Copyright
Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station.

Bulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) online

. (page 43 of 77)
Online LibraryMassachusetts Agricultural Experiment StationBulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) → online text (page 43 of 77)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


and R. E. Buck. Food Res. 6 (2):135-141. 1941.
365 The Effect of Cocoa upon the Digestibility of Milk Proteins. By L. D.

Lipman and W. S. Mueller. Dairy Sci. 24 (5):399-408. 1941.

369 Factors Affecting the Toxicity of Red Squill. By J. A. Lubitz, A. S. Levine,.
and C. R. Fellers. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 30 (3):69-72. 1941.

370 Anticataractogenic Action of Certain Nitrogenous Factors. By Helen S.
Mitchell, Gladys M. Cook, and Mary D. Henderson. Arch. Ophth. 24:990-
998. 1940.

375 The Effect of Dry Heat upon the Anticataractogenic Quality of Certain
Proteins. By Mary D. Henderson and Helen S. Mitchell. Jour. Nutr.
21 (2):115-124. 1941.

376 Transmitting Abiiit\' in Males of Genes for Egg Size. By F. A. Hays.
Poultry Sci. 20 {3):217-220. 1941.

377 The Effect of the Hydrolytic Products of Casein and Deaminized Casein
on the Cataractogenic Action of Galactose. By Edwin L. Moore, Mary D.
Henderson, Helen S. Mitchell and Walter S. Ritchie. Jour. Nutr. 21
(2):125-133. 1941.

379 Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles in Poultry Rations. I. Chick
Rations. By Kevin G. Shea and Carl R. Fellers and Raymond T. Park-
hurst. Poultry Sci. 20 (6):527-535. 1941.

380 Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles in Poultry Rations. II. Laying
Rations. By Fred L. Dickens and Raymond T. Parkhurst and Carl R.
Fellers. Poultry Sci. 20 (6):536-542. 1941.

381 Manganese Absorption in Fowl. By Marie S. Gutowska, E. M. Parrott^
and F. A. Slesinski. Poultry Sci. 20 (4) :379-384. 1941.

383 Research in Food Technology in the Development of Our Fisheries Re-
sources. By Carl R. Fellers. Trans. Amer. Fisheries Soc. 70 (1940):72-76.
1941.

384 Sex Ratio in Domestic Chickens. By F. A. Hays. Amer. Nat. 75:187-188.
1941.

386 Report on Zinc. By E. B. Holland and W. S. Ritchie. Jour. Assoc. Off.
Agr. Chem. 24 (2):348-350. 1941.

387 Laboratory and Business Relationships in Foods and Nutrition. By Carl
R. Fellers. Jour. Home Econ. 33 (2) :87-93. 1941.



106 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

388 Effect of Processing on the Vitamin A (Carotene) Content of Foods. By
C. R. Fellers. Proc. of the Food Conf. of the Inst, of Food Technol. held
in Chicago, June 16-19, 1940.

389 Toxicity of Red Squill Powder and E.xtract for Chickens, Rabbits, and
Guinea Pigs. By J. A. Lubitz and C. R. Fellers. Jour. Amer. Pharm.
Assoc, Sci. Ed. 30 (5). 1941.

390 Rat Lures. By J. A. Lubitz, C. R. Fellers, and A. S. Levine. Soap and
Sanit. Chem. February 1941.

391 A Simple Instrument for Mincing Tissue. By Carl Olson, Jr. Amer.
Jour. Vet. Res. 2 (4):295-297. 1941.

392 Carbon Dioxide-Oxygen and Storage Relationships in Cranberries. By
A. S. Levine, C. R. Fellers and C. I. Gunness. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci. 38 (1940):239-242. 1941.

393 Intake of Certain Elements by Calciphilic and Calciphobic Plants Grown
on Soils Differing in pH. By William H. Bender and Walter S. Eisenmenger.
Soil Sci. 52 (4):297-307. 1941.

394 The Effect of Methods of Growing and Transplanting the Plants on the
Yield of Peppers. By W. H. Lachman, Eleanor A. West, and Grant B.
Snyder. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 38 (1940):554-556. 1941.

395 Budding Ornamental Malus on the Mailing Rootstocks. B\- J. K. Shaw.
Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 38 (1940) :661. 1941.

