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52 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 391

tumors. The number of cases of neoplastic disease which passed unobserved in
the present survey cannot be estimated, j'et some may have occurred. Careful
consideration was given to all material at the time of necropsy before it was re-
jected as non-neoplastic. Many suspicious cases which later proved to be other
than neoplastic in character were included for histological study. Differentiation
between neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions from macroscopic examination
is usually considered fairly simple. It will be noted, however, that some errors
were made in such differentiation in the present survey. Bacteriological and other
examinations to determine the etiology of lesions will sometimes assist in dif-
ferentiating between neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. However,
since neoplasia and granuloma may exist simultaneously in the same bird, the
diagnosis of a granulomatous process does not necessarily eliminate the exis-
tence of neoplasia in a given chicken.

The degree of accuracy of tentative diagnoses as shown in Table 26 represents
two correlations calculated from the data. One correlation indicates the per-
centage accuracy of recognition of cases actually found to be the respective types
of neoplasia. For example, 108 of 153 lymphocytomas were recognized on
macroscopic examination as lymphocytoma (71 percent). The other correlation
indicates percentage accuracy of all tentative diagnoses. For example, 127
tentative diagnoses of lymphocytoma were made and 108 cases proved to be
lymphocytoma (85 percent). Correct tentative diagnoses were made in 182 of
301 instances of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases thus indicating a degree
of accuracy of 60.4 percent. The degree of accuracy varied considerabl}-. To
illustrate, leiomyoma and embryonal nephroma were usually correctly recog-
nized, whereas epithelioblastoma and fibrosarcoma were not.

A rather high degree of accuracy was obtained in the tentative diagnosis of
lymphocytoma, since 108 of the 153 cases of lymphocytoma were correctly
identified. The -45 which were not correctly identified were confused with a
wide variety of conditions (Table 26). The differentiation between lymphocytoma
and myelocytoma on macroscopic features alone should not as a rule be difficult
(Plates II and IV). In an occasional lymphocytoma with an extremely diffuse
character, relatively soft texture, and unusually white color, the absence of
periosteal involvement should be of assistance in differentiation. When this
characteristic of periosteal involvement is not present in cases of myelocytoma,
differentiation may be difficult. Although only eight of the fifteen myelocytomas
(53 percent) were recognized at the time of necropsy and eight of the seventeen
tentative diagnoses of myelocytoma proved correct (47 percent), this type of
tumor usually has distinguishing characteristics and should be more readily
identified on gross examination. Eleven of the sixteen cases of leukosis were
identified (69 percent) and the same proportion of tentative diagnoses of leukosis
proved to be correct. Leukosis may at times be difficult to differentiate from
lymphocytoma if blood smears are not examined. The three cases of leukosis
which were called lymphocytoma were quite similar. A brief description indicates
the lack of differential features in these cases. In each the moderately enlarged
liver was reddish-brown in color with a diffuse gray stippling, the bone marrow
grayish red, the spleen slightly or moderately enlarged, and the kidne>s uniformly
swollen. Such a description might obtain for either disease and the correct differen-
tial diagnosis of such cases may be extremely difficult without the aid of histologi-
cal examination. Leukosis was confused also with granulomatous and inflammatory
liver changes in a limited number of cases. Texture and consistency are important
factors in the differentiation between lymphocytoma, epithelioblastoma, and
fibrosarcoma, particularly in cases involving the abdominal organs such as the
peritoneum, pancreas, and ovary. Epithelioblastoma and fibroblastoma are
usually very firm and may be particularly difficult to differentiate from each



NEOPLASTIC DISEASES IN CHICKENS 53

other. Histiocytic sarcomas and carcinosarcomas may also be included in this
group which may require microscopic examination for accurate identification.

A nodular type of tumor found widespread over the peritoneum, usually in-
volving abdominal organs and associated with considerable ascites, proved to
be either carcinosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, or carcinoma (Plate VIII, Figure 1;
Plate XII, Figure 1). Satisfactory criteria for distinguishing these tumors on
macroscopic examination could not be established. Fibrosarcom.a proved partic-
ularly difficult to identify accurately on macroscopic examination. Only five
of the twenty-five diagnoses proved correct (20 percent), and five of the eleven
fibrosarcomas were recognized on macroscopic examination (45 percent). Of the
inaccurate tentative diagnoses, eleven proved to be lymphocytoma and the
remainder were principally other neoplasms of connective tissue origin.

