oil; and in another experiment the addition of DNOC
(15 ounces-100 gallons) to 3 percent oil emulsion increased control from 60 to
82 percent. The best control was obtained with a commercial sodium dinitro
cresylate 1 percent which gave 94 percent protection. When this material was
used at 3^ percent dilution the infestation was 12 percent or twice that follow-
ing the use of the 1 percent dilution.

Grape Cane Girdler. The first activity of the grape cane girdler was observed
on May 22 when the maximum temperature was 89° F. The average life of 26
individuals from egg deposition to adult in bagged canes in the vineyard was
60.8 days with most of the beetles emerging from August 15 to 25 but continuing
until September 22.

In the vineyard, beetles were reared from 28 percent of the girdled canes under
observation and this seemed to be a normal survival under the conditions.



66 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

Measurement of 100 canes showed that the average growth from May 22 to
July 2 was approximately 1 inch per day, with Niagara and Fredonia making the
most rapid growth and Delaware the least.

Sprays applied when the average cane growth was 4 inches or less prevented
most girdling, but when the growth between sprays was about 8 inches the number
of girdled canes was 8 to 15 percent greater than on the unsprayed vines. Cryolite
at the rate of 3 pounds in 100 gallons was more satisfactory than lead arsenate,
which caused some foliage injury when c -mbined with sulfur or copper oxide in
frequent applications.

Insects Concerned in the Dispersal of Dutch Elm Disease. (W. B. Becker.)

The Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle, Scolytus multistriatus Marsham. Elm
logs in Alford, reported by the owner to have been cut just prior to April 1941,
were found to contain only large larvae of Scolytus multistriatus at the end of
September. No emergence holes could be found. If the time of cutting was given
correctly, the size of the larvae present would suggest that one generation a year
may be common in this region of the Berkshires. Logs of both American elm,
Ulnius americana L., and slippery elm, Ulmus fulva Michx., were heavily infested.
In an adjacent area, elm logs reported by the owner to have been cut at various
times from the early spring through late fall of 1941 showed the presence of brood
galleries in all stages of construction. Completed brood galleries containing large
larvae, galleries with small larvae, and incomplete galleries with only eggs and
active parent beetles were found.

The Native Elm Bark Beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes (Eich.). At the end of
September 1941, other elm logs in Alford which were reported by the owner to
have been cut just prior to April 1941 contained larvae, pupae, and young adults
of H. rufipes and many emergence holes. These logs were adjacent to those cut
at the same time which were infested with 5. multistriatus. The evidence suggests
that in this vicinity H. rufipes beetles which develop from the first eggs laid in
the spring may complete their development sooner than S. multistriatus beetles.

Insects Observed in the First Tree in Massachusetts Found to have Dutch
Elm Disease. (W. B. Becker.) Numerous feeding or overwintering tunnels
of H. rufipes were observed in the tree, especially near the base. Adult beetles
were active in these tunnels in mid-September. Such tunnels, of course, are com-
monly encountered in live elm trees. No correlation was determined between the
occurrence of these tunnels and the presence of the fungus, Ceratostomella ulmi
(Schwarz) Buisman, in any part of the tree.

Scouting for Elm Bark Beetles. (W. B. Becker.) Brief scouting revealed the
presence of Scolytus multistriatus at three locations new to this office: Concord,
Alford, and Hancock, Mass.

At Alford, in the vicinity of the first tree in Massachusetts found to have Dutch
elm disease, this beetle was abundant in elm logs on an area being cut over for
cordwood. Hylurgopinus rufipes was also abundant in the vicinity of the diseased
tree.

The Effects of Solar Heat on the Subcortical Development of the Native
Elm Bark Beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes (Eich.) at Amherst. (VV. B. Becker.)
Laboratory and field work on this problem was continued.

Insect Pests of Wood and Shade, Forest, and Ornamental Trees in Massa-
chusetts. (W. B. Becker.) Three hundred and one inquiries were received about
such insect pests. Eighty-four different kinds of insects were involved. Ants,
powder post beetles, termites, spruce gall aphids, elm leaf beetles, and secondary
tree-boring insects were received most frequently.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 67

DEPARTMENT OF FLORICULTURE
Clark L. Thayer in Charge

Breeding Snapdragons for Varietal Improvement and Disease Resistance.

(Harold E. White, Waltham.) Plants propagated vegetatively from Field Station
rust-resistant strains of commercial hybrid snapdragons have been tested two
summers under field conditions and in the greenhouse for two winters. These
strains were highly resistant to rust disease; a wide range of flower colors was
present, and growth and flowering habit were excellent. Many of these hybrids
are still segregating for rust susceptibility and are heterozygous for flower color.

