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of the vertebrae. On side view cylindrical projections of tumor could be seen to
coincide with the location of radicals from the lumbosacral plexus. The tumor
extended from the left nerve plexus into the left ischiadic nerve. It was con-
stricted in its passage through the ischiadic foramen and became larger again
in the region of the thigh. The anterior portion of the right lumbosacral nerve
plexus was surrounded by a similar neoplastic tissue which also followed the path
of the nerves through the obturator foramen and into the region of the thigh,
where it formed a mass about 5 cm. long and 1.5 cm. in diameter. Both kidneys,
both lungs, the ovary, and bone marrow were affected with lymphocytoma.
The tumor involving the nerves was fibroblastic in character (Plate I, Figure 4).
The cells were arranged in irregular strands and tended to form whorls. In some
parts of the tumor were found peculiar formations resembling imperfecth' formed
nerve endings. In a few instances nerve trunks were included in the section ot
the tumor and the nerve tissue itself appeared to be normal although the capsule
was replaced by tumor. The dorsal root ganglia of the brachial plexus and ganglia
of the anterior mesenteric plexus were normal.

5. Case 425. The finding of a tumor in this case was incidental to the prin-
cipal reason for examination. The bird was a 78-week-old hen and was killed
after being tested for susceptibility to a respiratory disease. The anastomosing



NEOPLASTIC DISEASES IN CHICKENS 27

nerve branch between the spinal cord and sympathetic ganglion which arises
at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra was distinctly enlarged at a point an-
terior to the vertebral articulation of the fifth rib. The enlarged nerve joined an
irregular firm mass situated in the region of the anterior mesenteric and coeliac
nerve plexuses. Nerve radicals extending from the tumor mass were normal.
The posterior portion of the left ischiadic nerve was enlarged to a diameter of
7 mm. in the femoral region. The enlargement extended for a distance of 3.5 cm.
along the course of the nerve. The histology of the enlargements in both loca-
tions was similar and consisted of a mass of proliferating fibroblastic cells tending
to form whorls and fissures (Plate I, Figure 2). Except for a cystic thyroid gland
no other pathology was found.

A type of connecti\e tissue tumor situated either in or about nerves was a
common characteristic of the neurogenic sarcomas. In two cases the tumor was
single and aflfected dorsal root ganglia in the brachial region. In one case the tumor
was found in two widely separated nerve trunks. In the remaining two cases
the tumors were not localized but rather tended to be widespread and to in-
filtrate the adjacent tissues as well as the nerves which they surrounded. The
association of one case with lymphocytoma and of another case with lesions of
fowl paralysis has been regarded as merely incidental and without significance.
The fibroblastic elements of the tumors appear to be of low malignancy and in
most of the cases ha\e a distinct tendency to form a whorl-like arrangement.
Jackson (13) has described a case of multiple neurofibromatosis in a chicken.
The histological appearance of the neurofibromas of Jackson's case is similar to
that observed in most of the cases of this series. The pathogenesis of the tumors
classified as neurogenic sarcoma is obscure. Most if not all may have had their
origin from the fibrous sheath covering the nerves. The origin of the neoplasia
could not be ascertained in Cases T 97 and T 288, in which the tumor was wide-
spread and involved several nerves in a localized area along with adjacent tissue.
Although these two cases differ in this respect from others of the group their
histology was similar.

Selection of a term to be applied to these tumors was difficult. Neurogenic
sarcomas encountered in human pathology often show a palisading of nuclei
which was absent from these cases. The tendency for the tumor cells to form
whorls was similar to that noted in multiple neurofibromatosis, although the
localization and, in two cases, invasiveness of adjacent tissue are features not
noted in multiple neurofibromatosis. For the present it seems logical to classify
the tumors as neurogenic sarcoma with the hope that future study of a larger
group of similar cases will clarify their identity.

Epithelioblastoma

Although this section is headed epithelioblastoma, two types of neoplasia
falling under this classification are discussed separately. These are hepatoma
and cholangioma.

Epithelioblastoma was found in 24 cases. The tumor was believed to have
originated fron: the ovary in 8 cases, from the liver in 7, from the pancreas in
5, and from the gizzard, esophagus, skin, and thyroid in the remaining 4 cases.
The salient data on 17 of the cases are set forth in Table 15.

The neoplasms originating in the ovary were with one exception of an un-
differentiated type. One adenocarcinoma was found. In four instances the
tumors were represented by small pedunculated masses attached to the ovary.
These are listed in Table 15 as solid adenomas. Although they did not show the
acinar arrangement typical of adenomas, they seemed to be benign tumors of
undifferentiated epithelial cells (Plate IX, Figure 3). The remainder affected the
entire organ. In one case the ovarian mass weighed 177 grams. Five of the
tumors were confined to the ovary and the other three had spread by extension



28



MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 391



to the peritoneal surfaces (Plate VIII, Figure 1). In one case there were metas-
tases to the lung and in another there were metastases to the heart and para-
thyroid.