Leiomyomas involving the ventral ligament of the oviduct usually were prop-
erly recognized (Plate XII, Figure 2). Leiom\omas occurring in the wall of the
oviduct, in the intestine, and in other locations might be more difficult to identify
from macroscopic examination.

The gross character of embryonal nephroma is quite variable and might lead
to incorrect interpretation (Plate X. Figures 1 and 2). However, encapsulated
tumors arising from the kidney or its vicinit\-, even though the base be narrow
or the attachment rather loose, can be reasonabh' correctly identified as embryonal
nephroma, particularly in the absence of lesions in other organs. No tentative
diagnosis of embryonal nephroma proved to be incorrect. Three of the four
embryonal nephromas which were not recognized as such were classed as fibro-
sarcoma o 1 gross examination and one was considered to represent a cystic kidne}'.

The incorrect tentati^'e designation of neurogenic sarcoma in seven cases of
lymphocytoma was based largely on location of the lesions. The neurogenic
sarcomas were in general of a more glistening white color and of firmer con-
sistency. Those neurogenic sarcomas which are encapsulated should be more
readily recognized than those which invade and infiltrate adjacent tissues (Plate
I, Figures 1 and 3).

To differentiate neoplasia from granulomatous and inflammatory reactions
may be difficult, particularly when necrosis occurs in the substance of a tumor.
Marked post-mortem changes may lead to confusion. Likewise the concomitant
existence of both a granulomatous process and neoplastic disease in the same
bird may give trouble in correctly identifying a tumor. Inflammatory and
neoplastic processes in the proventriculus may be particularly difficult to differen-
tiate. Cholangioma, cholangitis, and cirrhotic liver changes may have many
points of resemblance. The differentiation between lymphocytoma in the kidney
and chronic nephritis may occasionally be difficult, but in general the kidney in
chronic nephritis has a firmer texture.

The identification of tumors is often considered a difficult problem. In many
laboratories engaged in the diagnosis of poultry diseases, histological examina-
tions are not made of all neoplasms, and instances of neoplastic disease encount-
ered in such laboratories are apt to be relegated to the doubtful category of tumors.
It would seem desirable to improve this situation and designate the type of
tumors observed as accurately as possible. Considerable accuracy and confi-
dence in identification of tumors upon macroscopic examination can be attained
by application of knowledge gained from a correlation of a series of diagnoses
tentatively based on macroscopic and checked by microscopic examination.
Such a study would not be impractical for most diagnostic laboratories. After
completion of such a series, occasional check examinations could be made to
maintain accurac\' and confidence. Histological examination should always be
resorted to in doubtful cases.



54 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 391

Although it is not to be inferred that the identification of tumors from mac-
roscopic examination only is a recommended procedure, it must be recognized
that routine histological examination may not be practical in laboratories estab-
lished only for the examination of poultry specimens. Even though there may be
considerable error in such tentative diagnoses, the laboratory records would,
however, be more understandable and usable if such identification were available.

Perhaps the accurate diagnosis of the less common neoplasms is not of economic
importance since they are observed only infrequently. At the present time,
heredity in relation to neoplastic disease is receiving much emphasis. Many
flock owners are selecting families for their breeding flocks on the basis of tumor
incidence. If heredity is of importance in certain types of tumors and not in
others, there ma\' be unnecessary- elimination of families unless the types of
tumors are identified.

Concomitant Tumors

Two different types of neoplasia were found in the same chicken in nineteen
instances. These ha,ve been mentioned in the sections dealing with the various
types of neoplasia, and only a brief comment will be made here to summarize
the findings.

Lymphocytoma was found to exist with embryonal nephroma in four cases,
with neurogenic sarcoma in one case, and with leutosis in one case. Leukosis was
associated twice with myelocytoma and once with fibrosarcoma. Myelocytoma
and embryonal nephroma were both found in one bird. Both histiocytic sarcoma
and hemangioma occurred in one chicken. The diagnosis of both leiomyoma and
carcinosarcoma was made in four cases, and leiomyoma of the oviduct was
found with epithelioblastoma of the ovary twice. Adenoma of the thyroid and
melanoma of the tongue were coexisting tumors in one case, and in another case
an adenoHTa of the pancreas was found in a bird which also had a large fibro-
sarcoma in its pelvic cavity.