A few selections from seeded lines look promising as material for developing
pure breeding forms for rust resistance and desirable flower colors. In earlier
breeding work with Main's hybrids considerable difficulty was experienced in
getting rust resistance bred into such selections and at the same time retaining
desirable flower colors, growth habits, and blooming period in the same strains.
It was anticipated that with the commercial variety hybrids this combination
might be more readily developed into desirable pure-bred lines.

These hybrids are available now, provided florists are interested in growing
snapdragons by propagating such strains from cuttings.

Cultural Requirements of Freesia. (Harold E. White, Waltham.) Records
on the pre-curing or drying of freesia corms (% to % inch size), for a period of
3 to 11 weeks prior to planting, show that by this treatment in 1939 corms lost
from 3 to 24 percent of their weight; in 1940, 3 to 20 percent; and in 1941, 7 to
21 percent. Corms of Golden Daffodil (5^ to 5€ inch) in the 1940 treatment
failed to sprout unless pre-cured for 3 weeks prior to planting. Corms of this
variety received the same pre-curing treatment in 1941 but responded normally,
which would indicate that, although the pre-curing treatments of the corms in
1940 overcame the growth inhibition factor, this same peculiarity was not present
in the 1941 stock.

Loss in moisture content of freesia corms through pre-curing treatments has
not been found to have any significant effect on the blooming or production
characteristics of the corms. At a temperature of 48°-50° F., corms grown in
benches flowered a week to ten days earlier than those grown in bulb pans. Early
and later planted corms in bulb pans, shifted in November from a temperature
of 50° F. to 60°F., flowered two weeks earlier on an average than those continued
at the cooler temperature.

Results of tests in pre-curing freesia corms for periods of 2 to 11 weeks prior to
forcing indicate that such treatments are not essential for successful forcing
of freesias in the greenhouse. It is concluded that seasonal and cultural treat-
ments given the freesia corms in the field are more likely to determine their
forcing performance.

The use of well-rotted manure in soil mixtures for freesias has not had any
harmful effect on the growth or flowering of the corms.

Foliage tip-burn of freesia plants may be caused by fumigants and by fluctua-
tions in temperature, soil moisture, and humidity. Contrary to general opinion,
freesias will take plenty of water when well rooted in properly drained soil and
growing normally.

Elder's Giant White was observed to be a much slower growing type than
Purity, Golden W'onder, or Golden Daffodil.

Soilless Culture of Florists' Crops. (Harold E. White, Waltham.) This system
of plant culture has been conducted primarily as a demonstration for growers
and to determine how much attention must be given to such a system to obtain
crop production comparable to results from soil culture.



68 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

Carnation plants have responded equally well to some four to six nutrient
formulas which have been tested. It is apparent, at least with carnations, that a
considerable degree of adaptability to nutritional levels exists under soilless
culture conditions, which is likewise true for plants grown in soil.

Root rot and stem diseases of carnations can be just as prevalent and destruc-
tive under gravel culture methods as in soil, particularly soon after the plants are
set. Much of the danger lies in keeping the plants too wet rather than too dry.
Tobacco and naphthalene fumigants can be used on carnations in gravel, follow-
ing the same precautions necessary for successful fumigation of plants in soil.

New England growers have shown little inclination to grow flower crops in
gravel, even on a trial basis. One grower, who last year was favorably impressed
with the results from 350 square feet of soilless roses, has expanded to 2,500
square feet. At Waltham cinders, which for two years were used in growing roses,
are now being used for the culture of carnations.

Liming Carnation Soils. (Harold E. White, Waltham.) Data for two years
on the use of lime on carnation soils to determine the importance of soil acidity
as related to plant growth and flower production show that carnations have a
wide degree of adaptability to changes in soil acidity. The average acidity test
of soil used for carnations was pH 5.6; the final acidity readings over a period
of two years were 4.7 for unlimed and 6.4 for highly limed soils. While this
test does not cover extreme ranges in acidity or alkalinity, it does pertain to normal
variations of growers' soils as observed from soil testing records of five years at
the Waltham Field Station.

There were no significant differences in flower production, number of split
calyces, or vegetative plant growth between plants in unlimed soil and those in
soil receiving applications of lime at the rate of 1 to 3 tons per acre.

Plants of the variety Ward were used in these tests and the same cultural
treatments were given both years. Cultural and seasonal climatic conditions
were of greater importance than soil treatments in their effect on crop produc-
tion. The greater incidence of split calyces occurred between the months of
January and April. During the season of 1940-41 plants produced only 2 percent
more split calyces than during the previous season.

