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investigated thus far.

These determinations provide material for an evaluation of the physical status
of the women students, and it is planned to continue them for the next three
college years.



DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURAL MANUFACTURES
C. R. Fellers in Charge

Cranberry Research. (C. R. Fellers and A. S. Levine.) About 25 percent of the
cranberry crop is now used for canned or other manufactured products. Cran-
berry juice and cranberry sauce were shown to be definitely bacteriostatic for
many bacteria of the food-poisoning group. There were also indications that
these foods had a marked cleansing action in the mouth.

Cranberries contain small amounts of riboflavin, pantothenic acid, and thiamin
not previously reported.

In sauce manufacture, the extraction of the berries with water at 185°-195° F.
for 20-25 minutes resulted in increased yields of sauce over the usual short-time
extraction at the boiling point. The pectin is conserved and a sauce of improved
quality results.

A new concentrated sirup was prepared by first cold-pressing the juice, treating
with Pectinol to revive pectin, filtering, and concentrating in vacuum. This sirup
serves as a beverage base or as a pharmaceutical vehicle.

Apple Products Including Apple Juice. (W. B. Esselen, Jr., A. S. Levine, C. R.
Fellers, C. C. Strachan.) In view of the increasing interest in bottled and canned



72 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

apple juice, further studies have been made on this product. Ail of the com"
monly used methods of clarification were compared in order to determine which
would give the best-flavored juice. Flash pasteurizing the apple juice at 185°
to 190° F. followed by flash cooling with subsequent filtering, using 2j^ pounds
filter-aid per 100 gallons juice, was definitely superior to the gelatin-tannin and
pectinase enzyme methods. The bentonite method was preferable to the latter
two methods but inferior to the first-described method from the standpoint of
optimum flavor quality.

Flash pasteurization at 175° to 180° F. and filling hot into the containers, fol-
lowed by sealing and rapid cooling is recommended.

In Massachusetts the Mcintosh is the most important commercial apple crop.
Unfortunately the juice of the Mcintosh has a rather insipid flavor and must be
blended with other varieties to make a palatable apple juice. Tests were made to
determine the maximum amount of Mcintosh juice that could be blended with
Baldwin or Delicious juice to yield a satisfactory commercial product. It was
found that blends containing up to 60 percent of Mcintosh juice yielded a pleas-
ing product. In such blends it is not recommended that over 25 percent Delicious
apples be used owing to their strong aromatic flavor.

Apple juice, fresh or canned, contains little vitamin C regardless of the vitamin
content of the apple. Fresh apple juice actually destroyed added vitamin C.
However, after inactivation of the oxidizing enzymes by heat treatment, the
ascorbic acid remained biologically active in the canned or bottled juice. Ascorbic
acid is present in apple juice only in the reversibly oxidized form. It is entirely
feasible to fortify processed apple juice with crystalline ascorbic acid at the rate
of 20 mgm. or more per 100 ml. of juice. The crystals are first dissolved in the
deaerated juice which is then flash-pasteurized and canned or bottled without
delay. The containers are preferably sealed under vacuum or by displacement
with an inert gas such as nitrogen. Juice fortified by this method retains about
90 percent of the added vitamin C after 3 months.

Fruit Jellies and Jams. (A. S. Levine, S. G. Davis, and C. R. Fellers.) The
beach plum (Prunus maritima) has been used locally for jelly making. Rep-
resentative samples of the fruits from Cape Cod were collected and some were
frozen. Studies are in progress on improved methods of utilizing this fruit in
jellies and other products, as well as on composition and nutritive value. Beach
plums do not make firm jellies without the addition of pectin, but the added
pectin seems to injure the flavor. On the other hand, beach plums make excellent
jam without the use of added pectin. The aroma and pleasing astringency are su-
perior to those found in the jelly. It would appear, therefore, that more attention
should be centered on the jam and less on the jelly.

The Japanese quince, Chaenomeles japonica, a well-known ornamental shrub,
produces a considerable quantity of fruits of very pleasing aromatic odor. At-
tempts were made to utilize these fruits in jelly manufacture. The malic acid
content is 5 percent and while considerable pectin is present, the pure jelly lacks
character and is excessively acid. Unfortunately, the perfume-like aroma of the
fresh fruit is lost in the jelly and in the heat-e.xtracted juice.