Such concomitant neoplasia excites interest in the possibility of an etiological
relationship. Only two combinations of concomitant neoplasia were found in a
sufficient number of cases to attract attention. The explanation of the com-
bination of lymphocytoma. and embryonal nephroma, found four times, on an
etiological basis does not seem logical. Embryonal nephroma is usualK- regarded
as a neoplasm which results from a derangement of tissue during embryonic life;
whereas the hypothetical agent (if such exists) of lymphocytoma may be as-
sumed to exert its action in post-embryonic life. Thus the two diseases seem to be
initiated at different periods of life and it appears unlikely that an etiological
relationship exists.

The association of leiomyoma with tumors of epithelial origin, especially car-
cinosarcoma, is discussed in the section dealing with carcinosarcoma. Both
epithelioblastoma and leiomyoma were more common in birds of the older age
group and this would tend to increase the possibility of both occurring in the
same chicken. The number of cases in the study is small and for the present
the association of leiomyoma and epithelioblastoma should probably be re-
garded as merely incidental.



NEOPLASTIC DISEASES IN CHICKENS 55

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

A collection of 384 cases of spontaneous neoplastic disease found in 365 chickens
has been studied. Since most of the material was submitted to the diagnostic
laboratory of Massachusetts State College, some information was gained on the
relative incidence of neoplastic disease among birds submitted for necropsy.
An incidence rate of 12.9 percent for neoplastic disease was found in 2304 chickens
over six weeks of age that were examined in the laboratory.

Twenty-five different kinds of neoplasms were found. Lymphocytoma was
the most common and accounted for 55.5 percent of the 384 cases. Six other
varieties (leiomyoma, embryonal nephroma, myelocytoma, leukosis, epithelio-
blastoma, and fibrosarcoma) accounted for 33 percent of the tumors. Each of
the varieties of neoplasia is described and the data compiled for study. The
incidence of neoplasia was studied in relation to various factors, such as age at
necropsN', sex, seasonal occurrence, and breed. Each of these appeared to be of
significance in one or more types of tumor.

In some of the cases tentative diagnoses, based on m-acroscopic examination
onh', were later correlated with the fina' diagnoses in an eflfcrt to determine the
accuracy of such tentative diagnoses. The results, together with sources of
error, are discussed.

The data on lymphocytoma provided a basis for a possible explanation of the
different forms of this disease. Other neoplasms on which new information of
significance was found were leiomyoma, neurogenic sarcoma, and carcinosarcoma.

It may be concluded that spontaneous neoplastic disease in the chicken is
relatively common and that, although hmphocytoma is the most common and
causes the most loss, the other kinds are responsible for a significant share of the
loss due to neoplasia.

REFERENCES

1. Cappell, D. P., and Montgomery, G. L.: On rhabdomyoma and myo-

blastoma. Jour. Path, and Bact. 44:517-548, 1937.

2. Curtis, M. R.: The ligaments of the oviduct of the domestic fowl. Maine

Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 176, 1910.

3. Curtis, M. R.: The frequency of occurrence of tumors in the domestic

fowl. Jour. Agr. Res. 5:397-404, 1915-16.

4. Eber, A., and Ma'ke, E.: Geschwiilstbildungen beim Hausgefliigel. Ztschr.

f. Krebsforsch. 36:178-192, 1932.

5. Ewing, J.: Neoplastic diseases. Philadelphia, VV. B. Saunders Company,

Third Edition, 1934, 1127 pp.

6. Feldman, W. H.: Thymoma in a chicken (Callus domesticus). Amer.

Jour. Cancer 26:576-580, 1936.

7. Feldman, W. H.: Neoplasms of domesticated animals. Philadelphia, W. B.

Saunders Company, 1932, 410 pp.

8. Feldman, W. H., and Olson C: The pathology of spontaneous leukosis of

chickens. x\mer. Vet. Med. Assoc. Jour. 82:875-900, 1933.

9. Feldman, W. H., and Olson C: Keratinizing embryonal nephroma of the

kidneys of the chicken. Amer. Jour. Cancer 19:47-55, 1933.

10. Friedgood, H. B., and Uotila, U. U.: Occurrence of ovarian "tumors" in

spontaneous virilism of the hen. Endrocrinology 29:47-58, 1941.

11. Goss, L. J.: The incidence and classification of avian tumors. Cornell

Vet. 30:75-88, 1940.

12. Heim, Fr.: Huhnergeschwulste. Ztschr. f. Krebsforsch. 33:76-125, 193i.



56 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 391

13. Jackson, C: The incidence and pathology of tumours of domesticated

animals in South Africa. Onderstepoort Jour. Vet. Sci. and Anim. Indus.
6:1-460, 1936.