Field-grown plants produced four more flowers per square foot of bench area
than greenhouse-grown plants. Since liming of soils had no perceptible effect
on prevalence of root or stem rot diseases, the common practice of applying
lime to correct or inhibit the spread of these soil organisms may be considered of
little value for the purpose.

Disease Resistance and Heredity of Carnations. (Harold E. White, Waltham.)
This work is merely getting under way. Thirty-five varieties have been assembled
for study. The selfing of different varieties and experiments in germination of
pollen are in progress.

In some preliminary breeding work in 1939-1940 a cross between the varieties
Ward (pink) and Puritan (white) gave a progeny of 45.83 percent white flowers,
36.45 percent pink, 2 percent red, and 15.62 percent variegated flowers. The
flower types were 8.24 percent singles, 56.70 percent commercial (normal) doubles,
and 35.05 percent bursters or split calyx types. Short-calyx flowers were dom-
inant over long or intermediate types. Broad-leaved characters of plants were
dominant over narrow and medium leaf characters. These observations show,
as was expected, that the commercial types of carnations are heterozygous for
many of the plant characters to be studied in this project.

Coffee Chaff as a Soil Amendment. (Harold E. White, Waltham.) Inquiries
are frequently received from manufacturing concerns as to the possible use in



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 69

greenhouse soils of certain waste organic b>'-products; when convenient, these
materials are tested on the current-year crops at the Field Station.

Coffee chaff received from Wetmore and Company, Cambridge, Mass., was
incorporated into carnation and snapdragon soils at the rate of two inches of the
chaff to six inches of bench soil with no harmful effects to the plants. Also, it
appeared to be quite suitable for use in potting soils and as a filler and conditioner
in fertilizer mixtures.

According to the analyses of the Fertilizer Control Laboratory of the Experi-
ment Station, one ton of coffee chaff has a trade valuation in terms of plant food
of approximately $10 to $11.

Packet Seed Studies. (Clark L. Thayer.) For a sixth season the Depart-
ment of Floriculture has cooperated with the Seed Laboratory in a test to de-
termine the quality of flower seeds sold in retail seed stores, chain stores, schools,
and other retail outlets. The seeds were tested for germination and performance
under field conditions.

The test included 218 lots, representing 50 genera, packeted by 32 concerns,
and obtained from 80 retail outlets. Records on germination showed 124 lots
good; 55 lots, fair; 31 lots, poor; 8 lots, none. Records on performance showed
165 lots, satisfactory; 12 lots, fair; 41 lots, not satisfactory. Detailed results are
reported in Control Series Bulletin 111.

Floriculture Soil Testing Service. (Harold E. White, Waltham.) The following
tabulation shows the number of soils tested in 1941:

Roses 132

Carnations 508

Chrysanthemums 157

Gardenias 74

Snapdragons 106

Sweet peas 32

Miscellaneous 573

Total 1582



DEPARTMENT OF HOME ECONOMICS NUTRITION
Helen S. Mitchell in Charge

Vitamin Requirements of Older People. (H. S. Mitchell and A. W. Wertz.)
Very little is known concerning vitamin requirements with advancing age. The
favorable reports of the clinical application of vitamins, particularly thiamin,
in geriatrics raise the question as to why such deficiencies exist. This study was
undertaken with the hope of arriving at a better understanding of vitamin me-
tabolism in older people. The project is partially sponsored by Standard Brands
Incorporated.

Work now in progress concerns the correlation between cardiac changes, blood
hemoglobin, red cell count, differential red cell count, and thiamin excreted in
the urine, with the intake of pure thiamin versus the entire vitamin B complex.
If possible the bisulfite-binding substances in the urine and pyruvic acid in the
blood will be determined also.

Thiamin and Pyrimidine Studies on Older Subjects. (A. W. W'ertz and H. S.
Mitchell.) (Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol, and Med. 48: 259, 1941.) Four men and four
women between the ages of 65 and 75 years were used as experimental subjects



70 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

in this study. The yeast fermentation method was used to measure the urinary
excretions of thiamin and pyrimidine for each individual on graded levels of
thiamin intake. There appears to be a sex difference in the excretion of thiamin
which is not apparent in the excretion of pyrimidine. The response of people
in this age group to increased thiamin intake is similar to that of younger people
as far as excretion is concerned. Two out of eight subjects reported no subjective
reaction to increased thiamin intake, two noted definite improvement in chronic
constipation, four felt less fatigued or "peppier," two enjoyed improved appe-
tites, and one noted an increased thirst.