Vitamin C Content of Catsup. (W. B. Esselen, Jr., and H. Fran.) A survey ha^
been made to determine the vitamin C content of tomato catsup. Samples
for analysis were obtained from the local markets and through the courtesy of
several catsup packers. The vitamin C content of nine different brands of catsup
varied from 0.05 to 0.12 mgm. per grani or from 28.3 to 68.0 1. U. per ounce.
This variation in the vitamin C content uf catsup is probably due to its air
content, possible copper contamination from equipment, storage temperature,
and length of time in storage.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 73

Change in Oxidation-Reduction Potential in Packaged Fruit Juice. (VV. B.
Esselen, Jr.) A preliminary study has been made on changes in oxidation-reduc-
tion potential in canned and bottled fruit juice. In glass-packed orange juice,
there was no correlation between the oxidation-reduction potential and flavor
changes which took place immediately after packing. The oxidation-reduction
potential of apple juice was much lower in plain tin cans than in enamel-lined
cans or bottles. Any beneficial efi^ect that the low oxidation-reduction potential
of the apple juice in plain tin cans might have in preventing deleterious oxidative
changes was ofi^set by an undesirable metallic flavor of the juice.

Glass Container Research. (C. R. Fellers, W. B. Esselen, Jr., W. H. Fitz-
patrick, E. L. Moore and J. J. Powers.) Because of the scarcity of tin plate,
there has been a marked renewal of interest in glass containers for food packing.
Extensive studies have been made on the problems of packing fruits and fruit
juices in glass packages. Earlier work on the efficacy of ascorbic acids in pre-
venting discoloration of glass-packed fruits has been confirmed. The use of 1 or 2
one-grain tablets of d-isoascorbic acid or d-glucoascorbic acid in pint or quart
jars of canned fruit or vegetables effectively prevented discoloration and off-
flavor due to oxidation.

After sealing, commercially packed foods in glass containers lose but little
vitamin A and C {Food Research 6: 135-141, 1941). Further studies have shown
that the total decrease in ascorbic acid is approximately proportional to the
enclosed oxygen. Thus, among the important factors influencing ascorbic acid
retention are: (1) volume of headspace, (2) degree of vacuum, (3) amount of
dissolved and tissue oxygen. Similarly, these same factors may also afi^ect color,
flavor, and other characteristics. Modern commercial packaging methods seek
to eliminate oxygen from canned foods. This study shows the efl^ect of varying
oxygen content on ascoibic acid retention. In fruits and vegetables with high
ascorbic acid content (citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli, etc.), only a small
percentage of the ascorbic acid is lost in canning. However, in those initially
low in ascorbic acid (pears, peaches, apple juice, plums, carrots, beets, etc.), a sub-
stantial percentage, or all, of the ascorbic acid may be lost through reaction
with oxygen. Color and flavor of the latter fruits are also adversely affected.
High storage temperatures and exposure to light accelerate the ascorbic acid-
oxygen reaction in glass-packed foods, but the final total loss of ascorbic acid is
unaffected by these factors.

The No. 10 size (105-ounce) glass jar was used experimentally for frozen-packs
of strawberries, raspberries, and peaches, packed with and without vacuumiza-
tion. Results show that vacuum sealing is generally preferable and that this
large glass package is very satisfactory for frozen fruits. As in the case of canned
fruits, the use of ascorbic acid in small amounts resulted in decreased surface
discoloration due to oxidative changes.

Marine Products Research. (C. R. Fellers and J. Lubitz.) Cooperative with
Poultry Department. New England poultrymen are constantly searching for new
low-cost feeds. Recent developments in canning Atlantic coast crabs have made
available considerable quantities of crab meal. This product contains about 34
percent protein, 40 percent ash (mainly calcium), and 2-4 percent fat. The
riboflavin content is 3-4 gammas per gram. Pantothenic acid, thiamin, and
vitamin K are also present. The meal is an especially good source of calcium,
magnesium, iodine, manganese, iron, and copper.

In feeding experiments with rats 85 percent of the nitrogen was available, the
balance being present largely as unavailable chitin. Upon hydrolysis chitin
yields glucosamine, which proved to be entirely unavailable to rats and chicks



74 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

as a source of nitrogen. The biological value of crab protein was approximately
the same as that of good grade fish meal. Pigmentation in chicks was slightly
increased by feeding crab meal as compared with fish meal. In the New England
Conference Chick Starter ration the replacement of fish meal by crab meal on
either an equal-weight or equal-protein basis gave results highly complimentary
to crab meal. Crab meal sells at considerably lower prices than fish meal; it
would seem to be a very satisfactory ingredient of poultry rations.

