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military workers be protected while travelling in the public way; it is also essen-
tial that the communication and power lines be maintained with the least possible
disruption. Public utilities are keenly aware of their responsibility in maintain,-
ing vital service lines and are prepared to do their part in eliminating tree hazards.
Their supplies for replacements and new equipment are critically limited. Repairs
are costly and preventable accidents are wasteful. Many tree injuries can be
treated and many impending tree accidents can be prevented. Civilians have
organized themselves into groups for protection against air raids and invas'on
and, in the light of mounting tree casualties and resultant property damage, it
would be well to provide for tree protection as a supplement to the civilian de-
fense program.

Know your Tree Warden. Massachusetts is especially fortunate in having a
tree warden in every community as a key man about whom to rally in this
important activity. Advance information concerning a weakened tree may
save a life, a life line, and a tree. Tree waidens may further enhance their already
distinguished service throughout Mastachusetts by organizing corps of civilian
inspectors, and supervising their activities. Such a corps might well consist of
representat'ves from the following organizations: Mas&achuseltc Horticultural
Society, Garden Club, Women's Club, Rotary, Kiwanis, Massachusetts Forest
and Park Association, Massachusetts Safety Council — in fact, all groups inter-
ested in civic affairs; in addition to representatives from the wire-using agencies,
such as power, municipal light, telephone, police and fire alarm telegraph. With-
out doubt, these organizations will aid the tree warden by nominating or recom-
mending qualified and interested civilians to serve with and assist the wardep
in processing such a protection program. The public can cooperate effectively
by discovering and reporting defects in trees to the local tree department.



MY TREE WARDEN'S NAME

STREET ADDRESS

TELEPHONE NUMBER



THE DUTCH ELM DISEASE

Since 1930, when the Dutch ehn disease caused by the fungus, Ceratostomella
tilmi (Schwarz) Buisman, was first discovered in the United States, all persons
interested in our shade trees have become increasingly alarmed as the number of
ehns known to be affected has steadily mounted. As the name implies, the Dutch
elm disease was first observed in the Netherlands; and, since its discovery in 1919,
thousands of elms in European countries have been killed. The disease exists
throughout the extensive range of climatic and soil conditions included in the
Netherlands, France, Italy, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Poland,
Czechoslovakia, Balkan States, and Great Britain. The disease is widely dis-
tributed in England but has not as yet been found in Scotland.

In both Europe and North America, the only continents where the disease has
been observed, elms and trees of the closely related genus Zelkova are apparently
the only hosts upon which the disease occurs in nature. A few species of elms are
reported to be resistant, but none is known to be immune; and the American
elm ( JJlmus americana L.) is very susceptible.

From 1930 to 1932 the known cases of the disease in America were limited to
less than a dozen trees in Ohio. Later the disease was found in the mid-Atlantic
States and southern New England. Elms in Massachusetts were first known to
be affected in 1941 when one diseased tree was found in the town of Alford, in
Berkshire County. In 1942, six diseased trees were found in the State: three in
Egremont, one in Great Barrington, one in Westfield, and one in Sheffield. These
trees were destroyed immediately, and in order to further protect disease-free
elms, concerted effort has been directed toward the prompt disposal of all freshly
cut elm wood. This is the most practical control that can be employed effectively
in checking the increase in population of bark beetles which spread the causal
fungus. Since the fungus is virtually a prisoner within an affected tree, it cannot
spread significantly except as it is carried from a diseased to an uninfected tree by
a vector. The best evidence indicates that the smaller European elm bark beetle
{Scolytus midtistriatus Marsh.) is the principal carrier insect. This insect invades
the bark of weakened trees or freshly cut elm wood, where eggs are laid in gal-
leries engraved between the bark and the wood. Upon emergence, beetles feed
for a short period of time on healthy elm twigs and in this manner may spread
the disease to previously healthy trees if the feeding beetles come from galleries
in which the fungus is present. At this writing (December 1942), the beetle is
known to occur in Springfield, West Springfield, and Westfield in Hampden
County, and widely in Berkshire County, in addition to the originally known
eastern Massachusetts infestation which now includes most of the area east of
Worcester County. Possibly the native elm bark beetle {Hylurgopinns rtifipes
Eich.), which is generally distributed in Massachusetts, may also spread the
disease. If so, the prompt disposal of cut elm wood is doubly necessary.

