Copyright
Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station.

Bulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) online

. (page 72 of 77)
Online LibraryMassachusetts Agricultural Experiment StationBulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) → online text (page 72 of 77)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


rot among the berries as they came from the field in this State than has been
evident in any other year, and the abnormal decay showed a marked tendency to
continue in storage. Fortunately, a lively demand for the berries throughout the
selling season, both for commercial canning and as fresh fruit, moved the crop
promptly.

Injurious and Beneficial Insects Affecting the Cranberry. (H. J. Franklin.)
Hill Fireworm {Tlascala finitella (Walker)). Moths of this species emerged in
confinement very late in May and were caged with cranberry branches on May
30. On June 13 many small caterpillars were found to have hatched from eggs
that had been laid during the interval. Some of these were as much as a twelfth
of an inch long and had done considerable feeding, so they may have been three
day's old, indicating that the eggs hatch about ten days after they are laid. Some
unhatched eggs were found, most of them on the stems of th-e new cranberry
growth. They were oval in outline, much flattened against their support, and
about a fortieth of an inch long. The young worms had blackish heads and very
faintly striped reddish brown bodies.

The Burrage bog, infested with this insect last year, was examined on June 16.
The worms there had channeled some of the cranberry stems toward and to the
tips causing them to drop over. Occasional worms, already showing their strip-
ing were sewed up in the cranberry tips like black-headed fireworms, but with
more frass around them. The infestation on this bog was again quite serious.

Spotted Fireworm (Cacoecia parallela (Rob.)). This pest broke out severely on
about nine acres of bog in Marion, Mass., early in June. Most of the worms
matured by July 8, but some remained till after July 16 when the moths had
begun to fly. The infestation was well controlled by dusting with 30 pounds of
cryolite to an ace on June 25.

Nine species of parasites were reared from this pest, the most prevalent being
Itoplectis conquisitor (Say), of the order Hymenoptera, family Ichneumonidae;
and Nemorilla floralis (Fallen), of the order Diptera, family Exoristidae. All the
others belonged to the order Hymenoptera, four being Ichneumonidae and three
Chalc'doidea.

The spotted fireworms fed on the following weeds on and around the infested
bog: chain fern, sensitive fern, marsh shield fern, common brake, flowering fern,
saw brier, hardback, chokeberry, coarse bramble, winterberry, marsh St.-John's-
wort, sweet pepperbush, swamp blueberry, sheep laurel, loosestrife, and asters.
Loosestrife and Inarsh St.-John's-wort were evidently favorite food plants of the
insect. They were very abundant on the bog and may have largely induced the
infestation.

Some pupae of the spotted fireworm squirm vigorously when disturbed, but
they are more often inactive. Each of the abdominal segments of the pupa,
except those toward the posterior end, has two ridges across the upper surface



ANNUAL REPORT, 1942 27

with the surface between them very smooth, each ridge bearing a single row of
many short, sharp, tooth-like spines pointing obliquely backward.

White Grub (Phyllophaga). Young grubs, evidently hatched in June, were
found rather abundant in a small area on the station bog on July 13, 1942. They
were quite active and all within an inch or two of the soil surface, most of them
within an inch of it.

Cranberry Spittle Insect (Clastoptera). The young nymphs in their spittle were
found as early as June 2. Flooding a bog for 24 hours as soon as an occasional
flower had opened wiped out a heavy infestation completely without harm to
the vines or crop. This seems to be an excellent treatment.

Cranberry Root Grub (Amphicoma). Half of the station bog was treated with
seven ounces of sodium cyanide in 100 gallons of water, a gallon to a square foot,
late in April and ver}' early in May. The treatment was very successful and did
not reduce the crop. It hurt the vines only on a few small areas. Flood water
drained from this bog eight days after the application had no poisonous effect.

Army worms (Leucania) attacked freely several bogs that had been flooded
from mid-May to mid-Juh to control the root grub.

Grape Anomala (Anomala lucicola Fab., formerly reported as Anomala errans).
Five acres of seriously infested bog, located in the Wenham section of Carver
and not heretofore known to be affected by this grub, were treated very success-
fully with sodium cyanide solution.

Cranberry Tolerance of Certain Materiah. Long experience has found cran-
berry vines ver>- intolerant of sulfur but very tolerant of kerosene and fairly so
of copper.

Cryolite, four tons to an acre, was applied to small areas of the station bog on
June 20, 1941. Injury- from this was \er\' slow in developing but had become
severe by July 1942.