Three of the tumors believed to have originated in the pancreas were com-
posed of undifferentiated epithelial cells (Plate \ III, Figure 4), and two of these
had spread by extension to the serosa of the viscera. One adenocarcinoma of
the pancreas was found which had extended to the peritoneum, ovary, and
adrenals (Plate VIII, Figure 3). A small adenoma was found in the pancreas
of a chicken which also had a large fibrosarcoma of the pelvic cavity.

A papillary cystadenoma was found on the lining of the posterior portion of
the gizzard and consisted of a cauliflower-like protuberance measuring 17 mm.
in diameter.

Table 15. — Data on Seventeen Cases of Epithelioblastoma.



Case


Age


Sex


Types


Organ Prim-


Extension to other Organs


No.


(Weeks)






arily Affected






T 16


*D 36


Female


Carcinoma


Ovary


Peritoneum,
thyroid


heart, para-


T 58


K 104


Female


Carcinoma


Ovary


Peritoneum,


lungs


644


D 24


Female


Carcinoma


Ovary


Peritoneum




T 74


D 228


Female


Adenoma**


Ovary







T 202


K 28


Female


Adenoma**


Ovary







T 236


K28


Female


Adenoma**


Ovary


• —




T 294


K32


Female


Adenoma**


Ovary







T 116


D 27


Female


Adenocarcinoma


Ovary


— .




T 29


K 104


Female


Carcinoma


Pancreas


Peritoneum




T 63


KS2


Female


Carcinoma


Pancreas


Peritoneum,


lungs, ovary


T 123


K31


Female


Adenoma**


Pancreas







T62


K 12


Male


Adenoma


Pancreas







758


K 258


Female


Adenocarcinoma


Pancreas


Peritoneum,
adrenals


ovary.


T 130


K 87


Female


Papillary cystadenoma


Gizzard







T 148


K44


Female


Multiple papillomatosis


Esophagus







T 260


K 23


Female


Feather matrix adenoma


Skin







T 101


K 24


Female


Foetal adenoma


Thyroid








*D indicates that bird died; K, that it was killed for examination.
**These adenomas were composed of solid masses of cells without acinar arrangement,
are tentatively called adenoma to indicate their benign character.



They



Legend for Plate I

Figure 1. T 312. Neurogenic Sarcoma. Ventral view of spinal cord and nerves. Note the
large, fairly well encapsulated tumor mass apparently arising from the dorsal root ganglion of the
first thoracic spinal nerve.

Figure 2. Case 425. Neurogenic Sarcoma. The tumor was located in the region of the an-
terior mesenteric and coeliac nerve plexuses. Note the whorl-like arrangement of cells and also
the irregular fissures. Magnification X 100.

Figure 3. T 288. Neurogenic Sarcoma. Dorsal aspect of dissected specimen of spinal column
exposing the spinal cord. The tumor is evident as the mass surrounding both the left lumbosacral
nerve plexus and the left ischiadic nerve and the anterior portion of the right lumbosacral nerve
plexus. See Figure 4 for histology of the tumor.

Figure 4. T 288. Neurogenic Sarcoma. The sheath of the nerve cut in cross section is in-
volved with the surrounding neoplasm. The nerve itself appears normal. Magnification X 60.

Figure 5. T 307. Teratoma of the testis. A small projection of normal testicular tissue extends
from the lower aspect of the tumor mass. The tumor weighed 606 grams and was composed
of connective tissue and epithelial elements.




PLATE II

Figure 1. Case 1865. Diffuse Lympfiocvloma. Liver, both kidneys, lateral and cross section view of spleen, and
ovary. The appearance of kidneys and ovary was normal, but microscopically they were affected with lymphocytoma.
The liver and spleen were much enlarged and diffusely infiltrated with lymphocytoma. A photomicrograph of this
liver is shown in Figure 1, Plate III. j , Ko

Figure 2. Case 1846. Nodular Lymphocytoma. Liver, kidneys, spleen, and ovary. The kidneys seemed to oe
affected with the diffuse form of disease, and the liver with the combined diffuse and nodular form. Histologically
the liver, kidneys, and ovary were affected with nodular lymphocytoma. The spleen, shown in cross section, wasi

Figure 3. Case 299. Diffuse Lymphocytoma. Liver, cross section through gall Madder fossa; spleen w|ith mesen-
tery, cross section; and ovary, with adrenals, cut in cross section to show infiltration of the adrenals. This case il-
lustrates the localization of the neoplasia sometimes observed in the diffuse form of lymphocytoma.