Therefore, all agencies and individuals whose work brings them into contact
with freshly cut or drying elm wood, which is highly attractive to bark beetles,
are urged to dispose of this wood promptly by burning, unless there is complete
assurance that the bark will be removed immediately after the wood is cut. Tree
wardens, foresters, arborists, fire wardens, highway departments, state depart-
ments, and public utilities have cooperated generously in aiding in this practical
method of protecting disease-free elms. As in the case of all fungus diseases and
insect pests of plants, however, unbroken continuity of the program is most
essential. Experience has shown the interruption of investigational and control
programs to be a costly mistake. The elms of Massachusetts are a priceless
possession of all the people of the Commonwealth.



THE DUTCH ELM DISEASE




Fig,



1. Elms in a Massachusetts
town.



The Dutch Elm Disease — caused
by the fungus, Ceratostomella iilini,
and spread by bark beetles —
menaces our Massachusetts elms.

Widespread in Europe since its
discovery in 1919.

Known in the United States
since 1930, following the importa-
tion of fungus and carrier-beetle
infested elm logs from Europe —
1929 to 1934.

Found in N. J., N. Y., Conn.,
Pa., Md., Va., W. Va., Ind., Ohio,

MASSACHUSETTS — 1941.




Fig. 2. The street in figure 1, as it
would appear without elms.



64,468 known diseased elms have been destroyed
programs to September 1942.



in eradication




Fig. 3. Elm affected with
Dutch Elm Disease.

Fig. 4. Streaking of infected wood.

Fig. 5. The fungus in culture.

Fig. 6. A. Smaller European bark
beetle.

B. Native bark beetle.

C. Larva or grub.
(All great'.y en'areed.)

Fig. 7. Work of carrier beetles.
(Somewhat rediced.)

Fig. 8. Natural graft of elm roots.
(Photographs from Mass. Exp. hta.
Bui. 343. Figs. 3 and 8 furnished by
Division of Forest Pathology.
U S D A. Fig. 6 from Cornell
Ext.' Bui. 290.)



Symptoms of the disease include:
Wilting, curling, yellowing, and
early falling of leaves; Brown
streaking of infected wood.

Trees may die suddenly or grad-
ually.

A wood-staining fungus living in
the water-conducting channels
causes the disease.

Death of trees results from a
toxin produced by the fungus.

Trees affected with Dutch Elm*
Disease may appear similar to
elms affected with other wilt
diseases —

Therefore, laboratory study of
wood showing streaking is
necessary to prove which dis-
ease fungus is present.

The smaller European and native
elm bark beetles serve as car-
riers of the fungus.

The beetles engrave breeding
galleries in weakened trees and
later the young emerge to feed
on tender green twigs.

Other means of spread include
direct contact between diseased
and healthy trees — natural
grafts of roots and branches.



All known diseased elms are
being destroyed.

The final goal of the eradication
program is the protection and
preservation of disease-free elms.

The public is urged to cooperate
by sending specimens from the
wilted parts of trees to —




THE DUTCH ELM DISEASE LABORATORY
MASSACHUSETTS STATE COLLEGE, AMHERST. MASS.



Massachusetts
agricultural experiment station

BULLETIN NO. 398 JANUARY, 1943



Annual Report



For the Fiscal Year Ending November 30, 1942



The main purpose of this report is to provide an opportunity for presenting
in published form, recent results from experimentation in fields or on projects
where progress has not been such as to justify the general and definite con-
clusions necessary to meet the requirements of bulletin or journal.



MASSACHUSETTS STATE COLLEGE
AMHERST, MASS.



MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Trustee Committee on Experiment Station

Term Expires

Malcolm, David J., Charlemont, Chairman 1946

Webster, Louis, Acting Commissioner of Agriculture

McNamara. Mrs. Elizabeth L., Cambridge 1944

Hubbard, Clifford C, Norton 1946

Whitmore, Philip F., Sunderland 1948

Brett, Alden C, Watertown 1950



Experiment Station Staff, December 1942

Hugh P. Baker, President of the College
Sievers, Fred J., Director Havvley, Robert D., Treasurer

Gaskill. Edwin F., Assistant to the Director Felton, F. Ethel, Editor

O'Donnell, Margaret H., Technical Assistant Church, Lucia G., Secretary



*Alexander, Charles P., Entomology

Archibald, John G., Animal Husbandry
§Bergman, Hfrbert F., Cranberries

Bourne, Arthur L, Entomology
♦Bradley, Leon A., Bacteriology
Colby, William G., Agronomy
Doran William L., Botany
*Eisenmenger, Walter S., Agronomy
t*FELLERS. Carl R., Horticultural Man-
ufactures
*Frandsen, Julius H., Dairy Industry
t*FRANKLiN, Henry J., Cranberries
"^1 Freeman, M( nroe E., Chemistry
Fuller, James E., Bacteriology
♦Gamble, Philip L., Economics
♦Gaskill, Edwin F.. Station Service
♦Griffiths, Francis P.. Horticultural Man-
ufactures
JGuba. Emil F.. Botany
♦Gunness, Christian L, Engineering
Haskins. HiNRi D.. Agricultural Chem-
istry (Professor Emeritus)
Hays, Frank A., Poultry Husbandry
Holland, Edward B., Chemistry (Pro-
fessor Emeritus)
Holmes, Arthur D., Chemistry
♦Holmes, Julia O., Home Economics
Nutrition
KiGHTLlNGER. CLIFFORD V.. Agronomy
t*KooN, Ray M., Horticulture

Kuzmeski, John W.. Fertilizer Law
♦Lentz, John B., Veterinary Science
♦Lindsey, Adrian H.. Agricultural Eco-
nomics and Farm Management
McKenzie, Malcolm A., Botany
Morse, Fred W., Chemistry (Professor
Emeritus)
tOLSON, Carl, Jr., Veterinary Science
♦Osmun, a. Vincent, Botany
♦Parkhurst, Raymond T., Poultry Hus-
bandry
♦Rice, Victor A., Animal Husbandry
♦Ritchie, Walter S., Chemistry
RozMAN, David, Economics
Shaw, Jacob K., Pomology
tSiELiNG. Dale H., Chemistry
♦Smith, Philip H., Dairy, Feed, and Seed

Laws
♦Snyder, Grant B., Olericulture
♦Thayer, Clark L., Floriculture
♦Van Meter, Ralph A., Pomology
Van Roekel, Henry, Veterinary Science
JWhitcomb, Warren D., Entomology
Wood, Basil B., Library



Bailey, John S.. Pomology

Bennett, Emmett, Chemistry

Brown, Alfred A., Agricultural Economics

and Farm Management
Bullis, Kenneth L., Veterinary Science
Creek, Charles R., Agricultural Econo-
mics and Farm Management
tCROSS, Chester E., Cranberries
IDempsey, Paul W., Horticulture
IIDeRose, H. Robert, Feed and Fertilizer
Laws
Esselen, William B., Jr.. Horticultural
Manufactures



Flint, Oliver S., Veterinary Science

HFrance, Ralph L., Bacteriology

jGlLGUT, Constantine J., Nurser\-culture
Gutowska. Marie S., Nutrition
Jones, Carleton P., Chemistry
Jones, Linus H., Botany

7LEVINE, Arthur S., Horticultural Manufac-
tures
McLaughlin. Frederick A., Seed Law
Mueller, William S.. Dairy Industry
Smith, C. Tyson, Feed and Fertilizer Laws
Spelman, Albert F., Feed and Fertilizer

