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with undoubted species is not sufficiently obvious to admit of
their being discarded. Of 3 species, radiata, supposed to be a
native of Corea ; crenulata, of the Canaries ; and dilatata, of Co-
quimbo, or the Strait of Magellan, the habitats are not well
authenticated, and appear to me to be doubtful. Of the habitats
of the remaining 41 species there is no manner of doubt ; but of
two of these the specific value is open to criticism — •physema and
capsula. There remaiu, then, 39 species of which the subgenus
(founded on the structurei)f the apophysis) and the habitat may
be relied on«

13*



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188 Mr. L. Ecevc on the Hktory, Synonymy , and

DiSTEIBITTION OP SpECIES IN PeOVINCES.

Eastern Hemisphere.



I. North European Protinee.

Waldheimia cranium.

tepti^ra.

Terebratulina caput-serpentis.
Terebratella Labradorensis.

— Spitzbergeiuis.

II. LusUanian Province.

Terebratula vitrea.
Terebratulina caput-serpentis.
Megerlia truncata.
Morrisia anomioides.
Davidsoni.

— lunifera.
Argiope decoUata.
cuneata.

— — - Neapolitana.

— cistellula.
Tbecidea Mediterranea.

III. North Asiatic Province,

Waldbeimia Grayi.
Terebratulina Japonica.



Terebratulina abyssicola.
Terebratella Coreanica.

IV. Indo'Pacific Province,

Waldheimia picta.
Terebratulina Cumingii.
Terebratella sanguiuea.

V. AustralO'Zealandic Province,

Waldheimia flavescens.

— lenticularis.
Terebratella cruenta.
rubella.

rubicunda.

Magas Yalenciennesii.
Bouchardia fibula.

Cumingii.

Kraussia Lamarckiana.

VI. South African Province,

Kraussia rubra.

— cognata.
-^— pisum.

— Deshayesii.



Western Hemisphere,
VII. Magellanic Province. IX. Brazilian Province.



Terebratula uva.
Terebratella Magellanica.

VIII. Panamic Province.

Terebratula uva.
Waldheimia globosa.



Bouchardia tulipa.

X. North American Province.
Terebratulina caput-serpentis.



Distribution op Suboeneric Types.

Terebratula. — Lusitanian, Magellanic, and Panamic provinces.
Waldheimia. — North European, North Asiatic, Indo-Pacific, Australo-

Zealandic, and Panamic provinces.
TerebratuUna. — North European, Lusitanian, North Asiatic, Indo-Pacific,

and North American provinces.
Terebratella. ^^orth European, North Asiatic, Indo-Pacific, Australo-

Zealandic, and Magellanic provinces.
Magas. — Australo-Zealandic province.
Bouchardia. — Australo-Zealandic and Brazilian pronnces.
Megerlia. — Lusitanian province.

Kraussia. — Australo-Zealandic and South African provinces.
Morrisia. — Lusitanian province.
Argiope. — Lusitanian and Celtic provinces. **
Tlicidea. — Lusitanian province. '



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Geographical Distribution of the Terebratolse. 189

Summary,

1. Of the thirty-nine species cited in the foregoing analysis,
thirty-five belong to the Old World, only four to the New.
None of the species are common to both, with the single excep-
tion of Terebratulina caput-serpentis of the North European and
Lusitanian provinces, which ranges in a modified form (T. sep"
tentrionalis, Couthouy) to the eastern shores of North America.
Two species of Terebratula have been described by Dr. Gk>ald
in Wilkes's 'Exploring Expedition' (T. cawrina and pulvinata),
from Fuget Sound, Oregon; but I have not seen them.

2. The distribution of subgenera illustrates a few characteristic
centres of creation. Megerlia, Morrisia, Argiope, and Thecidea,
all have their homes in the Lusitanian province, — one species
only, Argiope cistellula, passing into the Celtic province, which
has no centre of specific creation of its own. Kraussia has its
home in the South African province, embracing four species.
A fifth species, K. Lamarcktanaj is found in the Australo-
Zealandic province; but the apophysis, on which the subgenus
is founded, is abnormal in its structure.

3. Of subgeneric types widely removed, Bouchardia presents
curious instances. B, tulipa, a solitary species on the shores
of Brazil, is undoubtedly identical in type with B. fibula and
Cumingii, which are natives of Australia and New Zealand,
though no faunas of any two provinces can be more generally
dissimilar. The same may be said of Waldhdmia and Terebra^
iella ; but these subgenera are more abundant in species and in-
dividuals, distributed in local centres of creation of more vary-
ing specific character.