14. Joest, E., and Ernesti, S.: Untersuchungen uber spontane Geschwiilste bei

Vogeln. Ztschr. f. Krebsforsch. 15:1-75, 1915.

15. Lipschiitz, A.: The internal secretions of the sex glands. Baltimore, Wil-

liams and Wilkins Company, 1924. Pp. 390-397.

16. Makower, L.: Les tumeurs spontanees les oiseau.x. Etude critique. Rev.

de Path. Compar. 31: 703, 825, 925, 1931.

17. Mathews, F. P.: Leukochloroma in the common fowl. Arch. Path. 7:442-457,

1929.

18. Mathews, F. P.: Adenosarcomata of the kidneys of chickens. Amer. Vet.

Med. Assoc. Jour. 74:238-246, 1929.

19. Mathews, F. P., and Walkey, F. L.: Lymphadenomas of the common fowl.

Jour. Cancer Res. 13:383-400, 1929.

20. Olson, C. : Primary myxosarcoma of chickens. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc.

Jour. 84:112-115, 1934.

21. Olson, C: Transmissible fowl leukosis. A review of the literature. Mass.

Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 370, 1940.

22. Olson, C: A transmissible lymphoid tumor of the chicken. Cancer Res.

1:384-392. 1941.

23. Olson, C: A study of neoplastic disease in a flock of chickens. Amer. Jour.

Vet. Res. 3:111-116, 1942.

24. Pappenheimer, A. M., Dunn, L. C, and Cone ,V. : A study of fowl paralysis

(neuro-lymphomatosis gallinarum). Conn. (Storrs) Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui.
143, 1926.

25. Pentimalli, F.: LTeber die Geschwiilste bei Huhnern. I. Mitteilung AU-

gemeine Morphologic der spontanen und der transplantablen Hiihner-
geschwulste. Ztschr. f. Krebsforsch. 15:111-153, 1915-16.

26. Peyron and Blier: Sur un nouveau cas de tumeur transplantable chez les

oiseaux. Myome malin un coq. Bui. de I'Assoc. Franc, p. I'Etude du
Cancer 16:516-523, 1927.

27. Rakov, A. I.: Malignant rhabdomyoblastoma of the skeletal musculature.

Amer. Jour. Cancer 30:455-476, 1937.

28. Reitsma: Cited by Makower (16).

29. Schneider, M.: On the frequency of spontaneous tumors in the domestic

fowl. Jour. Expt. Med. 43:433-441, 1926.



MASSACHUSETTS
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

Bulletin No. 392 April 1942

Blooming Dates

of Some

Selected Hardy Perennials

By Harold S. Tiffany



A flower lover's ambition is to have some blooms available in the garden
at all times during the growing season. This bulletin should be of service in
the selection of perennials for that purpose.



MASSACHUSETTS STATE COLLEGE
AMHERST, MASS.



BLOOMING DATES OF SOME SELECTED HARDY
PERENNIALS

By Harold S. Tiffany
Assistant Research Professor of Nurseryculture



Introduction

A study of the garden value and hardiness of herbaceous perennial material
was begun at the Waltham Field Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural
Experiment Station in 1931. Evaluation of the material continued until 1936
when a recording of the time and duration of the flowering, heights, and color
of some 2,000 perennials was begun. These records were continued through 1941
for the purpose of securing sufficient data from which to determine the average
time and duration of bloom during these five years. From this study are drawn
the conclusions which follow.

Although several very excellent works on this subject have been written, it
appears that the broad scope of material included has in itself tended to confuse
and baffle the average gardener. Therefore, a limited list of superior selections
of tried and proved material has been drawn up for the purpose of a more useful
and workable reference.

The question of what plants are most desirable has as many answers as there
are difi^ering and varying landscape developments in which certain plants are
more suitable than others. Included are such hardy species and varietal forms
as are generally adapted to perennial borders, formal and informal gardens,
and a few which are at home in meadow or wild garden plantings. Most of these
are readily obtainable in the trade. All the plants are of simple culture.

