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Tbah Yah a New Testament.

The bereaved mother.

4. Sabbath. At worship this morn-
ing a number of women and children
were attracted by our singing. While
reading Paul's speech at Athens, I en-
larged on the nature of that Being
whom we should call God. Alter
prayer, conversed some time with
them. Observing a child in the arms
of one of tbe women, I inquired if it

Digitized by



MadmaifL-^ovrnal of Rev. Mr. SietfOM.


were her only one. She replied thnt
she had lost a son of three years, a
short time hefore. I told her we may
hope thnt through the grace of Christ
that child is saved, and if she would
see him again she must believe in
Christ The thought at once arrested
her attention, — a mother^s love shone
in her countenance as she asked,
'* Shall I really meet him again if I
become a Christian ?" Boodhism gives
no hope for a deceased infant It died
young because of an evil destiny de-
termined by some wicked conduct in
a previous state of existence ; and as
to the future, nothing but a thick im-
penetrable gloom rests upon itti pros-
pects. I assured her that there is no
evidence that her child ever existed be-
fore ; that Christ has made an atone-
ment, that he loves little children and
declares the kingdom of heaven to be
composed of such as are like them ;
and that Christians are comforted in
the death of their infants, by the belief
that Christ had taken them to himself.
She listened in silence a little while
longer and returned to her house. I

E reached to others till I was tired.
lO Tau Mngay then commenced in
Taling, when the rest of us retired to
our sleeping room for united prayer.
AAer considering a portion of scripture
adapted to our circumstances, we all
prayed in succession, interspersing
hymns, imploring the descent of the
Holy Spirit

Second interview with the prieat

After dinner I paid another visit to
the young priest mentioned yesterday.
1 asked if he had read the New Testa-
ment which I had given him. He
said he had not A discussion soon
ensued, when he be^an to introduce
his doctrine of destmyt and various
other things, which are ever in the
mouths of this people. Seeing it
would be endless to follow him in all
those particulars, I told him it is essen-
tial, if we would know any thing, to
begin at the foundation of all. He as-
sented. God, then, I said, is the foun-
dation. " Yes,'* he replied, ** God
and the law.^* But what is law? I
asked. He instanced a command, —
'< Thou ahalt nol kUiy True, and ob-
serve, that is a command. Then must
there have been some one, who gave
the command ; and the one commnnd-
ing must precede the command. This
he admitted, ^et seemed perplexed.
And well he might be, for that simple
admission overturns his whole system.

For according to Gaudama, God pro-
ceeds from the law, inasmuch as it is
by keeping the law that divinity is at-
tained. Seeing his dilemma, he was
glad to turn to some other part of his

The prieatly office,-whr assomed— The beta-
gat and the bible.

I asked him of sin and the possibili-
ty of escaping its punishment Here
he was equally explicit, admitting that
when once committed there is no e»-
cape, — evasion and forgiveness are
alike impossible. Then must priests
and people alike look forward to hell
as inevitably their future portion ?
*' Yes,** was the unhesitating reply.
Why, then, do you wear the yellow
cloth ? I asked. ** To have less to en-
dure," he honestly replied ; and in that
one expression, uttered a volume on
the nature of Boodhism. The yel-
low cloth, — the badge of the priest-
hood, the most excellent state of hu-
man existence in this world, — is as-
sumed, not to alont for sin^ but in
order to sin less ; not to aflfect the past,
but the future. Let the apologist for
the heathen think of this fact Here is
an intelligent heathen reasoning about
his own condition. He knows, in his
own conscience, that he has sinned,
and that awful punishment awaits him
in a future state. This admission of
the priest opened the way for me to
introduce Christ as a Savior from sin
and its consequences. But he could
not give up the betagat I told him if
he reverenced the betagat because of
its antiquity, I could show him a book
much more ancient than that,^-most
of the Old Testament having been
written before Gaudama existed, and
the last of its books several hundred
years before the betagat was penned.
For, according to the received chro-
nology, Gaudama was contemporary
with the prophet Daniel, and the beta-
gat was not written till four hundred
and fifly-eifrhi years after his annihila-
tion, and, therefore, by men who could
not have known Gaudama. If the be-
tagat, therefore, is worthy of confi-
dence, much more must the Old Tes-
tament be so, not only being more an-
cient, but also having been written by
men who were conversant with the
facts which they record. According
to this hook, long before Gaudama's
time, a living, eternal God existed, who
was continually in communication with
men, exercising His providence over
them, and communicating to them His

Digitized by



Maulmain.^'^unud of Rev. Mr, Stevens,


win. Between two such book»{*a wise
man snrely could not be at a loss
which to cbooBe. The priest was evi-
dently perplexed by these considera-
tions, but whether he will be led by
them to Him who is the way, the
truth and the life, a future day will
disclose. The Lord attend his own
word with power.