4. Of specific types widely removed, a notable instance is
presented in Waldheimia globosa of California, and JV. lenticu^
larisy a native of New Zealand. Not only are these very remote
species of the same specific type, but the difference of their
specific details is scarcely appreciable.

5. The most characteristic assemblages of species are those
of Terebratulina in the North European and North Asiatic pro-
vinces, of Waldheimia in the Fanamic, of Terebraiella in the
Magellanic, and of Morrisia and Argiope in the Lusitanian
province.

6. Species are fewest within the Tropics. The Indo-Pacific
province, which extends from Australia to Japan, and from the
Ked Sea and east coast of Africa to Easter Island in the Pa-
cific, embracing three-fifths of the circumference of the globe
and forty.five degrees of latitude, yields only three species —
Waldheimia picta, Terebratulina Cumingii, and Terebraiella san-
guinea-, and of the first two, very few individuals are known.

7. Species, with few exceptions, are very local. The excep-



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190 Dr. A. Gunther on ike Immature State

tions are Terebratulina caput-serpentis, which ranges, as already
noticed, from the Arctic to the Mediterranean Seas and to the
seas of North America, and is very closely represented in the
North Asiatic provinces by T. Japonica and abyssicola. Another
exception to the local distribution of species is presented in Wald^
hemia picta, which is found both at Java and at the Friendly
Islands. A third exception is one of similar character : Tere»
brateUa eanguinea inhabits both the Philippine and Sandwich
Islands. And a fourth exception occurs in Terebraitila uva,
collected originally at Guatemala, but of which small specimens,
in the British Museum and in Mr. Cummg's collections, have
been received from the Falkland Islands.

8. Lastly, the Australo-Zealandic province may be noticed
as being the most prolific of forms and brilUancy of colour ; but
all the subgenera of this province, with the exception of Magas,
have species, though not the same, in other provinces.



XXI. — On the Immature State of the Sea-devil (Lophius piscato*
rius). By Dr. Albert Gunther.

[Plate X. figs. C-E.]

SiCAix specimens of the European species of the Fishing-Frog
or Sea-devil are extremely scarce in collections, and scarcely any
attention has been paid to the remarkable changes in the form
of the body and fins to which this fish is subject with age.
Valenciennes is the only author who enters upon the subject at
all: he says (Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xii. p. 375), "The
specimen examined is 2 inches long ; the disk of its head is only
one-third of the total length ; and the pectoral fins, which are
as long as the head, appear to be more elongate than in old
individuals. The same is the case with the tail, measured
from the gill-opening. It appears to have a greater number of
tentacles on the skin, especially on the pectorals ; the margin
of the pectorals appears to be finely ciliated. D. 11.*' The
difierences from old individuals, as we find them stated here
by Valenciennes, agree in the chief points with our observations;
but it is evident that Valenciennes took his notes from a muti-
lated specimen, in which the delicate appendages of the fins had
been lost or shrivelled up, either previously to or during its
preservation in spirits.

The two specimens observed by Diiben and Koren on the
western coast of Norway were much more perfect ; they were
94 mm. and 78 mm. long, and exhibited such remarkable dif-
ferences from the specimens commonly observed, that those
naturalists were induced to describe them as a new form^ under



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of the SeO'devil (Lopliias piscatorius). 191

the name of Lophiua eurypterus (Vet. Akad. Handl. 1844^ p. 63^
tab. 8. figs. 1-3)^ a species which we find adopted by Professor
Nilsson in his work ^ Skandinavisk Fauna/ iv. Fisk. p. 251.

The books referred to being written in Swedish and not easily
accessible^ we give a copy of the figures (figs. C and D), from which
it will at once be seen (and this is a point of importance) that the
view of the fish represented is the most depressed one possible.
In consequence of this, the lateral view shows only a portion of
the pectoral fin, the other being retracted below the abdomen ;
and moreover, the portion shown is scarcely intelligible if com-
pared with the view given from above. The ventral fin is ex-
panded and carried forward.

I extract the following notes from the very detailed descriptions.