Dextrose Investigations. (C. R. Fellers, A. S. Levine, and L. Tarkow.) Studies
have been concluded on the relative bacteriostatic and mycostatic properties of
sucrose, dextrose, and mixtures of the two sugars. Dextrose kills and prevents the
growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds at lower concentrations than does sucrose.
That is, dextrose sirups (above 30 per cent) are far less liable to ferment or mold
than similar sucrose sirups. The use of dextrose in canned foods, in carbonated
beverages, and in soda-fountain crushed fruits and sirups is rapidly increasing.
The smaller molecule and the greater osmotic pressure exerted by dextrose in
solution are believed to contribute to the greater preserving value of this sugar.

Red Squill Research. (A. S. Levine, C. R. Fellers, and J. Lubitz.) Improved
methods for rat extermination are now more important than ever before in re-
ducing the nation's loss by waste.

Red squill was found to be harmless for chickens and rabbits. Guinea pigs
are more susceptible than rats to red squill poison. Some popular flavors have been
found to be of little value as rat lures. Among these are meat, cheese, anise,
caraway, cinnamon, and peppermint flavors. The composition of common baits
used as carriers for the squill had little effect on the toxicity of the poison to
albino rats.

On account of the war there is now no importation of red squill, and most
stocks of red squill still in this country are of low toxicity to rats. Through con-
centration and subsequent bioassay studies an attempt is being made to increase
the toxicity of the present supply.

Three papers have been published on red squill research.

Preservative Values of Organic Acids. (A. S. Levine, R. E. Morse, and M. G.
O'Connor.) The addition of small amounts of acetic acid (vinegar) does much
to improve the keeping qualities of soda fountain sirups and fruit juices with no
impairment of flavors. The addition of only 0.3 percent acetic acid inhibited
both yeast and mold growth in strawberry and raspberry sirups. This is es-
pecially favorable when compared with the high amounts of citric and lactic
acids required for complete inhibition. More than 6 percent citric acid or 5 per-
cent lactic acid was necessary to inhibit yeast growth in these sirups. Four per-
cent lactic acid prevented mold growth but the mold, Aspergillus tiiger, grew in
sirups containing over 7 percent citric acid.

Benzoic acid and especially sodium benzoate are still used extensively for the
suppression of yeasts in the preservation of fruit juices and sirups. A study is
now in progress to determine the effect upon yeasts when definite concentrations
of sucrose, dextrose, alcohol, and sodium chloride are used in conjunction with the
benzoates. In the preservation of apple juice as much benzoate was required to
preserve the clarified as was needed for the unclarified or cloudy juice.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 75

DEPARTMENT OF HORTICULTURE
R. A. Van Meter in Charge
Propagation of Hemlock. (Harold S. Tiffany, Waltham.)

Canadian Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis. Cuttings of one-year wood were taken
from hedge trees approximately fifteen years old, in three series at five- week
intervals: December 9-14, 1940; January 13 18, and February 17-21, 1941.
The rooting medium was one-third peat and two-thirds sand, in open benches
under cheesecloth tents and whitewashed glass. Cuttings were kept fairly moist.
All treatments were run at constant temperatures of 65°, 70°, and 75° F. (main-
tained by electric cable), as well as in an unheated bench where the temperature
averaged about 60°. Each lot consisted of six cuttings.

Immersion treatments consisted of honey, 25 and 50 percent solutions for 24
hours; indolebutyric acid in the form of Hormodin A, at concentrations of 30
45, 60, 75, 90 BTI units for 24 hours (with additional treatments at certain tem-
peratures); indolebutyric, indcleacetic, and naphthaleneacetic acids, each at
concentrations of 7^, 10, 12)^, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg./lOO c. c. water for
24 hours (with additional tests for 16 and 40 hours); Roche 202, at 50, 100 200
unit solutions for 24 hours. Powder treatments consisted of Formula No. 66
and Hormodin Powders Nos. 2 and 3. An untreated or check lot was included.

Untreated lots rooted little or not at all: at 60° F., 16 percent; at 65°, 33 percent-
at 70°, 16 percent; and at 75°, none. Rooted cuttings of successful lots could have
been potted at ten to twelve weeks.

Outstandingly rapid rooting, as compared with other treatments, was shown
by Hormodin A, 30 BTI units for 24 hours at 75° F. This reaction checked
similar findings of the previous season (Hormodin A, 45 BTI units for 24 hours).
See photograph page 56.

Cuttings from Series I, taken in early December, gave much higher percentages
of rooting than those of Series II or HI. In the previous year mid-December
cuttings did not root as successfully as those taken in mid-January. This variabili-
ty can be at least partially explained by the early low temperature and snow fall
of November 1940 which brought the cuttings to a condition for satisfactory
rooting much earlier than was the case in the preceding year when such condi-
tions did not materialize until January.

