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diets 76 and 61 parts per million of manganese; the two low-manganese groups,
17 and 24 p. p. m., respectively. The data showed no appreciable differences in
egg production, feed efficiency, fertility, hatchability, and livability between the
compared groups; but the shell-breaking strength of eggs laid by the pullets on
high-manganese rations was significantly greater than that of eggs laid by birds
on the low-manganese rations, although the shell texture was not unsatisfactory
in the latter groups. It was concluded, because all-mash lajang rations contain-
ing as little as 17 and 24 p. p. m. of manganese did not produce manganese
deficiency symptoms in laying hens in a period of 12 lunar months, that even
these levels in laying rations can be considered satisfactory from a practical
viewpoint.



98 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

The Effect of an Excess of Calcium in the Diet. (M. S. Gutowska and R. T.
Parkhurst.) The results of this experiment showed that an excess of calcium in
the ration of laying hens lowered the production value of the diet, and that 3.95
percent of calcium in the diet of laying hens having a normal dietary level of
phosphorus and ample vitamin D intake was excessive. However, there was no
significant difference in the egg shell breaking strength, the average egg weight,
and the fertility and hatchability of eggs between the groups of birds receiving
the varying levels of calcium.

The importance of a control of the mineral balance of laying rations by means
of chemical analysis at regular intervals is suggested.

The Value of Pulverized Calcite Flour as a Source of Calcium for Laying Hens.

(M. S. Gutowska and R. T. Parkhurst.) The object of this experiment was to
compare qualitatively two rations with different sources of calcium: pulverized
plain calcite and oyster shell meal, at the same quantitative level. The man-
ganese content of the rations was estimated to be close to the assumed optimum
for laying pullets.

The data obtained from two flocks of 24 Rhode Island Red pullets during 12
months showed no significant differences in production, body and egg weight,
feed efficiency, egg shell breaking strength, hatchability, and fertility. The egg
quality was equal in the two flocks.

It was concluded that pulverized plain calcite is as good a source of calcium as
oyster shell meal for lading pullets; but its biological value as a mineral supple-
ment for laying hens is not higher than that of oyster shell meal.

The Phosphatase Activity as a Factor of Calcium Deposition and Egg-Shell
Formation. (M. S. Gutowska and R. T. Parkhurst, with the cooperation of
E. M. Parrott and R. M. Verberg of the Chemistry Department.) Phosphatase
activity as a factor of shell formation is studied by the determination of plasma
and oviduct phosphatase activity. Four groups of hens, good and poor producers,
with good and poor egg shell, are being compared in this regard. The phos-
phatase activity is determined according to a modification of King-Armstrong
method.

Electric Brooding. (W. C. Sanctuary in cooperation with Professor C. I.
Gunness of the Engineering Department.) The use of soil cable under 4 inches
of sawdust litter materially reduced moisture content of litter, when used con-
tinuously, but at an excessive cost. The use of insulation plus restricted ventila-
tion also reduced the moisture content of the litter materially, but not so much
as the continuous use of the soil cable. The use of damp (40 percent moisture)
sawdust from the start of brooding produced no deleterious results except for a
large number of crooked toes thought to be due to cold floors. Because of high
moisture content, the litter froze into a solid block on cold nights.

Combining Meat and Egg Production. (W. C. Sanctuary and J. H. Vondell.)
The standardization of body weight in Barred Plymouth Rocks at 6 pounds by
December 1 has been well established. The 1938 generation had a mean weight
just below 6 pounds. The generations of 1939 and 1940 had a mean weight just
a trifle above 6 pounds. There has been some improvement in meat quality as
measured by fleshing upon the breasts at 8 weeks of age and later as adults.
One adult male of the 1941 generation has approached the extreme "broad-
breasted" type now produced in one variety of turkey. Egg production has
improved also, three 300-eggers having been produced in the last two years
largely because of improvement in intensity (rate) of production.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 99

Sexing by Down and Shank Color. (W. C. Sanctuary.) The sexing b\- down
and shank color of 948 College pedigreed Barred Rock chicks was done with
a 95.36 percent accuracy compared to a 95.15 percent accuracy by the vent process
method with the same chicks. The chicks were first judged by the down and
shank characteristics.

Restricted Feeding on Range. (J. H. Vondell.) At 10 weeks of age, one half
of the College Barred Rock chicks was placed on a restricted plan of feeding,
while the remainder continued on the free-choice feeding of mash, oats, and corn.