Figure 4. Case 1871. Nodular Lymphocytoma. Lower intestinal tract, including terminal intestine and Dotn
cecums, liver, and cross sections of the kidney and spleen. The nodular character of the neoplasm is quite evideni
in these organs. . , , u
se extravascular growth of the tumor is apparent. Magnification X 300. remam. I he

a"Dsule i^ PviVpn. RTh^fP"^'"*" of anterior mesenteric plexus being intiltrated with lymphocytoma. Penetration of
Xn X 35. '''"''■ ^'''■'^"^'s adjacent to the ganglion were affected with di f use lymphocytoma Mag-

fnes'u nf\}^^r^h^:?r'^ affected with nodular lymphocytoma. No ovarian tissue can be seen in the illustration but only
l,Zl ! "V^y^ °"i'V"""^ ^'^''^ surrounded by connective tissue. Magnification X 45. usirui.on. out only

^PrL^»„i f .K- ^P'^^" showmg a single well-encapsulated focus of neoplastic lymphoid cells. The liver kidnevs
peritoneum of this bird vvere also affected with lymphocytoma. Magnification X 180. Kianeys.

nrPvi,;„cV^**' .u'"u?'j''"^'* and both brachial plexuses of a bird which had paralysis of the right wing. For twelve

>VJ^.. 1 "ecropsy the bird was unable to stand and sat on its hocks, with symptoms of a transverse mveli is The rTcht
c Ipl?n ^'^ "^^'^ markedly atrophic. The bird was nearly dead when killed for necropsy MacrSpic and mkrol
will Tn?.n'^?.l^.T'^"^'* '" '^^ "^^' brachial nerve plexus and radicals which were affected byThes^XgrnusHted
was'not tncTudld ilTfhP ^^ ^^^rHJ^^ed of neoplastic lymphoid cells indistinguishable from those of lymphocytoma This
serves as in Pv.pn f ^ "" ?^ 'v^Phocytomas since it failed to meet the criterion of involving tissue other than nerve-
_ serves as an excellent example of what may be regarded as lymphocytoma originating in nerve ti.ssue.
Jeer. ?lp of which were relativcK' \outig
birds. One bird in this group was 228 weeks old at the time of examination;
but if this bird is disregarded, the average age of the birds in which neoplasia
was an incidental finding was only 28 weeks. In 10 birds the tumor was the
principal reason for examination, and the average age of this group was consid-
erably older (54.2 weeks, with elimination of one bird which was 258 weeks old).



Legend for Plate XII

Figure 1. S 2,5.'{. Carcinosarcoma. A loop of intestine has been spread out to show the heavy,
diffuse implantation of tumor on the serous surface of the mesentery.

Figure 2. Case 1898. Leiomyoma in mesosalpinx. The entire oviduct and ventral mesosal-
pinx together with the nodular tumor mass is so arranged as to illustrate their relationship. This
specimen is a relatively small tumor.

Figure 3. Q 1621. Carcinosarcoma. The histological section was prepared from an implant
of the tumor on the serosa of the mesentery of the pancreas. Many irregular acini of epithelial
cells are apparent. The malignant appearance of the stroma of the connective tissue elements is
also obvious. Magnification X 8.5.

Figure 4. T 141. Rhabdomyoma in muscle of thigh. Both loose and compact arrangement
of the tumor cells is evident. Several giant cells of the Plasmodium type are scattered about in
the loosely arranged portion. The tumor metastasized to the wall of the intestine. Magnification
X 140.

Figure 5. T 170. Leiomyoma of mesosalpinx. The cells of a single bundle are arranged in
a parallel fashion. The pale staining elongate nuclei with rounded ends may be noted. Mag-
nihcation x 285.



30 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 391

Data on egg production were available on onl\ three of the eases. The bird
of case T 74, afTected with carcinoma of the o\ar\-, laid 518 eggs in 1244 da\'s
of production. Her production index was 0.416 or slightly below the average
of the flock. Her last egg was laid 116 days before necrops\-. The hen of Case
758 laid 720 eggs in 1600 days of production for a production index of 0.450,
also slighth' below average. The last egg was laid 205 days before necropsy.
The bird affected with papillary cystadenoma of the gizzard (case T 130) laid 235
eggs in 363 days of production. The production index of 0.648 was rel.\tivel>'
high. Her last egg was laid 54 days before necrops\ .

Hepatoma

Small hepatomas were noted in the livers of three chickens as a finding incidental
to other unrelated pathology. These islands of slowK proliferating liver cells
were regarded as neoplastic because of their solitary occurrence and because of
lack of evidence for liver damage that might have stimulated focal regeneration
of the liver.

1. T 210. A 53^-month-old pullet died showing acute focal necrosis of the
liver. A pendunculated nodular mass measuring 25 X 20 X 15 mm. was found
attached by a broad base 15 mm. in diameter to the visceral aspect of the left lobe
of the liver. The mass was darker than the liver and somewhat hemorrhagic.

2. T 301. A 7-month-old pullet suspected of pullorum disease was killed
for exan;ination. A firm, rounded tumor mass approximately 2.5 cm. in diam-
eter was found near the surface of the left lobe of the liver.

3. Case 438. A 5-month-old pullet was killed for examination because of
symptoms of fowl paralysis. LIpon necropsy a gray-white nodular mass 18 mm.
in diameter was found in the mid portion of the right liver lobe. Lesions of fowl
paralysis were present.

The histologx- of all three cases of hepatoma was similar (Plate XI, Figure 1).
The neoplastic liver cells closely resembled normal Vwer cells. The arrangement
of the cells varied in different portions of the tumor. In some areas they were



Online LibraryMassachusetts Agricultural Experiment StationBulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) → online text (page 52 of 77)