In the evening distributed a number
of small books to children, who came
to ask for them.

5. AAer worship started to go
through the principal street east-
ward. Having reached the house of
the man with whom I first conversed
on the day of our arrival, seeing him
at work in the road I again drew him
into conversation, which grew into a
warm discussion of about half an hour
in length. He opposed with ail his
might, and ended as at the first, in de-
claring, that whatever he the conse-
quence, he would cling to Gaudama, —
or to speak more truly the state of his
mind, — ^from his childhood he had been
following Gaudama's directions and
accumulating merit by many and cost-
ly offerings, and could he now cast
them all to the winds ? We lefl him
with an exhortation to reconsider his
determination, and proceeded along
the street preaching and giving hooks
as opportunity presented. Among the
rest, addressed a woman more than
one hundred years old, who is still
able to walk about, and retains her
mental faculties in a remarkable de-
gree. To meet with persons eighty or
ninety years of age, is a common oc-
currence in this country. One such
told me this morning, as I stopped her
in the street, that she had twenty
great-grand children. I asked what
was her hope for the future world?
She said, that she had expended much
in offerings, and was just about to
dedicate a pagoda she had built.

Lamaing— ObduncyorToongthoos; a caoee.

6. Br. Harris having joined me from
the Karen jungles, we left Yay at mid-
night, and at sunrise found ourselves
at sea, coasting along a beautiful beach
on our way to Lamaing. At this place
we staid three days, taking up quarters
in an old dilapidated zayat, which had,
at different tnnes, been occupied by
brn. Osgood, Haswell and Harris. To
detail the conversations held with those
with whom we met, would be to re-
peat much that has t>een already writ-
ten. 1 took good care to make use of
the important conciessioDs of the Yay

priest The head man of a company
from Burnrrah Proper, who seemed to
pride himself in his knowledge, enter-
ed warmly into dispute in defence of
Gaudama, which seemed to result in
giving them all a clearer view than
they had before, that there is an essen-
tial' differfioee between Christianity
and Boodhism, especially in the fact
that one brings salvation from sin and
hell, which they admit is impossible
with the other. In the evening of the
first day in this place, a number of
persons assembled^ among whom was
a company of Toungthoos. Afler
prayer tbey still lingered and were
soon drawn into conversation. A few
were very violent in their opposition,
but they seemed in the end to discover
some of the essential characteristics of
Christianity, and its advantages over
Boodhism. As a race, they are de-
cidedly the most blindly and obstinate-
ly opposed to Christianity of all class-
es of persons I have yet met with. I
know not to what cause to attribute
this fact, unless it be, that much of
their trade consisting in the sale of
idolSj by the judgment of God they
have become more like their gods than
others. It is also a fact, that in conse-
quence of the preaching of the gospel
their craft has been endangered. For
it is notorious, that the people of this
country generally are less zealous for
idolatry than formerly, although so few
have, as yet, become Christians.

9. An Arab of Amherst came in,
who has the reputation of teacher
among the Mohammedans. He made
two objections to Christianity, — one
the abolishment of circumcision, and
the other the sonship of Christ. Our
animated discussion drew together a
considerable number of listeners, but I
know not that any good resulted, ex-
cepting that those assembled had an
opportunity of listening to some of the
most important and striking truths of
the Christian system. The Moham-
medans reject with much show of in-
dignation the idea of Christ being the
Son of God. After the Arab retired,
I still urged the truth upon those who
remained around, till they dispersed.

10. Returned to Kaudote to spend
the Sabbath with Ko A and his fam-
ily. Was very much gratified at the
evidence which he manifests, that the
word of God has been his study. He
has made good use since his conver-
sion of his means of improvement, aqd
here he is, I trust, n» a light shining in
a dark place. He showed me the head

Digitized by



Simnr^JMIitt ^ Rm. J. T. Jomm.


of a pythoo, which be tails me he
measured and found to be eighteen
feet ill length. The snake was kilted
nenr his house in a halite with h coin-
pHiiy ol'pigtt, and being Hoinething of a
doctor, Ku A had secured its iiver as
a very powerful remedy in case of de-
liriuniL Not long ago in the same
neighborhood, a still larger python
was torn in pieces in an encounter
with a tiger.