The restricted plan consisted of feeding mash and oats until 10 a. m., when the
hoppers were closed and no feed given until the 4. p. m. allotment of whole corn.
The pullets were housed September 12 and both lots were placed on full feeding.
The restricted plan resulted in a saving of 1.52 pounds of feed per chicken
during the 15-week period. At 6 months of age the restricted and full-feeding
lots weighed exactly the same, 5.85 pounds. There was no difference in maturity
as determined by age at first egg. The laying-house mortality to April 1 was
practically the same for the two lots. Also, egg production was quite close:
57.86 percent for the full-feeding and 62.88 percent for the restricted lot.

These studies are being continued.



DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SCIENCE

J. B. Lentz in Charge

Poultry Disease Control Service. (H. Van Rockel, K. L. Bullis, O. S. Flint,
and M. K. Clarke.)

1. Pidloru?n- Disease Eradication. During the 1940-41 season the laboratory
tested 309 chicken flocks representing 527,328 birds and 538,589 tests. The
percentage of reactors (0.09) was the lowest in the twenty-one-^-ear testing period.
Of the total 478 reactors, the bulk was identified in one flock.

Testing service was rendered to flock owners in 11 counties. Middlesex and
Worcester counties led in the number of birds tested. No reactors were found in
Barnstable, Essex, Hampshire, Plymouth, and Worcester counties.

Five flocks which were non-reacting the previous year revealed infection dur-
ing the 1940-41 season. In two instances a plausible explanation for the infection
was obtained. In all instances but one the percentage of reactors was verj^ low,
less than one-half of 1 percent.

Flocks tested for the first time revealed the highest percentage of infection.
Among the flocks (41) tested for two consecutive years, no reactors were found.
Among the 210 flocks tested for three or more consecutive years, representing
437,145 birds and 446,694 tests, 0.08 percent reactors was revealed.

Approximately 88 percent of the total birds tested was confined to 100 percent
tested, non-reacting flocks (256). Forty-three flocks were partially tested and
non-reacting, representing 28,874 birds. Ten flocks were classified as positive,
representing 34,853 birds.

Of the total birds tested, 490,759 were females and 47,830 were males. The
percentages of reactors were 0.08 and 0.17, respectively.

A total of 4,417 samples collected from fowl other than chickens was tested for
pullorum disease. The species tested included turkeys (4,259 tests), pheasants
(115), guinea fowl (22), geese (13), ducks (5), and quail (3). Reactors were de-
tected in three of the 32 turkey flocks, but in only one instance was 5. pullorum
isolated. No reactors were detected among the other fowl tested.

The testing results indicate that Massachusetts is making progress in elim-
inating pullorum disease from its chicken and turkey breeding flocks.



100



MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388



2. Diagnostic Service. During the year, 2,264 specimens were examined in
533 consignments. Personal delivery of specimens was made in 335 cases. The
specimens may be classified as follows: 1,878 chickens, 256 turkeys, 38 canine
feces, 24 pheasants, 11 each of foxes and goat feces, 7 pigeons, 6 trout, 4 bovine
semen, 3 each of crows, peafowl, and ruffed grouse, 2 each of bovine organs,
bovine skin scrapings, calves, canine, equine nasal swabs, mink, rabbits, and
sheep, 1 each of bovine rumen contents, canary, equine, and pork.

The incidence of the more common and important disease conditions observed
in chickens during the past five years is as follows:

1936-37 1937-38 1938-39 1939-40 1940-41 Total

Avian tuberculosis 1 1 3 1 1 7

Coccidiosis 35 64 97 82 63 341

Enterohepatitis 2 7 6 7 7 29

Epidemic tremor 8 35 22 19 12 96

Fowl cholera 11 3 16 12 13 55

Fowl coryza 5 2 1 3 11

Fowl paralysis 37 45 77 47 51 257

Fowl pox 8 30 21 7 9 75

Fowl typhoid 4 2 11 4 1 22

Infectious bronchitis 40 31 48 57 31 207

Infectious laryngotracheitis 12 9 19 14 13 67

Internal parasites 23 21 41 26 34 145

Kidney disorders 17 15 37 21 19 109

Leukemia 7 3 6 3 5 24

Nutritional encephalomalacia 1 7 13 8 6 35

Paratyphoid 1 2 3 1 7

Perosis 4 2 4 3 3 16

Pullorum disease 39 46 49 32 28 194

Reproductive disorders... . 22 14 20 21 17 94

Rickets 8 6 19 19 10 62

Tumors 53 46 79 53 66 297

Ulcerated gizzards 1 15 14 15 10 55

Unknown disease 9 11 24 26 3i 103

Unknown pullet disease. . . 6 6 11 9 14 46

The 256 turkeys were received in 44 consignments. Paratyphoid, coccidiosis,
enterohepatitis, and ulcerative enteritis were the conditions most frequently
encountered. Pullorum disease was observed only once for the second consecutive
year and these poults came from a source outside of the State. Pullorum disease
was, however, established in a Massachusetts flock through necropsy of a reacting
turkey. Swine erysipelas and fowl cholera were each identified once. This is
the first time that fowl cholera has been recorded in a Massachusetts flock. Cap-
illaria contorta was identified twice in one flock. This parasite produced symp-
toms in quite a number of birds in both instances.

Capillaria plica was observed in one fox. We are indebted to the Zoological
Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture
for identification of the parasites in the fox and in the turke>'s.

Listerellosis was identified in a canary. All females (eight) in the aviary died
within a two-week period. The males in a separate cage were not affected.

3. Flock Mortality Studies. These studies have been continued to obtain
additional data on causes of adult mortality and to furnish information for
genetics experiments. Necropsy examinations were made on 208 morbid and dead
birds from the flock which was hatched in the spring of 1940 at the Experimental



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 101

Poultry Farm. There were 147 females and 61 males. A wide variet\' of diag-
noses was made on these birds, but no unusual outbreaks of disease were noted.
The mortality in this \ear's flock was widely distributed over the year, whereas
the mortality in flocks hatched in previous \ears had a tendency to be con-
centrated in the late spring or just after the birds were more than ane year of age.
Cannibalism was materially reduced in this group of birds, whereas fowl paralysis
and staph\lococcosis were markedh' increased.

4. Salmonella Types Isolated. The identification of paratyphoid organisms
isolated from diseased specimens continued during the past year, and 21 were
added to those previously reported. Eighteen were S. typhi- murium, one was
5. anatum, and two (from different organs of the same specimen) appear to be a
new type. These 21 strains came from six flocks. One strain was isolated from
a pigeon and all others from turkeys (7 mature and 13 poults).

During the past year, 4104 turkey blood samples were tested for paratyphoid
infection by the macroscopic tube agglutination test. An autogenous antigen of
S. typhi-murium was used as a test fluid. While infected birds can be detected
by such a procedure, the method can not be relied upon to eliminate the infec-
tion to the degree accomplished in pullorum-disease testing. Owners of flocks
that are apparently free of this infection should investigate thoroughly the
history of the source from which stock may be introduced.

We are greath- indebted to Dr. Philip Edwards, Department of Animal Path-
ology, University' of Kentucky, Le.Kington, Kentucky, who identified these
strains as to type.

5. Avian Encephalomyelitis . The infective agent was passed through chicks
(intracerebral inoculation) 21 times during the past year and is now in its 125th
passage since its first isolation. Its characteristics do not appear to have under-
gone any permanent change during the twelve months. An attempt was made to
determine the presence of avian encephalomyelitis virus in the brain of adult
birds which had e.xhibited topical s\mptoms of the infection as chicks. Six hens
of this type were destroyed and brain suspension prepared from each for inocula-
tion intracerebrally into bab}' chicks. In no instance did the brain suspension
produce symptoms of avian encephalomyelitis. A suspension prepared from the
ovary of one of the six birds also gave negative results when inoculated into baby
chicks. The virus appears to lose its potency very slowly if stored at 10° C. ±.
This conclusion is based on inoculation of three brain suspensions prepared
10/8/38, 4/12/39, and 8/24/39 and stored until 1 21 41. The oldest (stored
837 days) produced t\pical symptoms in 50 percent of the chicks inoculated;
the next oldest (stored 650 days), in 67 percent of the chicks; and the most recent
(stored 517 da\s), in 86 percent of the chicks.

Additional data were obtained from inoculation of embryonated eggs and trans-
mission of infection to chicks hatched in the incubator at the same time with the
inoculated embryos. A total of 188 ten-day embryos was inoculated in six dif-
ferent settings of eggs. Of the 91 chicks hatched from these embryos, 23 showed
typical sAmptoms of avian encephalomyelitis. Seven of these chicks showed
symptoms before they were taken fromthe hatching tra>', and one chick showed
no symptoms until it was 29 da>s of age. All others showed symptoms at ages
between these extremes. None of the 107 chicks exposed in the incubator while
hatching developed s)'mptoms of avian encephalomyelitis infection. The elTect
of fumigation on brain suspensions of avian encephalomyelitis v^rus was in-
vestigated in three trials. Chicks inoculated with a virus suspension previously
fumigated by the standard formaldehyde gas method did not develop clinical
symptoms.