396 The Effect of Hormone Spra>s on the Harvest Drop of Apples. (Abstract)
By Lawrence Southwick and J. K. Shaw. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 38
(1940):121-122. 1941.

397 The Effect of Soil Temperature on the Growth of Cultivated Blueberry
Bushes. By John S. Bailey and Linus H. Jones. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci. 38 (1940):462-464. 1941.

398 The Effect of Lime Applications on the Growth of Cultivated Blueberry
Plants. By J. S. Bailey. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 38 (1940):465-467.
1941.

400 Fruit Juice Concentration by Freezing and Centrifuging. By Lowell R.

Tucker. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 38 (1940):225-230. 1941.
402 A Transmissible Lymphoid Tumor of the Chicken. By Carl Olson, Jr.

Cancer Res. 1 (5) :384-392. 1941.

404 Some Factors Affecting Wheying Off of Cultured Buttermilk. By Lynn R.
Glazier and H. G. Lindquist. Milk Plant Monthly 30 (5):27-30. 1941.

405 Corn Syrup Solids Improve Frozen Dairy Products. By Lynn R. Glazier
and Merrill J. Mack. Food Indus. June 1941.

407 Effect of Freezing on the Available Iron Content of Foods. Preliminary
Contribution. By W. H. Hastings and C. R. Fellers and G. A. Fitzgerald.
Presented at Annual Meeting, Amer. Inst. Refrig., Washington, D. C,
May 12-13, 1941.

408 A Simple Control of Damping Off. By William L. Doran. Florists' E.xch.
96 (21):10. May 24, 1941.

409 Non-Toxic Character of Ursolic Acid. Preliminary Study. By J. A. Lubitz
and C. R. Fellers. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, Sci. Ed. 30 (8). 1941.

410 Homogenized Milk. By J. H. Frandsen. Milk Plant Monthly, June 1941.

413 Propagation of Hemlock Cuttings. By William L. Doran. Amer. Nursery-
man 74 (6):18-19. 1941.

414 Propagation of Umbrella-Pine by Cuttings. By William L. Doran. Flor-
ists' Exch. 97 (9):9. 1941.

415 Thiamin and Pyrimidine Studies on Older Subjects. By Anne Wertz and
Helen S. Mitchell, with the technical assistance of F. Catherine Higgins.
Soc. for E.xpt. Biol, and Med. Proc. 48:259-263. 1941.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1941 107



Unnumbered Contributions



Grass Silage for Poultry. B}- J. G. Archibald. New England Homestead,

April 19, 1941.
Cull Apples for Dairy Cows. By J. G. Archibald. The Rural New Yorker,

June 14, 1941.
Manganese in Cows' Milk. By J. G. Archibald. Milk Plant Monthh", Septem-
ber 1941.
Coin Mats for the Microscopist. By Linus H. Jones. Science 94 (2445):446. 1941.
Wood Decay Fungi. By Malcolm A. McKenzie. Proc. First Ann. Eastern Pest

Control Operators' Conference, Amherst, January 13-15, 1941.
Municipal Shade Tree Problems in National Defense. By Malcolm A. McKenzie.

Proc. Ann. Meeting, Mass. Tree Wardens' Assoc, February 13, 1941.
Progress Report, including Transcriptions of Certain Papers Presented at the

Eighth Annual Five-Day Short Course for Tree V\'ardens and Other Workers

with Trees, March 24-29, 1941:

Poisonous Plants. By A. Vincent Osmun. pp. 28-35.

The Dutch Elni Disease Problem in Massachusetts. B\ Malcolm A. McKen-
zie. pp. 54-55.
Timely Spraying Protects Elms Against Midsummer Defoliation. By
Malcolm A. McKenzie and William B. Becker, p. 56.
Methods of Determining the Curd Tension of Milk. Cooperative Study with

American Dairy Science Association Committee. Final Report in Jour.

Dairy Sci. 24. September 1941. (W. S. Mueller.)
What About Foreign Type Cheese? By H. G. Lindquist. Natl. Butter and

Cheese Jour. 32 (5):16-18. May 1941.
Ice Cream — It's Better Than You Think. By J. H. Frandsen. Ice Cream Field,

October 1941.
Pasteurization — How Can the Small Milk Producer Meet the Requirements?

By J. H. Frandsen. New England Homestead, March 22, 1941.
Insect Pests of 1940 and What to Expect in 1941. By A. I. Bourne and W. D.