Kftndote — Slow of heart to believe — A con-

11. Sabbath. At worship none of
the unconverted members of the family
present, except Moung Knlah's wife.
After worship led into conversation
the elder daughter of Ko A and her
husband, who had come in. They lis-
tened respectfully and without oppo-
sition, yet by no means showing any
willingness lo receive the truth. In
this conversation 1 could not but feel
the power of unbelief as manifested in
them as being in truth the great ob-
stacle to the conversion of this peo-
ple. »• Where is your God?" is a
question so constantly asked by them,
that 1 frequently have recourse to the
account of the giving of the taw from
Sinai, and the numberless instances of
€rod*s manifesting himself in various
ways to his chosen people of old, and
at length sending his Son into the
world to enlighten men : — hoping by
such facts to show them, if possible,
that we have substantial reasons for
believing in God, although we see him

After retiring to our boat for an un-
disturbed season of prayer and con-
ference, when we enjoyed a pleasant
meeting as we in succession poured
out our hearts in supplication to God
in behalf of our brother's family, the
people of this village and the whole
country, we returned to Ko A.'s. We
passed the evening, as yesterday, in de-
votional exercises and religious conver-
sation, particularly with respect to the
prospects of Christianity in this coun-
try, not only in view of the promises
of God, but also of its past history
under our own observation. And
while I am now writing, a Chrbtian
Bong, in the tune of Hebron, falls
sweetly on my ear, while the voice of
Moung Kalah, in low tones of prayer
on retiring to rest, has just died away.
These are pleasant things to be passing
in a house but a few years since en-
veloped in the thick gloom of heathen-
ism. Here just over my cot, id a cod«

apiaupps plaoe appanited Ant It, bMf^i
the lamp of life, the blessed familf
bible. And here, too, an altar is erecl-
ed, on which daily oflftsrings of praise,
thanksgiving ai»d prayer are presented
to the God of heaven. Gooil it is to
hope that ere long a church will here
be gathered, and the minislratioa of the
word be statedly enjoyed. The Lord
has given us a stable man in Ko A to
be the beginning of a church. Maf
the iitde one become a thousand !
(Ta ba eoolmaed.)

SiAM.— Iistter a/ Rn. J. T. J&nes.

Climate and temperature of Bangkok.

Mr. Jones wrilM April IS :*—

Some documents have just fallen in
my way which lead me to state a few
facts in regard to the climate and tem-
perature of this country. Tables were
prepared from records kept by the late
lamented br. Caswell, which show that
the mean temperature at this place for
eight years, commencing January,
1840, and ending December, M7, has
been 81®, 14' of Fahrenheit The ex-
tremes of temperature duringthat pe-
riod have been 54** to 97°. The days
in which the mercury has risen to 97**
have been very few, and so also have
the days been few in which it has
fallen as low as 54°. April is usually
the hottest month, January the coldest.
The greatest daily range has been 24° ;
the greatest average daily range 16^ ;
and the least range 1°.

It is generally said that we have two
seasons, the dry and rainy, — the latter
conmiencing in May and terminating
in October, and the former embracing
the remaining months of the year.
But a record kept for five years, 1840-
45, shows that only one month in all
that period passed without rain. There
were six mouths in which rain fedl
only once during the month. In one
month it rained on twenty-five days, —
one month twenty-three days, — four
months in which it rained twenty-one,
and in all the other months a smaller
number of days; shewing that in more
than half of the days in what is called
the rainy season, there was no rain
whatever. On those days in which
rain fell, it seldom fell continuously
through the day and nighL

From January, 1845, to December,
*47, the greatest amount of rain in any
month, m inches, was in September,

Digitized by



iSlbtMm#e Miimn.'^liiUtr o/ Jim. M*. Mmker.