Consignn^ents of chick brains were received from Georgia, New Mexico,



102 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

Ohio, and Wisconsin. Avian encephalomyelitis was definitely identified in three
of the four consignments.

6. Injectioits Bronchitis Studies. During the past year investigations were
undertaken in the control of infectious bronchitis, which is a widespread, highly
infectious, communicable respiratory disease of chickens causing serious losses
among \oung chicks and lading birds.

Field investigations were started with the objective of inoculating flocks dur-
ing the growing age in the hope of producing an immunity which would be of
sufficient duration so that the birds would pass through at least one laying season
without contracting the infection. Fourteen flocks, representing approximately
40,000 birds, were inoculated during the months of June, July, and August. The
inocula were prepared from laboratory birds inoculated with a known infectious
bronchitis virus. Preliminary observations re\'eal that birds ranging in age from
four weeks to four months can be inoculated without serious objectionable post-
inoculation results. However, the inoculation of birds six to ten weeks of age pro-
duced the most satisfactory results. Chicks under four weeks of age and laying
birds should net be exposed to the infection.

To date no definite evidence of the disease has appeared among the birds in the
inoculated flocks. Later in the season a critical test will be applied to the various
flocks to determine their resistance to infectious bronchitis virus.

Laboratory investigations are in progress to develop a practical and economical
method for the production and administration of the virus for flock inoculation.
The development of a practical and successful inoculation program to control
infectious bronchitis will mean a great economic saving to the Massachusetts
poultry industry.

7. Farm Department Brucellosis Control and Eradication. The laboratory
cooperated in this work by testing 639 bovine and 53 swine blood samples, by the
standard tube agglutination method.

Studies of Neoplastic and Neoplastic-like Diseases. (Carl Olson, Jr.) The
lymphoid tumor experimentally transmissible in chickens has been maintained in
serial passage during the past year. It has retained its fundamental character-
istics and in its later passages has shown no tendency to change its behavior.
Apparently the tumor has assumed a fixed pattern for its action in experimental
birds. The results of the first thirt> serial passages have been published in an
article "A transmissible hmphoid tumor of the chicken" appearing in Cancer
Research 1: 384-392, 1941.

The collection of 384 spontaneous tumors of chickens has been investigated and
much interesting information has been the result of this study. The collection
was derived from three sources; namely, cases of tumor submitted to the Diagnos-
tic Laboratory during a two->'ear period, cases of tumor occurring in a flock from
which nearly all birds found ill or dead were examined, and cases of tumor found in
birds from other miscellaneous sources. Twenty-three different types of neo-
plasia were found in the collection. The most common was lymphocytoma, as
slightly over half (55.5 percent) of the cases were of this variety. Six other types
(leiomyoma, embrxonal nephroma, myelocytoma, leukosis, epithelioblastoma,
and fibrosarcoma) collectively comprised about one-third (32.8 percent) of the
collection. Other varieties of neoplasia found were carcinosarcoma, neurogenic
sarcoma, hemangioma, fibroma, cholangioma, hepatoma, histiocytic sarcoma,
my.xoma, thymoma, rhabdomyoma, osteochondrosarcoma, fibrochondrosarcoma,
melanoma, lymphangioma, mesothelioma, and teratoma.

Three forms of lymphocytoma were found: diffuse, nodular, and combined
diffuse and nodular. A possible explanation for the existence of three forms was



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 103

developed from study of the material, and is based on the inherent resistance of
the individual bird to growth of the tumor. Thus in diffuse lymphocytoma the
host has but little resistance to growth of the tumor, allowing it to assume a
diffuse character. In nodular lymphocytoma the host has considerable resistance
to growth of the tumor, causing it to be restricted and nodular in form. The
combined diffuse and nodular form develops when there is but moderate resistance
of the organ or tissue in which the tumor is growing.



WALTHAM FIELD STATION

Waltham, Massachusetts

Ray M. Koon in Charge

The members of the research staff of the Waltham Field Station are assigned'
to the unit by the Departments of Botany, Entomology, Floriculture, Horticul-
ture, and Vegetable Gardening. Reports of these departments give results of
investigations conducted at this station.