Whitcomb. Mass. Fruit Growers' Assoc. Ann. Rept. 1941:L20-132.
Orchard Insects in 1940. By W. D. Whitcomb and A. I. Bourne. Mass. Fruit

Growers' Assoc. Ann. Rept. 1941:20-22.
The Elm Leaf Beetle. By W. D. Whitcomb. Proc. Ann. Meeting, Mass. Tree

Wardens' Assoc, February 13, 1941.
The Damage Done by Bark Beetles. By Wm. E. Tomlinson, Jr. Horticulture

(New England edition), p. 176-A. April 1, 1941.
The Practical Aspects of Polyploidy in Floricultural Crops. B\- Harold E. White.

Amer. Nat. 75:326-328. 1941. Biological Symposia 4:130-132. 1941.
Sanitation of Glassware and the Utilization of Paper Cups. By Arthur S. Levine.

Internatl. Steward 41 (2):12-13. 1941.
The Amazing Progress of Frozen Foods. By Carl R. Fellers. Forecast 57 (10):

34-35 and 69-71. 1941.
College Research Aids the Canner. By W. W. Chenoweth. Canning Age 22 (7):

344-345. 1941.
Role of Ascorbic Acid in Glass-Packed Foods. By W. H. Fitzpatrick, J. J.

Powers, and C. R. Fellers. Canner 93 (16):18. September 1941; also Glass

Packer 20 ( 1 2 ) : 748 . December 1 94 1 .
Vitamin C Is Affected by Amount of Headspace in Glass Containers: Oxidation

Features. By C. R. Fellers, J. J. Powers, and W. H. Fitzpatrick. Canning

Age 22(11):529. October 1941.
What Apples Are Best for Pie? By W. A. Maclinn and R. A. Van Meter. Hotel

Monthly pp. 48-50. September 1941.



108 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 388

Fruit and Vegetable Juices. By C. R. Fellers. Internatl. Steward pp. 9-10.

June 1941.
Vitamin B Complex — The Members of This Group and the Status of Methods of

Assay. By H. T. Scott, F. D. Baird, E. M. Nelson, W. C. Russell, C. R.

Fellers and C. A. Elvehjem. Yearbook 1940-41. Supplement to Amer. Jour.

Pub. Heahh 3 (3):95-100. March 1941.

Mimeographed Series

FM3 Costs and Returns — Snap Beans for Canning in 1940. By Charles R.

Creek. 24 pp. January 1941.
FM4 A Farm Management Study of Vegetable Farms in Bristol County,

Massachusetts, in 1939. By Charles R. Creek. 27 pp. February 1941.
FM5 Harvesting and Packing Iceberg Lettuce on Farms in Massachusetts. By

Charles R. Creek and Richard Elliott. 12 pp. February 1941.
FM6 Harvesting and Packing Tomatoes on Farms in Massachusetts. By

Charles R. Creek and Richard Elliott. 12 pp. March 1941.
FM7 Harvesting and Packing Celerx' on Farms in Massachusetts. By Charles

R. Creek and Richard Elliott. 14 pp. May 1941.
FM8 Vegetable Growing in Bristol Count}', Massachusetts, in 1940. By

Charles R. Creek. 20 pp. October 1941.
FM9 Two Years of Vegetable Growing in Bristol County, Massachusetts.

1939 and 1940. By Charles R. Creek. 14 pp. October 1941.
Farm-Management Problems and Suggested Adjustments on Vegetable Farms in

Bristol County, Massachusetts. By Normal R. Urquhart and Charles

R. Creek. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Agr. Econ. in Cooperation with Mass.

Agr. Expt. Sta., Dept. Agr. Econ. and Farm Mgt. 27 pp. June 1941.

(Washington, D. C.)

Extension Publications

The following Extension Leaflets were prepared wholly or in part by Experiment
Station men during the year ended November 30, 1941.

Home Canning of Vegetables, Fruits and Meats. By C. R. Fellers, \V. W. Chen-
oweth, and W. R. Cole. Mass. State College Ext. Leaflet 142. 24 pp. 1941.

Control Calendar for Vegetable Pests. By E. F. Guba and W. D. Whitcomb.
M. S. C. Ext. Leaflet 116 (revised). 24 pp. April 1941.