The head is described as broader than long, less depressed
than in Lophius piscatorius, — its length (from the extremity of
the snout to the posterior margin of the gill-cover) being one-
half of that of the remainder of the body, the caudal fin not
included. The dorsal spines are comparatively short, the length
of the first being onlv one-half of that of the second, or one-
fifteenth of the total length of the fish : the first terminates in
a transverse cylindrical knob, which is provided with minute
cilia ; the two others have alternate fringes on both sides. The
spines which form the continuous dorsal are similarly fringed ;
and the rays of the soft dorsal project very slightly beyond the
membrane. The pectoral is exceedingly broad, and extends
beyond the origin of the anal. The ventral also is broad, and
can be expanded like a fan. ''The disproportion of this fin,
however, in the two individuals observed is very remarkable;
it is nearly twice the length in the larger one that it is in the
smaller, or its length is to that of the fin of the smaller one as
5:8, relatively to the total length of the individuals. The
pectoral, also, is absolutely as well as relatively larger in this
specimen than in the one figured — a difference by which, per-
haps, the sexes are distinguished/^

During my last visit to Frankfort, Dr. Riippell showed me
several small specimens of a LophiuSy collected by himself at
Messina, which, after a careful comparison with mature ones, I
declared to be the young of L. piscatorius, in spite of their ap-
parent dissimilarity — an opinion which had been entertained by
Dr. Riippell from the time they first came into his hands. Having
since compared those specimens and the account of Diiben and
Koren with a sketch fortunately made by Dr. Riippell on the
spot, and kindly presented to me, I have now not the slightest
doubt that L. ewrypterus is identical with the Frankfort speci-
mens, and that both are the young of L. piscatorius. Every one
who has had a specimen of the Sea-devil in his hand knows the



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192 Dr. A. Oiinther on the Immature State

great mobility which the lateral parts of the head possess.
Whilst Duben and Koren preferred to figure their specimen
in the most depressed (and perhaps the most natural) position,
Dr. Biippell had his specimen compressed as much as possible^
in order to be able to show the insertion of the ventral fins
in a lateral view of the fish : this accounts for the difference
in general form. In the Mediterranean fishes, the first ray
is comparatively longer than in the Scandinavian, and termi-
nates in two compressed flaps, which, perhaps, arc only a
more developed form of the transverse cylindrical knob in L,
eurypierus. How variable the length and the shape of the
fins and of their appendages are, even in specimens of the
same size and age, is fully proved by the two Scandinavian
specimens, one of which has the ventral twice as long as the
other. Further, the anterior dorsal spine, whether it serve as a
bait to attract other fish (which is by no means improbable), or
as an organ of touch, is constantly exposed to injury from the
delicacy of its structure as well as from the peculiarity of its
function. Finding it, however, sometimes very long and fully
developed in old fishes, we cannot hesitate to assume that it
is reproduced when lost; and this appeara the more probable if
we consider that portions of the fin-rays as well as of the barbels
are reproduced in other fishes. We therefore cannot be sur-
prised^ or think it a matter of any importance, when we find the
anterior dorsal spine of different length and its tentacle of different
shape ; both are subject to an indefinite number of accidental and
individual changes, besides the constant differences by which the
young fish is distinguished from the old one. Finally, another
source of discrepancy in the descriptions and representations of
the authors named is the alteration which the fishes undergo by
their preservation in spirits : a part, or all, of the tender fila-
ments in which the rays terminate are easily lost, and the fins
themselves are considerably shrivelled up ; so that it would be
impossible to reproduce a figure of the present Frankfort speci-
mens similar to that which was made from them when they were
quite fresh. The ventral fins are still longer in the Mediterra-
nean fish than in one of the Scandinavian specimens — being,
with the filaments in which the rays terminate, as long as the
whole fish. Diiben and Koren believe that the length of the
ventrals indicates a sexual difference. I cannot shaie this opi-
I ion, which is contrary to what we observe in other fishes. If
there are external sexual differences in a species, they do not
appear before the individuals approach maturity: the young
male and female of Callionymus lyra are perfectly alike ; and the
dorsal and caudal fins begin to grow, and the bright coloure to
make their appearance^ only in male specimens of more than 6



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of the Sea-devil (Lophios piscatorios). 193

inches in length. The same is the case in that singular Cey-
lonese lizard, Ceratophora, in which the long rostral horn is a
character peculiar to the mature male. I need not mention the
numerous analogous examples in mammals and birds.

The Mediterranean and Scandinavian specimens agree in the
chief points : their head^ compared with mature individuals^ is
shorter and less depressed; the anterior dorsal spine is shorter
than the following ones, which are more fringed ; the pectoral
and ventral fins are much longer and much more expansible ;
the fin-rays are produced into delicate filaments; in short, the
young Sea-devils are provided with a down, which is lost with
age.