Soil Testing Service. Testing soil for commercial vegetable growers, mush-
room growers, florists, nurserymen, greenkeepers, arborists, vendors of' loam,
and home gardeners has long been regarded as an important service which the
Field Station has rendered. More recently this program has been extended to
include service to the State Department of Public Works, the Metropolitan Dist-
rict Commission, Works Project Administration, and town and cit}' administra-
tions. There is no doubt that this effort is effective, particularly when the soil
test is followed by a personal interview between the client and the technician.
The total number of soil samples tested in 1941 was 6676.

Field Day. The twenty-third annual Field Day on August 6, 1941, attracted
the usual number of visitors, about 1200. Perfect weather made it one of the
most comfortable Field Days ever held. In an endeavor to increase the interest
in the vegetable contests a few more varieties were added to the list. Valuable
prizes were offered by the Boston Market Gardeners Association for the three
best market packages of Bunched Carrots, Summer Pascal Celery, White Celery,
Trellis Tomato, Straightneck Squash, Sweet Corn, and Cucumber. An auction
of the vegetables entered in the contests proved an interesting innovation.



104 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

PUBLICATIONS
Bulletins

378 Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ending November 30, 1940. 112 pp.
February 1941.

The main purpose of this report is to provide an opportunity for pre-
senting in published form, recent results from experimentation in fields
or on projects where progress has not been such as to justify the general
and definite conclusions necessary to meet the requirements of bulletin
or journal.

379 Trace Metals and Total Nutrients in Human and Cattle Foods. By E. B.
Holland and W. S. Ritchie. 31 pp. July 1941.

This information concerning the composition of various plant materials
is provided because of the very general interest in the nutritional function
of certain trace elements.

380 Pasture Culture in Massachusetts. B\- William G. Colby. 44 pp. Octo-
ber 1941.

Pastures are of great economic importance in Massachusetts agriculture,
and this study represents an attempt to organize such available informa-
tion as may have a bearing on their best management.

381 Spraying to Control Preharvest Drop of Apples. By Laurence Southwick
and J. K. Shaw. 16 pp. February 1941.

The use of "hormone sprays" to reduce preharvest drop is a new de-
velopment. This bulletin reports results of recently conducted tests in
an attempt to e\aluate the method, especially in relation to Mcintosh.

382 The Propagation of Some Trees and Shrubs by Cuttings. By William L.
Doran. 56 pp. March 1941.

The detailed information regarding recent developments in plant propa-
gation dealt with in this bulletin should be of significant economic impor-
tance, especially to nurserymen and foresters.

383 The Sanitary Evaluation of Private Water Supplies. By Ralph L. France.
11 pp. March 1941.

A safe water supply for rural homes is of prin;e importance. This is an
explanation of some of the problems involved, with special attention to
contamination and its detection.

384 The Importance of Length of Incubation Period in Rhode Island Reds.
By F. A. Hays. 12 pp. July 1941.

This represents an attempt to determine whether length of incubation
period may serve as a criterion of the future performance of chicks.

385 Natural Land Types of Massachusetts and Their Use. B\- A. B. Beau-

mont. 16 pp. May 1941.

This represents an attempt to supply certain technical information
regarding soils considered essential as a basis for sound land-use studies
and classifications.

386 Rural Youth in Massachusetts. By Gilbert Meldrum and Ruth E. Sher-
burne. 8 pp. December 1941.

National concern regarding the general welfare of our population deserves
some planning, fcr which studies of this sort may furnish a basis.

387 Interrelationship of Land Uses in Rural Massachusetts. By David Roz-
man. 20 pp. December 1941.

The extent and significance of the various land uses and their relation-
ship to each other is analyzed with a view to providing a balanced system
of land utilization.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 105

Control Bulletins

108 Twenty-First Annual Report on Eradication of Pullorum Disease in Massa-
chusetts. By the Poultry Disease Control Laboratory. 11pp. May 1941.

109 Inspection of Commercial Fertilizers and Agricultural Lime Products.
By Fertilizer Control Service Staff. 55 pp. September 1941.

110 Inspection of Commercial Feedstuffs. By Philip H. Smith. 64 pp. Octo-
ber 1941.

111 Seed Inspection. By F. A. McLaughlin. 93 pp. November 1941.



Meteorological Bulletins

625-636, inclusive. Monthly reports giving daily weather records, together with
monthly and annual summaries. By C. I. Gunness. 4 pp. each.



Reports of Investigations in Journals

Numbered Contributions

312 Retention of Vitamins C and A in Glass-Packed Foods. By C. R. Fellers



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