Laws
Wertz, Anne W., Home Economics Nu-
trition

JWhite, Harold E., Floriculture

JYouNG, Robert E.. Olericulture



Man-



Anderson, Jessie L., Seed Law
Becker, William B., Entomology
^j^Bemben, Peter. Olericulture
jBoBliLA, Paul, Nurseryculture
Brinson, Joseph E.. Agronomy
Brunell, Harvey J. Horticultura

ufactures
Clarke, Miriam K., Veterinary Science
Crosby, Earle B.. Veterinary Science
Crowley. Leo V.. Feed and Fertilizer Laws
Davis, S. Gilbert, Horticultural Manu-
factures
^JDoNNELLY, Edward B., Floricuhure
IGari.and, William, Entomology
Howard. James T., Dairy, Feed,

Fertilizer Laws
Jewett. Fei.ici.a. Veterinary Science
Kelley, Joseph L., Cranberries
Kucinski, Karol j.. Agronomy
Martell, Joseph A., Dairy, Feed



ind



and
Horticultural



Fertilizer Laws
McConnell, John E. W.,

Manufactures
Miner, Gladys I., Botany
JMooDY, Mary, Olericulture
Morse, Roy E., Horticultural Manufactures
Parkinson, Leonard R.. Home Economics

Nutrition
Perkins, Margaret K., Floriculture
Sanborn, Ruby, Poultrv Husbandry
Sherburne, Ruth E . Economics
Southwick, Lawrence, Pomology
Spear, Arthur J.. Home Economics Nu-
trition
Stone. Abigail M., Agricultural Economics

and Farm Management
Tischer, Robert G., Horticultural Manu-
factures
JTomlinson, William E.', Jr., Entomology
Weir, Clar.a. E., Home Economics Nutrition
White. W Henry. Botany
JWiLSON, Harold h.. Horticulture

Yegian, Hrant M., Agronomy
JYouNG, Helen, Floriculture
YouRGA, Frank, Horticultural Manufac-
tures
Zatyrka, Irene E., Pomology



♦In charge tAt East Wareham JAt Waltham §With U. S. D. A. TOn Military Leave.



CONTENTS

Page

Agricultural Economics and Farm Management 4

Agronomy 5

Animal Husbandry 13

Bacteriology . 15

Botany 16

Chemistry 22

Control Services 25

The Cranberry Station 26

Dairy Industry '........ 29

Economics 32

Engineering 32

Entomology 34

Floriculture 40

Home Economics Nutrition 42

Horticultural Manufactures 44

Horticulture 47

Olericulture 47

Pomology 4"

Poultry Husbandry 55

Veterinary Science 5/

Waltham Field Station 59

Publications ""



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE

MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT

STATION— 1942



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
AND FARM MANAGEMENT

A. H. Lindsey in Charge

Competitive Factors Influencing the Supply of Market Milk and Cream in
Massachusetts. (A. A. Brown and Abigail Stone.) Bulletin 389, the last of three
bulletins based on the Sprlngfield-Holyoke-Chicopee Milkshed, was published
in 1942.

The organization of production and distribution of sales throughout the State
are now being studied in relation to the program of the Massachusetts Division
of Milk Control.

Transportation Requirements of Rural Communities in Massachusetts.

(A. A. Brown and Abigail Stone.) A study of the amount of trucking necessary
for the movement of grain to farmers in the Amherst-Pelham area is near com-
pletion. One cause for excessive mileage is the frequent buying in small amounts
by many farmers. Much time and probably much mileage could be saved if
farmers would place their grain orders monthly and take at one delivery quanti-
ties up to the permissible mileage of the handler's truck. This sort of arrange-
ment would reduce stops by 50 percent and result In an average delivery of .48
tons per mile. Comparison with mileage under actual conditions was not pos-
sible because some operators kept neither trip nor mileage records. Study of
farmers' buying practices indicates that worthwhile reduction in mileage could
be accomplished by fully utilizing handler's equipment.

Crop and Livestock Enterprise Relationships. (C. R. Creek.)