It must be kept in mind that blooming dates, particularly of early flowering
plants, are very irregular because of climatic conditions bringing either an earl^^
or a late spring. While, in some cases, early flowering plants have differed in
their flowering period in certain years by as much as three weeks, this variability
gradually decreases as the season progresses and little variation is found after
June in fairly normal years. For Cape Cod, average bloom dates would be ad-
vanced approximately one week, and for the area north of Boston and the Berk-
shires retarded a like period. The lateness of flowering of the early bulbs as given
in the lists is due to a mulch covering over winter. Neither very early bud break-
ing nor late sparse continuation of bloom has been included, the aim being to give
the period of bloom when the flowering is at its height for best garden value.

It has been the policy to test the plants under average conditions in order to
determine which would best survive with ordinary care rather than to work for
maximum horticultural excellence. While this attitude has been adopted more
because of economic necessity than for other reasons, the plants have thus been
given a fairly severe test. The gardens have the benefit of full sun and are not
closely protected by hedges or windbreaks.



BLOOMING DATES OF PERENNIALS 3

The plants are listed in t-hree sections in the order of their appearance of bloom
from day to day: Spring (April-Ma^'-June); Summer (July-August); and Fall
(September-October) .

Scientific names are given in italics, with stress on the proper syllable of the
Latin name, while common and varietal names^ are given in boldface. Syn-
onyms are indicated on the plates and in the index by parentheses which im-
mediately follow a genus, species, or varietal name. Such synonyms are given
either to aid in identification in instances when the accepted name has recently
been changed, or because the plant may appear in nursery catalog lists under
either name. The words "Horticultural variety" have been shortened to "Hort.
var."

Color designations have been made as simple as possible. In such descriptions
as, for example, violet-blue, the second word (in boldface) represents the dom-
inant color of the flower, while the modifying color tone preceding aids in giving
a more exact description. All blooms have been checked against "Color Stand-
ards and Color Ncmenclature" by Robert Ridgway.

Appreciative acknowledgement is made to Harlan P. Kelsey for the privilege
of checking nomenclature with the proof sheets of the 1942 edition of "Stand-
ardized Plant Names" and for h's constructive criticism; to Winthrop Thurlow
for suggestions and assistance in the selection of the peonies for the bulletin;
to Howard and Clifford Corliss for checking the lists of garden phlox; and to
other members of the Massachusetts Nurserymen's Association who have co-
operated so generously.

Suggestions for a Succession of Perennial Bloom from April to October

For a continuation of bloom throughout the season, it is essential first to know
fairly definitely when each plant can be depended upon for its flowering period.
Secondly, for an eff^ective floral display each month, it is obviously necessary that
an equal garden area be reserved for the plants which are to furnish the bloom
for each of the months of the season.

Perennials have probably been selected more for their individual appeal than
for a strict continuation of bloom from spring to fall. Were the average garden
to be checked over from this point of view, it is probable that the area given over
to June flowering plants would prove greater than that given to those blooming
in May, July, August, September, and October combined. This condition can
be bettered by selecting a few basic plants for flowering each month. After this
has been done, elimination of the only partially successful, and restriction of the
area occupied by June bloomers, will provide space for the inclusion of material
needed for other periods. Best results will be gained by the use of such material
as will provide bloom for intervals of every two weeks.

'The 1942 edition ot Standardized Plant Names was used as reference for stress and approved
common and scientific names. Varietal names of irises are given in the lists as in the "Alpha-
betical Iris Check List" (1939 edition) of the American Iris Society.



MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 392
Notes on Some of the Perennials Included



Aster



Over 400 species and varieties of this genus have been studied and evaluated
at Waltham since 1933 by Professor Ray M. Koon. All available material from
North America and Europe has been collected and grown. From this study 50
asters have shown outstanding garden value and hardiness, and of these, 14
have been selected as the finest.

While the major'ty of asters are fall blooming, the variety Star of Eisenach
blooms in June and it is a superior aster for rock garden and border uses. Particu-
lar mention might well be made of Mt. Evetest, the best of the whites; Harring-
tons Pink and Survivor as the cnly true rose-pinks; Violetta which supersedes all
others in blue tones; Burbanks Charming and Campbells Pink, which, w'th-
stand'ng frosts, offer color m the garden later in the season than any others

The height of asters differs considerably with varied soils and available moisture,
while their blooming dates ere influenced by the age of the plants and climatic
factors.

Chrysanthemum

The variable climatic conditions of Massachusetts winters are particularly
trying to fall-blooming chrysanthemums. Generally, it would be well to locate
them in as protected exposures as possible, covering them over winter with cran-
berry clippings, salt marsh hay, or similar material. Excellent early-blooming



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