Pest Control in the Home Garden. By A. I. Bourne and O. C. Boyd. M. S. C.
Ext. Leaflet 171 (revised). 12 pp. March 1941.



Publication of this Document Approved by Commission on .Administration .-^nd Finance
3m-4-42-9278



Massachusetts
agricultural experiment station

Bulletin No. 389 February 1942

Production and Prices

of Milk in the

Springfield-Holy oke-Chicopee

Milkshed in 1935

By Alfred A. Brown and Mabelle Booth



A comprehensive understanding of the productive organization and the market-
ing disposal facilities of the fluid milk industry is a necessary basis for sound
marketing regulation. To this end, the investigation reported here was under-
taken.



MASSACHUSETTS STATE COLLEGE
AMHERST, MASS.



PRODUCTION AND PRICES OF MILK
IN THE SPRINGFIELD-HOLYOKE-CHICOPEE MILKSHED IN

1935*

By Alfred A. Brown, Assistant Research Professor, and Mabelle Booth,
Technical Assistant, in Agricultural Economics and Farm Management



INTRODUCTION

In the spring of 1934 the people of Massachusetts through their General Court
adopted, in the interests of local dairymen, a program which was certain to cause
an increase in the consumer price of milk. There was nothing subtle in the presen-
tation of the program to the public. The facts and assumptions were simply
stated. They appeared reasonable.

In general the prices which farmers were getting for milk were exceptionally
low; the prices which they were paying for goods or services were not propor-
tionately so. Both had been declining since the middle or late twenties. During
the early phase, the balance had been fairly well maintained between the price
for which milk sold and the cost of goods and services used on the farm. The
severe disturbance to finance and industry in 1929 touched off a sharp decline
in prices. Milk prices dropped faster and lower than did prices of some items
which farmers bought. The lack of balance between farm costs and farm prices
became so severe both in degree and duration that many farmers were faced with
the loss of their farms.

This course of events was characteristic of the capitalistic system. By it those
individuals who by errors of judgment were caught in the backwash were normally
forced out of business; by it the most competent producers, whether of milk or of
mousetraps, were selected to serve society. Circumstances were such, however,
that the public could ill afford to give the system free rein. Some farmers would
be included in the purifying process because of factors beyond their control. Of
more importance, however, was the threat to the fluid milk supply.

Since the latter part of the 19th century, adequate supplies of wholesome milk
have been regarded as necessary to public welfare. Many measures have been
taken during the past fifty years to protect the quality of the supply. The op-
erations of the market, however, have been relied upon to safeguard the quantity
of the supply. Threats of serious shortage had occasionally occurred under this
method, and in the spring of 1934 direct aid by the government in pricing was con-
sidered necessary if the supply was to be maintained. Assistance to the dairy
industry was facilitated then by the national program to revive all agriculture in
the effort to stimulate business. Under the circumstances, though, it is probable
that some sort of governmental aid would have been given to the producers of
fluid milk even in the absence of a general program.

Sound regulation of marketing depends in part on a comprehensive under-
standing of the productive organization and the marketing disposal facilities of
the industry. To this end, data on the Springfield-Holyoke-Chicopee milkshed
have been gathered, tabulated, and analyzed. Studies on Milk Cartage and



*Data for this study, like those preceding it. were secured with the cooperation of dairy farmers,
producers, cooperative associations, distributors, and public agencies having an interest in the
milk industry. Many persons in the Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Manage-
ment contributed to the study.



THE SPRINGFIELD MILKSHED 3

Dealers' Product Costs for this milkshed have already been published: Massa-
chusetts Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletins 363 and 365, respectively.

The present study is made up of two parts: the first a description of the milk-
shed; the second an analysis of producers' farm prices.



Table 1. — Ratio of Wholesale Milk Prices Received by Massachusetts

Farmers to Prices Paid by Farmers

1910-14 = 100





Milk Price Index*


Prices Paid Index*


Ratio


1925


125


157


80.2


1926


130


155


83.8


1927


128


153


83.6


1928


134


155


86.4


1929


138


153


90.1


1930


138


145


95.1


1931


113


124


91.1


1932


93


107


86.9


1933


87


109


79.8


1934


97


123


78.8


1935


113


125


90.4


1936


116


124


93.5


1937


111


131


84.7


1938


108


123


87.8


1939


108


121


89.2



♦Index Numbers of Massacliusetts Farm Products. 1910-1940 M. S. C. Extension Service 1940.