Results of Pasture Improvement Practices. Detailed gr? zing records were kept
for the 1941 season, in connection with a record of milk production, barn feeding,
and pasture treatment. Acreage of pasture ranged from 10 to 113 acres per farm
with an average of 34 acres. More intensive improvement practices were applied
to the small areas. Size of dairy herds ranged from 8 to 45 cows per farm with an
average of 24 head. The length of pasture season was variable, chiefly because
of drought in late summer, and ranged from 65 to 164 days with an average of 121 .

Results from the grazing of these pastures were calculated in pounds of 4 per-
cent milk, numiber of cow-days, and tons of green forage. For the relatively short
season of 1941 an average of 2017 pounds of 4 percent milk was produced from
each acre of improved pasture. The range per farm was from 313 to 6648 pounds
per acre. Cow-da^-s of grazing ranged from 22 to 152 on these farms with an
average of 74 per acre. Production of green forage was calculated as an average
of 2 tons per acre with a range from 0.5 to 3.0 tons per acre per farm. Returns for
individual fields on these farms varied more widely than the range given for
averages by farms.

Improved pastures consisted of annual crops, Ladino Clover, mixed clover and
grass, and permanent grassland. Returns w^ere highest for Ladino Clover pastures
with 3,044 pounds of milk, 84 cow-days, and 2.7 tons of forage per acre. Clover
and grass pastures ranked second, followed by annual pasture crops and perma-
nent pastures. Returns were also calculated by types of treatment, but the
variation was slight.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1942 5

Labor-Saving Methods and Practices on Massachusetts Farms. (C. R. Creek.)
An outline has been prepared to apply the r-esults ot previous research on labor-
saving practices to the production and harvesting of vegetable crops on small
farms. Inexpensive and homemade adaptations of labor-saving equipment are
recommended for these farms.

Comparative Costs of Producing Corn and Grass Silage. (C. R. Creek.) Prelim-
inary tabulations and calculations have been made of various items in the cost
of producing corn and legume-grass silage on dairy farms in the Connecticut
Valley counties. Cash costs of growing and harvesting corn for silage ranged
from less than $1 per ton on a farm with no hired labor and no fertilizer expense
to $5.06 per ton on a farm where machinery was hired for all growing and harvest-
ing work and all labor was hired. Total costs were much higher and ranged from
$4.93 to $9.13 per ton. Total costs included such non-cash items as family labor,
depreciation, interest, and the value of manure. The acreage of corn for silage
ranged from 3 to 21 acres per farm with a total production of 20 to 200 tons.
Yields ranged from 5 to 16.5 tons per acre.

Cash cost of legume-grass silage ranged from $2.37 to $3.60 per ton and total
costs from $5.30 to $9.45 per ton. Acreage of the various crops ranged from 2.5
to 40 acres per farm and yields of grass silage were from 3.8 to 8 tons per acre.
Small acreages of oats used as a nurse crop for clover seedings were ensiled on a
few farms. Cash costs ranged from $2.55 to $4.53 per- ton and total costs from
$5.90 to $10.69. Yields varied between 6 and 10.5 tons per acre of oats for silage.

Loan Performance on Low-Income Farms in Massachusetts. (C. R. Creek.)
Data and information have been obtained from the farm plans for Fann Security
Administration borrowers in Franklin, Hampden, and Hampshire counties.
Tabulations have been made by counties for cash-crop and for livestock farms.
Preliminary observations indicate that the rate of repayment of loans has been
much higher on the cash-crop (onions, tobacco, and potatoes) farms than on the
dairy and poultry farms. A small number of the latter have been liquidated at
public auction to repay the Farm Security Administration loans.

