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mtemo paulo breviore, intus longe setoso, ad anicem subito et valde
inflexo incrassato et ibidem tectiformi concavo obtuso (nee uncinato).
Palpi clavati : maxillares articulo 1™** sat parvo subgracili, 2**** magno
crasso flexuoso apice clavato, 3**** paulo minore breviore, ultuno
maximo securiformi: labialss post ugulam inserti, articulo 1°^ sat
parvo flexuoso, 2^ multo crassiore subgloboso, ultimo hoc multo
majore subovali ad apicem internum oblique truncato. Mentum ro-
bustum, comeum, cordiformi-quadratum (i. e. basi facile attenuatum,
antice versus angulos anticos rotundatum et apice vix emarginatum)*
Ligula subcornea, cordata (antice profimde buoba). Pedes brevius-
culi : tibiis ad apicem externum subtruncatis, ad internum calcaratis,
anticis apicem versus inflexis latiusculis : tarsis heteromeris, subtua
valde pubescentibus.

A iivos, alienigena, et yXoios, Isevis.

In the extraordinary structure of its inner maxiUary lobe—
the apical portion of which is suddenly bent inwards (at right
angles to the basal part)^ and^ instead of being uncinate^ is much
thickened^ tectiform (or concave), and obtuse at its extremi^^—
the present genus differs from every other one with which I am
acquainted. In its robust, subcomeous, cordate ligula^ more-
over, and thick, subcordate mentum, as well as in the largely
developed securiform last joint of its maxillary palpi and the
acute and prominent humeral angles of its elytra, it is well cha-
racterized. With respect to its affinities, I will merely record
the opinion of Prof. Lacordaire, to whom I lately transmitted
for examination the unique specimen from which the above
diagnosis has been compiled. " Get insecte,^^ says he, ^' m'est in-
connu. Quant k ses affinites, elles ne sent pas douteuses ; c'ett
une Ulomide, ainsi que le prouvent la forme de sa tfite, de ses
antennes, de ses pattes, et surtout Pabsence de trochantins aux
branches interm^diaires. C^est un genre nouveau, qui repose
sur la forme g^n^rale du corps plutdt que sur aucun caracti^


Digitized by


252 Mr. T. V. WoUaston on certain Coleoptera

bien precis^ et qui me parait devoir Stre place dans le voisinage
des PeltoideSy Casteln. (Oopfe«/ti*, Chevrol.)/'

29. Xenofflceus politus, n. sp.

X. rufo-brunneus, politus ; capita subrugose punctato, ocolis antice
nigris ; protborace convexo, leviter sat parce punctuJato, ad latent
marginato et vix rotundato ; elytris profiinde (pnesertim postice
et ad latera) crenato-striatis, interstitiia minutissime remote ponc-
tulatis, antice in disco latis depressis, postice necnon ad utnimque
latns angustioribus magis elevatis ; antennis pedibusqne vix pal-

Long. Corp. lin. 2|.

A single example of tbis curious insect has been communi-
cated to me lately by the Rev. Hamlet Clark^ but without any
note as to its capture. Whether, therefore, it was taken by
himself, during his day^s sojourn at St. Vincent in December
1856, or by Mr. Gray, I am unable to ascertain.

Fam. CantharidsB.

Grenus Cantharis.

Geoffroy, Hist, des Ins. i. 339 (1764).

30. Cantharis Fryii, n. sp.

C, omnino cyanea, antennis tibiis tarsisque paulo obscurioribus et
nigrO'pubescentibus, supra fere calva ; capite protboraceque (pra-
sertim hoc) nitidis, illo confertim punctate, hoc profunde sed paree
punctato, antice attenuato, postice profunde canaliculato ; elytris
subopacis, confertissime ruguloso-granulatis, apice singulatim ro-
Long. Corp. lin. 6|.

I had at first imagined that the present Cantharis might pos-
sibly be identical with Erichson's Lytta chalybea, included in his
paper on the (supposed) Coleoptera of Angola ; but, on closer
inspection, it has a number of characters in which it apparently
differs from that species. Thus, Erichson describes the L. cha"
lybea as clothed with a dark pubescence above (whereas the C
Fryii is almost bald, and, moreover, the little pubescence which
is just traceable on the elytra is fulvescent), and as having its
elytra and abdomen alone cyaneous (the rest of the insect being
black), whilst the St. Vincent species is cyaneous altogether, the
antennae, tibiae, and tarsi being alone a little obscurer, and beset
with a short, darker pile. The prothorax, also, is stated to be
thickly punctured and obscurely channeled, whereas in the C
Fryii it is very deeply channeled, and with its punctures large
and remote. Moreover, in the Cape de Verde insect the elytra
can scarcely be called " ruguloso-;mr*c/a^fl," but rather, ruguloso-
granulata (there being hardly any indication of punctm'cs). A

Digitized by


from the Island of St. Vincent. 253

single specimen of it was captured at St. Vincent by Mr. Fry, to
whom I have much pleasure in dedicating the species.

Fam. (EdemeridsD.

Oenus DiTYLUs.