One objection might be raised against this opinion : — ^Young
specimens of the Asiatic species of Sea-devil [Lophhis setigerus)
exist in almost every collection, as the artful Chinese dealers in
objects of natural history dry them, and having pinned them
down, sell them as insects to the European collector. These
specimens are 2 inches or less in length; and one ought na-
turally to expect, from the close affinity of the European and
Asiatic species, that the young state of the latter would be
conformable with that of the former. Although this is not the
case (these small Chinese specimens not showing any striking
difference from larger ones), we cannot admit that this fact
contradicts our opinion as to L. eurypierus being the young
of a known species, — first, because many species which are ex-
tremely similar in a mature state are widely different from each
other in an earlier stage of development ; secondly, because it is
not fully proved that these small Chinese specimens are of an
age corresponding to that of European ones of the same size.
L, setigerus may be a smaller species than L. piscatorius; and
the Chinese dried fishes which come under our observation may
have already exceeded the age in which they show the downy
development of their fins. The largest specimen of L. setigerus
measured 2 feet, whilst L. piscatorius attains to a length of 6
feet.

There are two distinct species of Sea-devil in the European
seas — Lophius piscatorius and L. budegassa. The distinctness
of these two species has been doubted by most ichthyologists,
the second (called by Cuvier L. parvipinnis) having been founded
on apparently variable characters, as coloration and number of
the dorsal rays. The latter may be relied upon, if immature
specimens (not more than one foot in length) be examined, — L.
piscatorius having not less than eleven, and L. budegassa not
more than nine dorsal rays. But the anterior rays become very
indistinct in adult specimens of the former, and are totally lost



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194 Dr. A. Ounther on the SeO'^kvil (Lophius piscatorius).

to observation by the process of stuffing to which large speci-
mens are submitted. In consequence of this, the short-finned
Sea-devil has not been admitted as a species by Valenciennes,
Nilsson, and others, who, perhaps, never examined an individual
really belonging to it, always taking incomplete specimens of
L. piacatorius for L. budegassa. Both, however, may be readily
recognized, at any age, by the form of the humeral spine, which
has two or thr^e tooth-like processes in the former, whilst it is
smooth, simple, and lanceolate in the latter. L, budegassa does
not appear to grow to the same size as L. piscatorius.

It will be evident from these remarks, to which of the two
species we refer the L. eurypterus. Although no mention has
been made of the form of the humeral spine, the number of its
fin-rays (D. 12, A. 11) and the absence of the true L, budegassa
in the northern seas prove its identity with L, piscatorius : this
is confirmed by my examination of the specimens in the Prank-
fort Museum. Dr. Riippell's figure makes a lengthened descrip-
tion unnecessary, and I add only the following comparative
notes : —



Mature specimens.

Head much depressed, its
length being nearly one-half of
the total. The distance of the
gill-opening from the base of
the caudal is two-fifths of the
total length.

Pectorals rather stout, sub-
truncated, one-seventh of the
total length.



Ventrals rather narrow, stout
and truncated, about one-ninth
of the total length.

One or two of the dorsal rays
slightly fimbriated ; the first is
the longest, half as long as the
fish j the third shorter than the
second.



Young specimens.

Head moderately depressed,
its length being one-third of
the totaJ. The distance of the
gill-opening from the base of
the caudal is rather more than
one-half of the total length.

Pectorals very broad and
long, rounded, their length
being two-sevenths of the total ;
the middle rays produced into
long filaments.

Ventrals exceedingly broad
and long — ^with the filaments
in which several of the rays
terminate as long as the fish.

The four middle dorsal spines
with distinct tentacles; the
first is the shortest.



The Prankfort specimens are greyish above; pectoral and
ventral fins black towards the margin ; filaments black. There



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Dr. A. Giiniher on the DenHtian of Herpeton tentaculatum. 195

are several series of tentacles on the posterior side of the pec-
toral fins- D. 3/3/12. A. 10. C.8. P. 23. V.1/5.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE X.

Figs. C, D. Lophius piscatorius, young ; taken from specimens when de-
pressed ; copied from Diiben and Koreu : C, lateral view ; D^ view
fipom above.

Fig. £. Lop/dus piscatorius, young ; taken from a compressed specimen.