A mixture of 4 pounds of calomel and 96 pounds of talc, 100 pounds to an acre,
was dusted onto plots of Howes vines on July 1, 1941, with the vines then ap-
proaching full bloom. The set of fruit and size of berries were not much affected,
the crop turning out to be about as abundant as on the bog around the plots;
but the treatment greatly delated the ripening of the berries and they finally
failed to de\elop a good red color. The berries were picked toward the end of
September and were examined chemically and spectroscopically for mercury, but
none was found. The vines on these plots were not quite so green in the fall of

1941 as those on the bog around them, and a rather noticeable number of scat-
tered branches died. The treated areas had a normal appearance during the

1942 growing season, but they bore only about a third as much fruit as areas of
the same size around them.

Prevalence of Cranberry Insects in 1942.

1. Bumblebees and honeybees were abundant everywhere on Massachusetts
bogs during the cranberry flowering.

2. Infestation by Gypsy Moth (Portketria) was light in Ph mouth County
and moderate on most of the outer Cape.

3. Cranberry fruit worm (Mineola) was about normally abundant, more so
than in 1941.

4. Black-headed fireworm was normally abundant, more so than in 1941.

5. Firebeetle {Cryptocephalus) , almost none.

6. Yellow-headed fireworm (Peronea) was more troublesome than usual in
recent vears.



28 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 398

7. Spotted fireworm was generally more abundant than for many years.

8. Lady beetles were unusually' prevalent.

9. False armyworm (Xylena) was very prevalent, about as in 1941.

10. Blossom worm {Epiglaea) was much less than normally abundant.

11. Spanworms were about as usual.

12. Cranberry girdler (Crambus) was more harmful than normal.

13. Cranberry- weevil (Anthonomiis) was about as in other recent years.

14. Cranberry spittle insect and tipworm were fully as troublesome as usual.

Control of Cranberry Bog Weeds. (Chester E. Cross.) In all, 155 plots were
used during the season to test the value of various herbicides. The more inter-
esting results follow:

Kainit. This potash fertilizer has been advocated as an herbicide for poison
ivy and has been used extensively in Europe to destroy charlock and wild mustard
in plantings of spring cereals. Results with 56 plots to test its value as a cran-
berry bog herbicide were not encouraging. No injury to either cranberry vines
or weeds followed its use in amounts up to 1000 pounds an acre when the foliage
was dry; and enough to burn weeds like poison ivy, loosestrife, beggar-ticks,
horsetail, or asters with their foliage wet damaged cranberry vines also.

Zotox is widely advertised as a selective weed killer for eradicating crab grass
and various broad-leaved perennials from lawns and fairways. Different amounts
of solution of this chemical in various concentrations were tried on 46 plots against
some of the more common bog weeds. It proved to be valueless as a bog herbicide,
not being effective even on crab grass unless enough was used to injure cranberry
vines badly.

Ferrous Sulfate. A solution of this chemical, a pound to a gallon of water, 400
gallons to an acre, was ver\' effective on low cudweed, with little injury to cran-
berry vines. This weed is often a serious pest on new plantings and on bogs where
grubs have caused areas to be bare of vines.

Kerosene. About 20 plots, on a bog flowed for root grubs till July 15, were
treated with kerosene between August 2 and 12. A thick mat of crab grass was
almost completely destroyed with 200-300 gallons an acre. The same amount
killed barnyard grass, spreading witchgrass, and warty panic grass very eff'ec-
tively. Little harm was done to the relatively tender cranberry vines, most of
this injury being on plots treated during the middle of the day or when the vines
were wet. The time of day the treatments were made did not affect the killing
of the weeds.

Amnwmum Siilfamate. Results of dry applications of this new chemical on
cranberry bogs have been reported heretofore. ^ This year it was tried in solu-
tion as a spray and gave some promise of being a useful herbicide for poison ivy,
loosestrife, chokeberry, feather and sensitive ferns, and asters, when used at a
rate of not more than one pound in eight gallons of water. Stronger solutions,
unless applied in small amount and with great care, were usually very harmful to
cranberry vines. Not enough work has been done with this chemical to justify
conclusions. It is peculiar that, when cranberry vines have been injured by its
use, new growth is slow to develop and its leaves are discolo.ed and undersized,
this perhaps indicating that the injury is greater than appears. Partly grown
cranberries sprayed with ammonium sulfamate solutions reddened noticeably in
a few days without showing other definite s'gns of injury.

iMass. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 378:47, 1941.