Of the thirty-one treatments which gave 100 percent rooting, the most con-
sistently successful was indolebutyric acid 73^ mg./lOO c. c. for 24 hours. The
finest normal root systems were developed with this treatment at 65° F. (see
photograph, page 56), with good rooting at 70° and 60°. Of economic signifi-
cance is the fact that this treatment gave 83 percent good rooting in the unheated
bench at an average temperature of 60° (widest fluctuations in the bench tem-
perature were 57° and 63°). Consistency of the treatment at 65° is further shown
by 100 percent rooting from 73^ mg. upward through 40 mg., although as the
concentration increased the roots were shorter and some injury was apparent.

Hormodin A trials were consistently good with percentages of 100 on half the
lots. Best-developed root systems were from 90 BTI units, 24 hours at 65° F.
As would be expected, lower concentrations did best at higher temperatures and
vice versa. This was shown particularly well by the best 100 percent rootings
in the Hormodin A, 24-hour trials: 30 BTI at 75°, 60 BTI at 70°, 90 BTI at 65°
and 60° F.

Cuttings treated with indoleacetic acid gave 100 percent rooting at 60° and
65° F. with concentrations up to 10 mg./lOO c. c. In no instance did the condition
of the roots excel or equal the condition of those treated with indolebutyric acid.

All naphthaleneacetic acid treatments gave indication of injury by basal burn



76 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

and proliferation of roots. Roche 202 treatments gave variable results — from
to 100 percent rooting. As in the case of most treatments, best rooting was
at 65° F.

Hormodin Powder No. 2 brought 83 percent rooting at 70° P., but fell to 66
percent at 65°. Hormodin Powder No. 3 gave best rooting at 65° — 100 percent.
Root development with powder treatments was much inferior to that produced
by immersion treatments of indolebutyric acid. The results with Hormodin
Powder No. 3 were generally paralleled by Formula No. 66.

Tsuga canadensis vars. pendula and minima. Results of treatments suggest
these varieties propagate readih'. The records approximately parallel those for
T. canadensis.

Tsuga canadensis var. Beaujean. Preliminary tests of twelve lots suggest that
this variety does not propagate so readily as those mentioned above.

Generally, indolebutyric acid has shown definitely superior results to other
treatments in these trials and at low concentrations. A constant temperaure
of 65° F. appears optimum throughout the trials, with the exception of Hormodin
A at 30 BTI at 75°. Cuttings rooted best when taken soon after the first pro-
tracted cold weather of the season.

Tests will be continued in 1941-42 with indolebutyric acid in vaiious forms at
minimum concentrations and optimum temperatures.

Propagation of Mountain LaureL (Harold S. Tiffany, Waltham.) Preliminary
trials in 1940 gave indication of a low percentage of rooting from hardwood cut-
tings of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, taken in mid-January. Treatment with
indolebutyric acid in the form of Hormodin A at 60 BTI units for 16 hours gave
20 percent rooting, while fairly high concentration of the salts gave only 10
percent. These roots developed in a sand medium; no roots developed in a
medium half sand and half peat, or in peat alone.

Since successful propagation of the best white and deepest pink variations of
mountain laurel would be of decided value, a program of winter propagation
trials was carried out during 1940-41. Three series of cuttings were taken:
December 19-26, 1940; January 30-February 6 and March 13-20, 1941. Thirty-
eight treatments (plus other varied trials) in lots of six cuttings each for 'each
series were duplicated at constant temperatures of 65°, 70°, and 75° F., and in
an unheated bed averaging 60°. These were as follows: honey, 25 and 50 percent
solutions; Formula No. 66 and Hormodin No. 3; Hormodin A at 45, 60, 75, 90,
120, 150 BTI solutions; indolebutyric, indoleacetic, naphthaleneacetic acid salt
solutions at concentrations of 10 mg./lOO c. c. through 80 mg./lOO c. c. (10 unit
progression); Roche 202 at unit strengths of 50, 100, 200, 300; and an untreated
lot.

While rooting percentages of the previous season's tests were perhaps slightly
bettered {33 percent), it appears from these results that the propagation of
mountain laurel from hardwood cuttings ma\' not be feasible.

The twenty-eight plants rooted did not continue root development after
transfer to pots, seeming to hold only growth that had been made in the rooting
medium. The cuttings rooted in 1940 also exhibit an equal lack of normal
vitality.