PART I
SPRINGFIELD-HOLYOKE-CHIOPEE MILKSHED

Geography

The farms from which the Springfield-Holyoke-Chicopee market area draws its
supply are located in the towns and counties shown in figure 1. Boundaries
of municipalities, however, meant little as far as location of the supply was con-
cerned. Roads, topography, relative prices, and alternative enterprises were for
the most part the determining factors. The grouping of producers as shown in
this figure, partially illustrates the influence of natural conditions. Since no
particular attention was given to ascertaining the cause for the individual farmer's
selling in the market, the effect of dealer influence can only be surmised. The
grouping of producers also illustrates the influences of alternative enterprises.
The sparseness of large-scale dairy units in the river bottom land is no surprise
to anyone familiar with the high cost land (the burden of which is being met by
the intensive cash cropping currently of onions, potatoes, and tobacco). The
concentration of production in other areas was the result of natural conditions
which are more favorable to livestock production than any other enterprise and
of economic advantages arising from priority in and nearness to the market.
(Viz. Area 2.)



MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 389




Figure 1. Shippers in the Springfield-Holyoke-Chicopee Milkshed, 1935
Located by Markets*

*Springfield shippers living in New York and Vermont were not located.



In developing the study, the clusters of producers were given an identity desig-
nated as "competitive area." A very common observation had been that a
particular geographical group of producers was selling milk to a number of dealers.
From this it seemed logical to assume that in a relatively small area a degree of
competition for the supply might exist. Or if the dealers exhibited no com-
petitive spirit due to the existence of a "buyers' " market, then the producers
might have been expected to express a measure of competition for the market.
Competition would have existed when either the standardized 3.7 prices or the
actual prices to producers were practically uniform. No competition existed. ^
The identity of the areas, however, has been retained as a convenient means of
describing the productive characteristics of the shed. (Figure 3.)



Exclusiveness of the Shed

Overlapping supply areas with additional transportation costs is one of the
characteristics of the quasi competitive — quasi public-utility system of milk



'See section on Prices to Producers.



THE SPRINGFIELD MILKSHED




Figure 2. Location of Farms in the Springfield-Holyoke Chicopee Milkshed
in Relation to Roads, 1935



marketing. The region from which Springfield and contiguous municipalities
draw their milk supply is on the east a source for Worcester; on the south, for
Hartford, Connecticut; on the north, for Boston; and throughout, for the small
markets within the larger shed. The overlapping is shown in figure 1.



Disposal of Commercial Production

Based on the shipments of 1853 full-time dairy farmers, the commercial produc-
tion within the Springfield-Hohoke-Chicopee milkshed was apportioned among
the several markets as shown in table 2. Of the annual commercial^ production
within the shed in 1935, local markets^ took 13.9 percent, Springfield 59.5 percent,
and outside markets* 26.6 percent. No attempt has been made to determine the
extent of seasonal variation in shipments to the market groups other than Spring-
field. Factors other than seasonality of production were probably generally
responsible for producers' market outlets.

The quality standards prevailing in the various markets were in all practical
details similar. Inability of producers to meet the standards for a particular
municipality could scarcely have been a factor creating supply-market ties.



^That sold off the farm.

'Greenfield, Northampton, Amherst, Ware, and Palmer

< Boston, Worcester, Hartford.



6 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 389

Table 2. — Allocation of Production* of Springfield-Holyoke-Chicopee
MiLKSHED Among Its Markets



Market



Percent





Volume




Producers


Annual


Per Day


Per Day
Per Dairy


Number Percent


76,598,361


230,718


195.0


1183 63.8


17,934,396


49,135


225.4


218 11.8


34,221,199


93,757


207.4


452 24.4


128,753,956


377,309


203.6


1853 100.0



Springfield 59 . 5

Local 13.9

Outside 26.6

Total 100.0



*Full-time Grade B Shippers.

Table 3. — Average Volume of Milk Handled Daily in April* 1935 by
Distributors Operating in the Chief Loc.\l Markets



Volume of Milk Handled



Local Market



By Producer By Merchant
Distributors Dealers



Total



Number of



Producers



Distributors



Amherst 5,221 1,664 6,885 14 10

Greenfield 1,700 9,686 11,386 71 13

Northampton 5,146 16,179 21,325 91 21

Palmer 3,421 2,151 5,572 24 12

Ware 4,390 247 4,637 18 15

Total 19,878 29,927 49,805 218 71

*Data available only for month of April.