XXII. — On the Dentition of Herpeton tentaculatum.
By Dr. Albert Gunther.

Exactly a year ago, when describing and figuring Siamese
specimens of Herpeton tentaculatum, Lacep., I stated that '' all
the teeth are of equal size, and not one is grooved ^J' When,
therefore, I found that Prof. Jan, in the first part of his ' Icono-
graphy,' just pubUshed, which he has kindly sent me, represents
die two posterior maxillary teeth as twice the size of the anterior
ones, and both of them distinctly grooved, I was induced to re-
examine the specimens in the British Museum, to test the cor-
rectness of either of the two contradictory assertions. For this
purpose I have removed the mucous membrane from the teeth
of both specimens on both sides, thus obtaining four views of the
dentition, which fiilly confirm the correctness of my observa-
tion. There is not the slightest trace of a groove on either of
these teeth; and when Prof. Jan represents them with a groove,
he either does it on the sole authority of Uumeril, who suggests
that Herpeton might have a grooved tooth, like the other snakes
of the family of Platyrhiniens, or he has been misled by the ac-
cidental juxtaposition of a second tooth destined to replace that
in function: in this case, the two teeth which are standing
close together may appear as a single tooth with a longitudinal
groove. Yet Prof. Jan represents two teeth, each with a groove !

Now, with regard to the size, I admit that, strictly speaking,
the posterior tooth is larger than the anterior ones ; but it is,
comparatively, not larger than in species of Herpetodryas or
other so-called Isodontes, and to call that tooth twice as large
as the anterior ones would be a great exaggeration as far as re-
gards the specimens in the British Museum. We cannot assume
that the dentition is modified in different ages of this snake, as
one of the specimens examined is considerably larger, the other
much smaller than that in the Milan Museum.

These observations have been considered necessary, inasmuch
as many herpetologists will be guided by the dentition in assign-
ing to this snake its place in the system.

• Proc ZooL Soc. Feb. 14, 1860.



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196 Mr. A. Adams on the AmmaU of some MoUusca.

XXIII. — On the Animal 0/ Alycaus and some other Cydophoroid
Genera. By Arthur Adams^ F.L.S. &c.

1. AxYCiEUS.

The animal of a species of Alycaus, from the island of Mah-
lu^San^ or Port Hamilton^ in the Korean Archipelago, is semi*
opake white, with a pale orange blotch on the upper part of the
rostrum, which is caused by the buccal mass shining through
the transparent skin. The tentacles are short and gradually
tapering ; the eyes small, black, and basal ; the muzzle is rather
narrow, annulate, and strongly bilobed at the end. The flat
operculum is carried on the dorsum of the foot, midway between
the shell and the end of the tail. The chief peculiarity, however,
is the great anterior development of the body, which, when the
animal is on the move, is considerably extended^ giving it in
this respect some resemblance to a Helicina.

2. Htdrocena.

A species, from the island of Awa Sima, one of the Japa-
nese Archipelago, is of a pale brown colour. Thf muzzle is
broad and transversely strongly wrinkled; the tentacles are
cylindrical and obtuse at the ends ; the eyes are large, black,
prominent, and basal ; the foot is short, with parallel sides, and
obtuse and rounded behind. The operculum is on the back of
the foot, close to the body of the animal.

3. Pterocyclos.

The colour of a species which I discovered in the island
of Tsu-Sima, in the Korea Strait, is blackish brown, with a
lighter streak down the sides of the foot ; the tentacles and end
of the muzzle are darker than the rest of the head. The muzzle
is broad, and finely wrinkled across as in other genera of Cyclo-
phoridae ; the eyes are not prominent, but small and basal ; and
the foot is long, narrow, and tapering behind.

The chief peculiarity, however, is in the position of the oper-
culum, which, one would imagine, would be carried on the ex-
treme end of the tail, free from the shell. It is, however, borne
close to the body, and, during progression, is received into the
deep funnel-shaped umbilicus, where it is concealed and out of
the way. The locomotive powers are limited; and the animal is
easily alarmed, when it withdraws far into the shell, the apex of
the conical operculum being just level with the peritreme. I
found this species in rocky places where the vegetation was
abundant, crawling among dead leaves at the roots of trees.

4. PUPINBLLA.

A little species which I discovered at Chosan^ in the Ko-



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Mr. T. V. Wollaston on St. Vincent Cokoptera. 197

rean Peninstila^ is grey, flecked with dirty opake white. The
animal is very like that of Cyclostoma proper. The muzzle is
broad and ringed; the tentacles are cylindrical^ shorty and ob-
toae at the end. The foot is shorty and obtuse behind and in



Online LibraryMassachusetts. Board of Harbor CommissionersThe Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology → online text (page 22 of 56)