ANNUAL REPORT, 1942 29

Herbarium. A collection of 140 species of the more common bog weeds has
been assembled at the Cranberry Station. It will be useful in identifying weeds
for cranberry- growers.

Blueberries. (H. J. Franklin.) Only 163 quarts of berries were gathered from
the station's cultivated patch in 1942. This small crop is explained by the severe
freeze that occurred the night of January 10-11 when the temperature at East
VVareham fell to 24° F. below zero, probably the lowest at this place in the last
55 years. The interior of all the fruit buds in the blueberry patch became more
or less blackened within a day or two. The subsequent fruiting of the different
varieties showed that they varied greatly in their tolerance of the cold:

Adams, Cabot, June, Jersey, and Stanley bore no berries.

Katherine, Pioneer, Rubel, and Wareham produced less than half a crop.

Concord bore half to two-thirds of a crop.

Harding and No. 73 (Station culture number) were reduced only moderately
from a full crop. This shows cleerly the hardiness of the Harding variety and
adds to other great values of No. 73 (a Harding-Rubel cross).

Twenty of twenty-six seedlings of a Harding-Rubel cross dev^eloped most of
their crop, while 44 of the 59 full-grown miscellaneous plants failed to yield any
fruit.

It was finally estimated that the crop of the station blueberry patch,'as a whole,
was reduced 80 percent by the freeze. However, the blueberry bushes were little
injured anywhere by this cold, only the fruit buds and tender tips being hurt,
thus evidencing the fact that they approach the wild blueberry in winter hardi-



DEPARTMENT OF DAIRY INDUSTRY
J. H. Frandsen in Charge

Studies on Chocolate-Flavored Milk. (\V. S. Mueller.) The popularity of
chocolate-flavored milk has grown greatly in recent years. Whether the addition
of the chocolate flavoring enhances or decreases the nutritive value of the milk
is a question which has been the subject of much investigation but has not yet
been completely answered. The following progress in answering this question
has been made.

1. The Effect of Cocoa Upon the Utilization of the Calcium and Phosphorus
of Milk. (W. S. Mueller, with the cooperation of M. R. Cooney of Home Eco-
nomics Nutrition.) The presence in cocoa of considerable quantities of oxalic
acid suggested the possibility of interference with the utilization of the calcium
of the milk or the diet, similar to that observed with spinach, beet greens, and
other oxalic acid-rich vegetables. It also seemed advisable to determine whether
or not cocoa interfered with the absorption of phosphorus, since milk contains a
liberal amount of this important element, which is nutritionally closely associated
with calcium. The results from an experiment in which 63 albino rats were used
showed that the growth of the rats and their utilization of the calcium and phos-
phorus of milk were affected adversely by cocoa. It would seem, therefore, that
the indiscriminate and excessive use of chocolate-flavored foods, especially in a diet
low in calcium, should not be recommended.

2. Effect of Cocoa on the Vitamin C Content of Milk. (W. S. Mueller.) The
addition of cocoa to milk hastened the destruction of vitamin C. This corrobor-
ates the results obtained in a preliminary stud>\



30 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 398

3. Vitamin K Content of Cocoa and Dairy Products. (W. S. Mueller.) It
has been observed in the study on the availability of the iron of cocoa that the
blood clotting time was shortened when the rats were fed cocoa. This observa-
tion led to an investigation of the vitamin K content of cocoa and dairy products.
Of the various dairy and cocoa products fed, only cultured buttermilk and cocoa
shell had any great effect on blood clotting time. These results indicate that the
decrease in blood clotting time, which had been observed for rats receiving cocoa,
is not directly tied up with vitamin K.

4. The Tannic Substances of Commercial Cocoa Powders and the Determination
of Cacao Purple. (W. S. Mueller, with the cooperation of J. W. Kuzmeski.)
Commercial cocoa powders have been analyzed for cacao purple by Ulrich's
method. The average for 6 Dutch processed samples was 8.44 percent and for
9 unprocessed samples, 12.72 percent. The total ash of the ferric chloride pre-
cipitate varied from 11.48 to 18.24 percent. The ash of the precipitate consisted
mainly of iron and phosphorus, present either as separate oxides or in combina-
tion as ferric phosphate. In general, Ulrich's method for the determination of
cacao purple in cocoa products apparently leaves much to be desired. However,
the results from this study indicate that the ferric chloride precipitate would
measure the cacao purple content more nearly accurately if the washing procedure
were modified and a correction made for the ash contained.