Table 4. — Distribution to Outside Markets



Market


Deliveries
Per Day
Per Dairy




Pounds


Number


Daily


Annually


Shippers


Worcester ....


. . . 202 . 1


*18,799


** 6,861,635


93


Boston


. .. 169.2


37,219


***13,584,829


220


Hartford


... 271.5


*37,739


**13,774,735


139


Total


. .. 207.4


93,757


34,221,199


452



♦Summation of Average Dairy E>eliveries.
**365-Day Year Calculated.
***Sum of yearly deliveries of full-time producers.



Number and Distribution of Producers

Program planners for the dairy industry have to decide, among other things,
whether their interest is the commercial dairyman or all herd owners; whether
their concern is the existing pattern of commercial productive organization and
activity or the potential productive organization and capacity of a milkshed.
The decisions are not easily made because of the arbitrary element involved in
defining the commercial dairyman.



THE SPRINGFIELD MILKSHED 7

The Agricultural Census for 1935 records 5677 farms reporting "cows and
heifers milked" in those Massachusetts towns comprising the bulk of the shed.
Regular shippers to the various markets would account for 27.6 percent, part-
time shippers for 9.4 percent of this total.

On the basis of reasonable assumptions and estimates^ the herds of the full-
time and part-time shippers had- 74.4 percent of the milking cows and likewise
accounted for the same proportion of the productive activity of the shed. The
balance of the reporting farms would have had two rows or heifers and combined
would have produced one-fourth of the total produced in the shed.

Table 5. — Milk Production in Massachusetts
Monthly* 1935



Pounds per Cow
Month Per Day

January 16.0

February 15.9

March 16.8

April 17.9

May 17.4

June 19.1

July 19.0

August 17.8

September 16.8

October 16.7

November 16.8

December 16.2

Total 206.4

Average 17.2

*From Monthly Issues of Crops and Markets U.S.D.A.,
1935.

The producers were spread among the market groups on the following basis:
Springfield-Holyoke-Chicopee 63.8 percent, outside markets 24.4 percent, and
local markets 11.8 percent.



Distribution of Producers Throughout the Milkshed

The heaviest concentration of producers was in the northwestern part of the
milkshed, the area in which the Shelburne Falls plant of the H. P. Hood & Sons
Company is located. The smallest concentration, almost diametrically opposite,
was in Area 3 in the southeastern part of the shed. The ratio of the extremes was
five to one.

Variation in the density of production was also very pronounced. The extremes
in production, however, were in adjacent areas. In Area 2, the Enfield-Somers



^It has been assumed, on the basis of the average production per cow per day as reported by the
Crop Reporting Service, and the dehveries per day per dairy as determined in the study, that the
herds of "commercial" dairymen averaged 12 milking cows. Applying this estimate to the so-called
commercial herds, gives them 25,212 cows and heifers or 74.4 percent of the number tabulated from
the Agricultural Census data.



MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 389




Figure 3. Location of Competitive Areas
Springfield Holyoke-Chicopee Milkshed, 1935



Table 6. — Density of Production Throughout the Springfield-Holyoke-
Chicopee Milkshed, 1935
(Based on Shipments into the Market Area)



Pounds Per Square Mile




Average Daily




Per Day


Area


Deliveries Per Area


Square Miles


181


2


16,160


89


165


11


13,199


80


161


7


18,136


113


121


6


18,731


- 155


118.4


8


. 11,485


97


118


10


8,591


73


112.5


1


13,394


119


112


14


9,949


89


83


5


9,776


118


77


9


5,649


73


52


12


3,885


75


51


4


6,764


132


37


13


3,577


96


34


3


4,210


124



THE SPRINGFIELD MILKSHED 9

(Connecticut)-Longmeado\v (Massachusetts) section, the density of produc-
tion for the Springfield Market as measured by daily deliveries was 181 pounds
per square mile. In Area 3, the Stafford-Stafford Springs (Connecticut)-Munson-
Wales (Massachusetts) section, the density was 34 pounds per square mile. These



Online LibraryMassachusetts Agricultural Experiment StationBulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) → online text (page 43 of 77)