1845, ¥18^ 16.6a TiM whole amouBt
was, IB




It must be remembered we have no
0OOW8. The above shows all the
Qfioisture we receive from the atmos-
phere except what fulls io dews.
These are sometimes copious, but seD-
erally oot so. When the atmosphere
18 saturated with moisture, we have not
tiie same means of protection from it
as io America. Our houses admit it
freely ; but we never, or seldom, expe-
rience the same inconvenience from it
as iu almost all other eastern coun-
tries and tropical climes generally.
During a space of more than fifteen
years, 1 have only suffered two or three
times from my clothing gathering un-
comfortable moisture, while this incon-
veuience is largely experienced iu
China, Singapore, Burmuh, Calcutta,
Bombay, £c. Jn all those places
metals corrode, and the glue and paste
of book covers dissolve thrice quicker
than they do in Slum.

Does this difference result from their
proxiniity to salt water and sea air, - -
and our removal from them? Or is
the atmosphere really dryer here than
in those places ?

Jt is a fact that pulmonary com-
plaints are very unusual, if not wholly
uukoown here, unless brovght here ; —
and some brought here have evidently
been greatly relieved by a residence
here. Death reigns here as in other
countries. Natives die; foreigners die,
—but among the foreign missionaries,
I have not known one death which
could properly be said to have been
occasioned by any thiog peatileroua in
the climate.

Excessive labor and the heat of the
eliBMite will neceasarily debilitate the
system and predispose it for disease,
and in such circumstances disease will
su|)ervene in any climate. Give u$
man mm and they will live longer.

We hope to welcome br. Smith soon.
We have heard of his arrival in China,
but too late to come by any vessel di«
nect. He will be obliged to go to

P. S. The diuurbance among the
Chinese here was a serious thing to
many of them, but its effect on the
country generally was little more than
the apprehension of a gang of gamblers
at home. In a few days every thing
subsided into the usual routine.

If br. Goddard does not return, (and
we now see no prospect of it,) you will
perceive our tcrgeni, imperative claim
lor two men from America immedi-
ately. The field, if entered at once,
furnishes all the prospects of extended
usefiilness that reasonable men could

Sbawanox Missioir. — Letter qf Rev*
Mr. Meeker,

Devutatioos of cholera.
Mr. Meeker writes from Ottawa, Aag.
16, 1849 :—

The cholera has been among all the
tribes around us for two or three
months past, and many cases in each
tribe have proved fatal. Quite a num-
ber of the Ottawas have had the pre-
monitory symptoms, but all have re-
covered. On the 8th inst., while among
the Sacs and Foxes, fifteen miles from
us, one of their chiefs informed me
that he had just the day before return-
ed from a buflTulo hunt 200 miles west
of us, — that while hunting, the cholera
attacked them, — that in the course of
a day or two between twenty and thir-
ty died, — that fearing they all (some
^000 in number) would take the dis-
ease and die, they left the dead un-
buried, and the dying, or those unable
to travel, and fied, — that when others
became cramped and unable to ride,
the well, keeping themselves on the
windward side of the sick, so as not to
inhale their breath, left sometl/ing for
the sick to eat, and tied a horse, saying
to the sick, ^ If you get well, you can
untie your horse and ride home; if
you die, by and by your horse will
starve to death, whose soul you can
then ride to the world of spirits.''
'* Thus," said the chief, "^ men left their
brothers, their wives, and their chil-
dren, to die." I learn from the Otta-
was that many more of the Sacs and
Foxes have since died. The Kansas,
fifty miles west of us^ have lost about
100 within a few days past. Great
numbers are dying among the Paw-
nees, Otoes, Osages, and the wilder
tribes of the Rocky Mountains.

Religiooa ttate of Ottawa station.
There is nothing of special inter-
est, at present, among the Ottawas.
They are becoming every year more
and more civilized, and are endeavor-
ing to imiute the whites, io-dooni
and out, in every respeot. A spirit of

Digitized by



ShawwM^ .Mi$mn.^LtiUn qf Mr. PnM.


worldly-miodedDess seems to be in-
creasing in the church. The merobers
are strictly moral, they conscientiously
refrain from working on the Sabhath,
attend the Sabbath meetings, keep up
family prayer, &c., but use very little
effort for the good of souls. All seem
to be aware of their slumbering con-
dition, and confess that they are out of
the way ; but seem destitute of any
stimulus to arise. Open opposition to
the preaching of the gospel and to
other religious etTorts among the Otta-
was has died away. Backsliders ad-
mit that religion is necessary, that they
are in a lost condition, that they desire
to repent and reform, but remain at a
distance. Nearly every man and wo-
man in the nation lay aeide their em-
ployments on the Sabbath, have be-
come strictly temperate, industrious,
honest and moral. We sometimes fear
that American Christians, while pray-
ing for the heathen, forget the abo-
rigines of their happy country, and the
missionaries who are laboring among
them. Brethren, pray for us.