Improving the Flavor and Keeping Properties of Milk and Some of its Products.

(W. S. Mueller.) Further work is being dene on evaluating various substances
as antioxidants for butterfat. At the outset of this study, the peroxide test was
used in conjunction with the organoleptic tests for determining the effectiveness
of the various antioxidants. As the work progressed, it became apparent that
the peroxide test was not reliable for replacing organoleptic tests. A new chemical
test (Chlorophyll Value Test by M. R. Coe, Eastern Regional Research Labora-
tory, Philadelphia) is being used for butterfat and seems to correspond more
closely to organoleptic rancidity than the peroxide test. Today it is more impor-
tant than ever before that we know how to prevent spoilage of butterfat because
the product is being transported and stored under adverse conditions.

A Study of Vanilla Sugars for Flavoring Ice Cream. (W. S. Mueller.) The high
price of grain alcohol is discouraging the use of ordinary vanilla extract for flavor-
ing ice cream. Vanilla sugars appear to be a desirable substitute and their ad-
vantages and limitations for use in ice cream are being studied. Sixteen samples,
including true, imitation, and mixtures of true and imitation, are being analyzed
and used to flavor ice cream. In general, the vanilla sugars were found to be of
excellent quality and appeared to be suitable for the purpose, and tests with
consumers indicated that it was difificult to distinguish between the true vanilla
and the imitation product.

An Explanation of the Increased Efficiency of Gelatin in Ice Cream Mix Whe n
Initially Aged at 68°F. (W. S. Mueller.) Results obtained in this study indicate
that the initial aging temperature of 68°F. produced a more closely knit gel
structure, which has many more inter-connected filaments than a structure
produced by aging at the low temperature only. The more numerous gel fila-
ments are effective in obstructing the formation of large ice crystals. This ap-
pears to be the most plausible explanation for the smoother texture of gelatin in
ice cream when initially aged at 68°F. In view of the present national emergency,
it seemsjparticularly timely to emphasize the more effective use of gelatin.

Iodoform Taste in Milk. (H. G. Lindquist.) In a study made on off-flavors
in milk, iodoform flavor was detected in a few samples. Investigation showed



ANNUAL REPORT, 1942 31

that it Avas traceable to treatment of cows for retained afterbirth by the intro-
duction of oil suspension of boric acid and iodoform into the uterus. One cow so
treated secreted enough iodoform in her milk one week after treatment to con-
taminate 200 gallons of mixed pasteurized milk from the herd.

New Stabilizing Materials for Ice Cream. (A. M. Shipley, M. J. Mack, and
J. H. Frandsen.) New stabilizers are constantly appearing on the market and
arousing considerable interest because of the uncertainty of the supply of some
of the commonly used stabilizers. Algatex, Kragel, Kremtex, and laboratory
mixtures of monoglyceride and gelatin and of monoglyceride and Dariloid were
compared with gelatin (190 Bloom) and Dariloid as controls, for their effect on
ice cream mix and on finished ice cream. The results ma}' be summed up briefly
as follows:

1. With the exception of Kremtex, all the stabilizers studied were completely
soluble at a temperature of 165°F.

2. Dariloid, Dariloid-monoglyceride, and Kragel were basic in reaction;
gelatin, gelatin-monoghceride, Algatex, and Kremtex were acid.

3. After aging 48 hours, the Algatex mix showed the greatest viscosity; the
Dariloid-monoglyceride and Kragel mixes were next; and the gelatin, gelatin-
monoglyceride, and Kremtex mixes showed the least.

4. None of the stabilizers affected the titratable acidity of the mix to any
marked degree.

5. All except Dariloid, which had the least coagulating effect, affected the
protein stability of the mix about the same.

6. All the mixes had about the same whipping rate, with no increase from
the use of the particular monoglyceride used in these trials.

7. None of the stabilizers affected the flavor of the ice cream adversely.

8. Ice cream containing gelatin, Dariloid, Algatex, and Kragel had a satis-
factory body and texture, but Kremtex seemed at times to produce a body that
was slightly weak. The monoglyceride tended to make the ice cream firmer and
drier and produced a crumbh body.

9. A smooth-melting ice cream was produced by all the stabilizers except
Kremtex, which in some instances produced an ice cream that wheyed off slightly
upon melting.

10. More than the usual amount of shrinkage occurred during storage when
Kremtex and the monoglyceride mixtures were used.