Cause and Control of Nutritional Cataract. (H. S. Mitchell, G. M. Cook, and
A. W. Wertz.) The experimental production of cataract in rats by feeding rations
containing galactose has become a means of studying the effect of various dietary
factors upon the lens. Since it has been well established by earlier work in this
laboratory that a deficiency of protein aggravates cataract development and that
a liberal supply delays it, the question naturally arose as to what factor in protein
is responsible for the protective action. Anti-cataractogenic action of certain
nitrogenous factors is being studied.

1. The Influence of Certain Diamino and Dicarhoxylic Amino Acids upon
the Cataracto genie Action of Galactose. (H. S. Mitchell and G. M. Cook.) Follow-
ing the lead suggested by work reviewed in the 1940 Annual Report, certain
individual amino acids are being investigated. It was reported that the enzymic
hydrolysate of deaminized casein was somewhat more protective than the deam-
inized casein from which it was prepared. Of the fractions, the diamino-di-
carboxylic acid fraction of the enzymic hydrolysate afforded as much protection
as the whole hydrolysate, while the monoamino and proline and peptide fractions
showed no protection. Since glutamic acid, histidine, arginine, and lysine are
present in the protein hydrolysate fraction found to be most protective, these
amino acids have been incorporated in a low-protein galactose ration in order
to study any protective action. One of these amino acids has indicated slight pro-
tection. It and related compounds are being studied further.

2. Time Factors in the Development of Galactose Cataract. (G. M. Cook and
H. S. Mitchell.) It has been observed in this and other laboratories that young
rats are more susceptible to galactose injury than older rats. An experiment de-
signed to investigate the question of this age factor is in progress. Rats from the
same litter are started on experimental rations at fortnightly intervals. The one
started later required a longer time for lenticular injuries to become evident. The
complete data are not yet available.

The injury due to galactose seems to persist in rats after they have been trans-
ferred to rations containing none of this sugar. The blood sugar returns to normal
within a few hours after the ratioij^ 'change is made. The apparent lag in the
galactose injury must be due to slow diffusion from eye fluids. The extent of this
lag is being investigated b}' discontinuing the galactose ration at four-day
intervals in a series of rats from the same litter.

The Nutritive Value of the Iron of Cocoa and Iron-Fortified Cocoa Mixtures.

(F. Kinder and H. S. Mitchell, with the cooperation of W. S. Mueller of Dairy
Industry.) Inasmuch as iron is precipitated in the presence of tannic acid and
from 2 to 15 percent of tannic acid is present in commercial cocoa, there arises
the question of the availability of the iron in cocoa and foods associated with it.
The current use of chocolate milk and chocolate-flavored foods makes the prob-
lem one of practical interest.

The nutritive value of the iron of cocoa and iron-fortified cocoa was determined
by biological procedure. The iron of cocoa was not so well utilized (approx-



ANNUAL REPORT 1941 71

imately two thirds as much hemoglobin regenerated) as an equivalent amount
of ferric chloride. The addition of pure tannic acid did not decrease the utiliza-
tion of iron added to a milk ration. Iron added to cocoa was completely available,
indicating that the factor which limited the nutritive value of the iron of cocoa
had no influence on added iron. Both cocoa and tannic acid retarded the growth
of rats, but the effect of the tannic acid was less severe than that of the cocoa.

It may be concluded from this study on rats that cocoa may be fortified suc-
cessfully with iron. However, the indiscriminate use of chocolate or cocoa milks
is not recommended because of the yet unexplained effect of cocoa on growth and
intestinal function.

Effect of Adding Cocoa to Cow's Milk on Utilization of Calcium and Phosphorus.

(M. R. Cooney, with the cooperation of W. S. Mueller of Dair\ Industry.) Inter-
ference with the solubility of calcium and phosphorus is a matter of concern when
cocoa is added to milk, since cocoa contains oxalic acid, which if present in large
enough amounts may prevent the absorption of calcium by the formation of in-
soluble calcium oxalate.

Accepted standard biologic and chemical procedures are being used to de-
termine whether or not the utilization of calcium and phosphorus is impaired
by the addition of cocoa to milk. Results are not yet available.

The Influence of College Life on the Physical Status and Food Habits of Massa-
chusetts State College Women Students. (M. S. Gutowska and E. B. EUms,
Department of Student Health.) In order to determine the physical and nutri-
tional status of the women students, a study is being conducted of the basal met-
abolic rate, the creatine output, and the urine and blood picture of the freshman
women students. A general medical examination is the starting point of this
study. The dietary habits of the girls as well as their daily intake of calories and
protein are recorded through individual computation. Sixty cases have been



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