Obituary notice of Ah-sho-wis-ta.

Ah-sho-wis-sa died of consumption
a few days ago, between fidy and
sixty years of age. He was not a
chief, but the speaker of the nation,—
a man of influence and of decision.
At their last treaty with the United
States, in 18-*)3, on the Maumee river
of Lake Erie, Ah-sho-wis-sa, seeing
that his chiefs and head men were
about to yield to the wishes of the
United States Commissioners, arose
and declared to the Ottawa nation that
he would kill the first Ottawa who
should put his name to the treaty.
AH being afraid of him, the treaty was
postponed. On the next day they suc-
ceeded in making him drunk, and sold
the last foot of land they owned east of
the Mississippi. Finding, when he
became sober, that the land was gone,
be abandoned his intention of killing
any one. In 1888 he removed to this
country, a violent enemy to the white
man. He and his party settled at the
extreme corner of their land farthest
from us.

Soon after their arrival, the Ottawa
brethren commenced laboring with
him, spending whole nights arguing in
favor of Christianity. As soon as his
opposition began somewhat to yield,
I commenced my visits. Afler spend-
ing two or three nights with him, the
Lord opened his eyes. He saw that
he was a sinner. The first time be

ever knelt for prqyer wms near the
hour of midnight, when he and 1 were
alone before God. The next time I
visited him he was a praying man;
soon afler which he was baptized, and
united with God's people. He now,
thirsting afler religious knowledge, de-
sired to be taught to read. After pur-
chasing for him a pair of spectacles, I
taught him the Ottawa alphabet He
soon, by perseverance, read fluently in
the Ottawa translations, learned to
write and cipher, kept his own ac-
counts, and corresponded frequently
with me and others by writing. While
on his deHth-bed, I occasionally visited
him; (generally found his scripture
translations on his pillow; his mind
was unchangeably calm. He mani-
fested the most perfect resignation to
the will of God, but expressed fears
that he sinned by his irrei^isiible de-
sires to depart and be with Christ A
few days before he died he sent for
me,— said he disliked to appear before
God with any earthly debts hanging to
his name, and gave me money enough
to pay every cent he owed on earth ;
then wished me to talk and sing and
pray with him, while tears of gratitude
and joy followed each other down his
cheeks. When taking each other by
the hand for the last time, we talked
freely to each other of the joys we
should fbel in our Fathers house at
our next meeting. Such scenes as
these are enough to compensate the
missionary for ail his toils.

LeUen of Mr. PralL

SickiiaM at Delaware station.
Writbg from Delaware, Aog. 20, Mr.
Pratt says : —

It is with gratitude to the Beatower
of all good we are able to communi-
cate the continuance of our lives, and
the peaceful condition of the affairs of
the mission. We have passed through
the season of darkness mercifully pre-
served. The fatal disease not only
hovered in our neighborhood, but en-
tered our dwelling. Each of us in
turn was shaken with symptoms of
cholera. I was twice- attacked by ihe
disease, br. Charles Johnnycake twice,
both of us severely ; but by the timely
use of remedies we were relieved, and
are now, though very weak, able to be
about, attending to light duties. Miss
Morse and Mrs. Pratt have both beea

Digitized by



StoMMM MMmL^fiOkr^ i^Mr. FnO.


sick, but Bm now improvipg. Of ne-i

cessity we at length dieniiased the
school for a season, and the children
are ail at present in health. Eight
Delawares have died of the disease;
many were sick ; nearly all forsook
their dwellings and fled into tlie in-
terior of their country, to avoid contact
with the whites, from whom they ex*
pected to take iL

Protracted meeting — General improTemenL
Mr. Pratt writes again Sept. 4 : —

We have just closed a meeting of
much interest. It had continued three
chiys, and was quite numerously at-
tended, there being between 300 and
400 persons present. What was pe-
culiarly encouraging was the presence
of several of the leading men of the
station, among them the principal
chief, who came on the first and re-
mained until the last day. The meet^
ing was a quiet one, free from noise
and confusion; at its close three in-
teresting young persons, one man and
two women, were baptized.

Every thing connected with this re-
ligious occasion affords high satisfac-

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