Bulk Versus Packaged Ice Cream. (J. H. Frandsen and A. M. Shipley.) There
is as yet no general agreement as to whether ice cream is better marketed in bulk
or in packaged form. For reasons of sanitation ?nd convenience, there is a dis-
tinct trend towards the marketing of foods in packages, and most of the arguments
that apply to other foods are applicable also to ice cream. The results of this
study thus far may be summed up as follows:

The amount of shrinkage incurred in the packaging of bulk ice cream is gov-
erned to a considerable extent by the serving technique and increases as the over-
run of the ice cream increases. A 35 to 40 percent loss in volume results from bulk
packaging as compared with packaging direct from the freezer.

Freezer-packaging produces an ice cream very definitely superior in body and
texture to that packaged as bulk because it reduces temperature changes, does
away with the forced pressure on the ice cream resultant from hand-packaging
and permits the packaging of ice cream in a desirable semi-soft condition. Ma-
chine-packaged ice cream can be held at a lower temperature than bulk ice cream
and, therefore, keeps in better condition after it is sold to the consumer.



32 MASS. EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN 398

Factors Affecting the Sweetness Perception in Ice Cream. (J. H. Nair III
and M. J. Mack.) A study was made of the percentage of butterfat, the source
of butterfat, the ratio of fat to serum solids, the pH of the mix, the effects of salts
present, the types of vanilla used, and the serving temperature of the ice cream
and their effects on the sweetness perception in ice cream. The work has not
been completed, but the preliminary study indicates the following conclusions:

There is a relation between sweetness and body and texture of ice cream.

The kind and amount of sugar in high-fat ice cream mixes definitely affect
the quality of the ice cream. The use of corn syrup solids seems to prevent a
crumbly texture and improves the body.

Temperature definitely affects the sweetness perception; soft ice cream tastes
sweeter than hard.



DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS
Philip L. Gamble in Charge

Effects of the War and Readjustments in Massachusetts Agriculture. (David
Rozman.) This project is devised to take account of agricultural readjustments
already in progress, with the expectation of facilitating the attainment of national
goals in agricultural production and of providing a basis for a program of indi-
vidual and public action after the present emergency is over.

So far the investigation has been directed toward obtaining a picture of re-
adjustments in the dairy industry as the most important factor of agricultural
production in the State. B>- analyzing data from the Animal Inspection records
it has been possible to determine the distribution of cow herds in relation to their
number and size in various sections of the State. Between January 1941 and Jan-
uary 1942, the total number of cows two years old and over on Massachusetts
farms declined from 146,424 to 141,302. During 1941 there was a general decline
in the number and proportion of smaller herds; while the herds with twenty cows
and over increased both in total number and in the proportion of animals in the
group. The distribution of cows by size of herds will have a major effect on the
agricultural labor problem because, to the extent that production is concentrated
in larger herds, there will be greater need for hired labor.



DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING
C. I. Gunness in Charge

Cranberry Storage Investigation. (C. I. Gunness, H. J. Franklin, and H. F.
Bergman.) The studies on storage of cranberries were continued during the fall
of 1942. Samples of Early Blacks from the Experiment Station bog and from a
commercial bog were stored in a commercial air-cooled screenhouse and in re-
frigerated experimental storage at two different temperatures, 45° and 35°.
Both lots were picked on September 14, placed in storage immediately, and
removed and screened on October 22. The storage and screening loss differed
for the two lots of berries, but in both cases was greatest for the air-cooled storage
and least for the refrigerated storage at 35°. There was much less difference be-
tween the two refrigerated storages than between the air-cooled and the re-
frigerated.

The berries from the Experiment Station bog were so well colored when picked
that no appreciable change in coloring was noticeable in the different storages.
Those picked from the other bog were "green" when picked. Those stored at



ANNUAL REPORT, 1942 33

45° had colored best; those stored at 35°, least; and those kept in common storage
were half way between.

Samples of Early Blacks from the Experiment Station bog were stored in a
modified atmosphere in sealed sheet-iron cabinets in the refrigerated rooms held
at 45° and 35°. This is a repetition of the trials made in 1941 and reported in the
1941 Annual Report. As explained at that time, it was difficult to remove the
moisture produced by the respiration of the berries. This year more adequate
means were provided for circulating the air from the cabinets through calcium
chloride and no such difficulty was experienced. It was found, however, that the
temperature inside the steel cabinets remained considerably higher than the



Online LibraryMassachusetts Agricultural Experiment StationBulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station (Volume no.379-398) → online text (page 72 of 77)