Propagation of Lilac. (Harold S. Tiffany, Waltham.) The time of taking cut-
tings of the common lilac, Syringa vulgaris var. Andenken an Ludwig Spaeth,
has been varied from May 28 to July 1. In no instance have rooting percentages
been as high as for those taken in late May at the time the flowers are about half
way into bloom. At this time the new growth is about 6 to 8 inches long, making
for good-sized plants when rooted. Rooting percentages of the 1200 cuttings
taken for test June 10, 1941, about two weeks after the optimum time, fell off



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 77

from 30 to 40 percent. Optimum temperature of the medium, one-third peat
and two-thirds sand, was found to be about 70° F. Hormodin A, 40 BTI units
for 24 hours, and Formula No. 66 each gave 95 percent good normal rooting.

Propagation of Juniperus virginiana var. glauca. (Harold S. Tiffan>', Waltham.)
Several varietal forms of Juniperus virginiana are propagated commercially by
grafting to understocks of this species, since no satisfactory percentage of rooting
has been obtained from cuttings. The variety glauca is one of these.

Preliminary trials in 1940 of wood of the current season and of two-year wood
gave high rooting percentages on the one-year wood and very low percentages of
rooting on. the two-year wood. Both sand and half sand, half peat appeared
satisfactory media, although cuttings in the sand-peat rooted satisfactorily in
11 weeks, while those in the sand consistently required 14 weeks.

A series of cuttings, twenty to each treatment, taken in late January 1941,
were put in sand-peat in open unheated benches at a temperature averaging 62°.
Thirty-four treatments with root-inducing substances were made for 16, 24, and
40 hour immersions.

Indications show successful rooting confined to indolebutyric acid treatments
with a range of rooting percentages up to 100. Untreated cuttings gave no
indication of rooting. A higher temperature of the rooting medium appears to
be necessary for best results.

Factors Increasing the Rapidity of Growth of Nursery Stock. (Harold S.
Tiffanj', Waltham.) To determine best cultural practices for rapid quality
growth of lining out stock, plots of various plant materials have been laid out from
1939 through 1941. These include plantings of Tsiiga caroliniana and canadensis,
Thuja occidentalis var. glohosa, and Syringa vulgaris var. Souvenir de Ludwig
Spaeth.

A series of fertilizer treatments was applied in duplicate, in 1940 and 1941, to
fourteen plots of Tsuga caroliniana. Treatments were based on 5-8-7 (one third
ton per acre) as a balanced fertilizer adequate in amount for the needs of young
evergreen trees. One-half the nitrogen was supplied b\' nitrate of soda and
one-half by suliate of ammonia. Phosphorus was supplied by superphosphate, and
potash by muriate of potash. Manure and peat moss represent two other treat-
ments.

Growth measurements in inches for each of the years 1940 and 1941 were se-
cured from plots treated with manure (15 cords per acre) and peat moss (annual
application of 2 inches hoed into the soil).

While other treatments also show measurements exceeding those of the un-
treated plots, further results are needed before conclusions can be drawn.

Study of Herbaceous Perennial Material. (Harold S. TifTany, Waltham.)
Records of the 1941 season have been included with material previously obtained,
giving the average time and duration of bloom, height, and color of the better
and enduring garden perennials. Averages for a period of five years are now
available for most of the plants.

Additions to the peony collection, chosen as representative of the best of their
types from a study made by the University of Illinois and the American Peony
Society, are as follows: Single — Catherine Parry, Departing Sun, Harriet Olney,
Le Jour, Marguerite Dessert, Mellin Knight, Mischief, Shirley Walker; Jap-
anese — Antwerpen, Cathedral, Fuyajo, Hakodate, Kukenu-Jishi, Margaret
Atwood, Mikado, Some-ganoko, Surugu.

Hardiness Trials of Clematis Varieties. (Harold S. Tiffany, Waltham.) A
limited number of three-\'ear plants was set in the nursery, from pots, in the



78 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

spring of 1940 and given a severe test the following winter without the benefit
of winter protection.

The only 100 percent survivors after a winter during which a lasting blanket of
snow offered good protection, were the varieties Mme. Edouard Andre, Elsa
Spath, and Duchess of Edinburgh. Over 75 percent of Comtesse de Bouchaud
lived; 66 percent of Henryi; and 50 percent of Romona and montana var. rubens.
The species ascotiensis, crispa, langiUica var. obttisiuscula, and the varieties Belle
of Woking, Gipsy Queen, Mrs. Cholmondeley, Nelly Moser, Ville de Lyon, and
Ville de Paris were entirely winterkilled.

While the number of plants was insufficient for a thorough test, and although



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