The chief reason for loans to cash-crop farmers in the Connecticut River Valley
was the loss of crops in the flood and hurricane of 1938. Low prices for crops and
low yields in earlier years were responsible for the deplorable credit situation of
many small operators. Increasing the size of business from a part-time or sub-
sistence level was the reason for many livestock loans, particularly on poultry
farms. Some of these operators have now returned to a part-time farm business
and are working in industrial plants in nearby cities.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY

Walter S. Eisenmenger in Charge

Tobacco Projects. (Walter S. Eisenmenger and Karol J. Kucinski.)
Brown Root-Rot of Tobacco. In the experiment to determine the effect of
preceding crops on tobacco it was found that tobacco, artichoke, and sunflower,
as well as fallow, were beneficial as contracted with such crops as corn, sudan
grass, and sorghum, which in all cases seemed to have a deleter-ous effect on yield.
The crops preceding tobacco were planted at three different times: the first,
earh ; the second, thirty days later; and the third, thirty days later than the
second. The earliest planting was completely mature; the others matured to a
lesser degree. The earliest planting developed more lignin than the others.
These plants were permitted to stand and become thoroughly dehydrated by
subsequent freezing and thawing.



6 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 398

Where the individual plants were of the type that prevents the growth of weeds
— shade producing plants — the yield of tobacco increased after the late plantings.
In plots of small plants, such as barley, rape, and rye, the weeds in late summer
intrude and to a degree vitiate the results.

There is no evidence, however, of a better quality of tobacco grown after im-
mature plants. This is not entirely new, for it is often the case that larger tobacco
plants do not cure as well as smaller tobacco plants.

Tobacco Experiments with Application to Soil of Commercial Organic Materials-
Different types of carbon compounds were applied to the soil to study their effect
on the yield of tobacco. Because of prohibitive cost, there are not many such
compounds that can be used; but cane sugar, starch, dried skim milk, and char-
coal were each applied to duplicate plots at the rate of 100 pounds per acre. No
decided differences were noted in the tobacco although the check plots receiving
no additions of carbon were low in yield and crop index. The charcoal caused
more rapid growth in the early season, probably because of the more abundant
absorption of heat by the darker color induced, and also gave the highest yield,
suggesting the possibility of its use In early spring for frames where seedlings are
grown. The dried milk left a residual effect the following year for the cover crop
of rye. Increased growth on these two plots was pronounced, suggesting two
possible factors — the nitrogen in the milk, or the subsequent action of lactic
acid which may have influenced the soil flora.

The Absorption by Food Plants of Chemical Elements Important in Human
Nutrition. (Walter S. Eisenmenger and Karol J. Kucinski.) Calcium, mag-
nesium, sodium, and potassium salts, at the rate of 200 parts per million of each
cation, w'ere added singly to soil growing vegetables. The increase of these
cations in plant tissue, when cations were added singly to the soil was as follows:
for cabbage — calcium 30 percent, potassium 127 percent, magnesium 543 percent,
and sodium, none; for celery — calcium 44 percent, potassium 256 percent, mag-
nesium 390 percent, and sodium 52 percent; for lettuce — calcium 12 percent,
potassium 132 percent, magnesium 346 percent, and sodium 72 percent; for carrots
— calcium 18 percent, potassium 24 percent, magnesium 42 percent, and sodium
106 percent; and for beet roots — calcium 22 percent, potassium 12 percent,
magnesium 85 percent, and sodium 356 percent.

Larger amounts of magnesium, potassium, and sodium can be introduced mto
plants than of calcium. Also, more of the halides can be introduced into plants
than of phosphorus or sulfur.

It mav be said that those elements which are abundant in sea water may be
introduced into plants more readily than the elements which are ?bundant in
land waters.

The Intake by Plants of Elements Applied to the Soil in Pairs Compared to
the Intake of the Same Elements Applied Singly. (Walter S. Eisenmenger and
Karol J. Kucinski.) Cabbage, celery, lettuce, and string beans were grown after
application to the soil of 250 parts per million each of calcium, sodium, and potas-
sium, singly and also in all possible combinations. Results show that when these
ions were applied in pairs, the amounts taken in by the plant were lower than
when they were applied singly. This behavior is suggestive of the well-known
premise that up to a certain point one of these elements can serve the function
or purpose of the other.

Magnesium Requirements of Plants. (Walter S. Eisenmenger and Karol J.
Kucinski.) Nearly one hundred species of plants have been grown on a mag-



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