Schmidt, in Linn. Ent. i. 87 (1846).

31. Ditylm paUidus, n. sp.

D. elong^tus, cylindricus, pallido-testaceus (oculis, mandibularum
apice tibiarumque calcariis solis nigris), undique crebre punctatus
necnon longe et densissime pubescens ; oculis prominentibus ;
prothorace subcordato, subinsequali; palpis, antenms versus apicem
taraisque vix obscurioribus.

Long. corp. lin. 3-7.

The present Ditylvs is so closely related to the D. concolor of
Brulle^ from the Canaries, that, despite its much paler colour, I
had considered it at first as a mere geographical phasis of that
insect ; nevertheless, on comparing it carefully with an extensive
series of its more northern representative, I am induced to be-
lieve that we cannot safely regard it as absolutely identical with
it, though it is undoubtedly a very near ally. Thus, it is not
only of a much more pallid hue (being of a pale testaceous, and
entirely free from the beautiful orange tint which is always so
conspicuous in the D. concolor)^ but its pubescence is distinctly
longer and coarser (particularly behind), its eyes are more pro-
minent, its pronotum is somewhat less uneven, and the first
joint of its antennse is perceptibly thicker — a structure which is
very apparent at the base. The veins of its under wings, also,
are less robust ; and one or two of the minor ones, which are
easily traceable in the Canarian species, are, in the D, paUidus,
scarcely, if at all, visible. In stature it appears to be even more
inconstant, if possible, than the X). concolor; for whilst that
insect ranges from four to seven lines in length, the range of the

Iiresent is from three to seven, — :the larger examples thus abso-
atdy more than doubling in size the smaller ones! The six
specimens now before me were taken at St. Vincent, in the month
of October, " beneath trailing succulent plants,'^ by Mr. Fry.

Fam. StaphylinidsB.

Genus Isomalus.

Erichson, Gen. et Spec. Staph. 838 (1839).

32. Isomalus Hesperidum, Woll.

Iwmabu Hesperidum, Woll., Ann. of Nat. Hist. ser. 2. xx. 504 (1857).

A single example of this insect was captured at St. Vincent

by Mr. Gray during his day^s sojourn there in December 1856.

Digitized by


254 Mr. Jeffreys on Animal Life at Great Depths in the Sea.

XXIX. — On a presumed Cause of Failure in Oceanic Telegraphy ;
and on the Existence of Animal Life at Great Depths in the Sea.
By J. GwYN Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S.

To the Editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural Hisiory.


Public attention having been of late attracted to the subject
of submarine telegraphy, and especially to the causes of failure
in several of these undertakings, it may not be uninteresting to
mention some facts which have fallen under my observation.

During the recent expedition to survey the North Atlantic
Telegraph line, there was only one piece of drift-wood met with
in the Arctic Sea which showed anjr marks of having been per-
forated by marine animals; and this piece of wood has, through
the kindness of Sir Leopold M^Clintock, been submitted to my
examination* It had formed part of a fir-tree, and was picked
up by the 'Fox' on the I3th Sept. I860, off the east coast of
Greenland, in lat. 60° 54/ N., long. 41'' 58' W. It appeared to
have been much rubbed and frayed, probably bv attrition against
loose or floating ice. On making sections of this piece of wood,
I found that the perforations had been caused by a kind of
Annelid^ and that they extended to a considerable depth, although
they were of a different nature from the tunnels made by any
kind of Teredo. Having referred to the account given by the
late Sir John Boss of his ' Voyage of Discovery to the Arctic
Regions,' which was published in 1819, 1 find that in many of
the deep-sea soundings, which he so accurately recorded, living
'^ sea- worms ^' (or Annelids) occurred at depths varying from
192 to 1000 fathoms.

The inference I would draw from the fact of animal life exist-
ing at great depths in the sea (and which has been lately con-
firmed by Dr. Wallich) is, that proper precautions ought to be
taken to prevent the cable being injured, and the telegraphic
action affected, by marine animals of perforating habits. No
vegetable substance is free from their attacks; and I have
shown, in the case of the Mediterranean line, that the cable, as
well as its enclosure of gutta percha, was pierced, at a depth of
between 60 and 70 fathoms, by the Xylophaga dorsalis. I think
a sheathing of copper, or of any other metal which is not liable
to oxidation, would effectually prevent any such injury, and not
interfere with the flexibility of the cable.

I may take this opportunity of remarking, in justice to the
memory of the gallant officer to whose explorations I have above
referred, that by means of his " deep-sea clamm ^' he succeeded
in taking up and bringing to the surface considerable quantitks

Digitized by


Mr. J. Mien on the Bignoniaoenu 356

of stones and mud (as much as 6 lbs. at a time) from the sea-
bottom at great depUis ; and that he says (vol. i. p. 251)^ on one
occasion " Somidings were obtained correctly in 1000 fathoms^
consisting of soft mud, in which there were worms; and en*
tangled on the sounding-line^ at the depth of 800 fietthomSj was
found a beautiful Caput-MedustB.^^ This specimen was described
by the late Dn Leach^ in the Appendix to Sir John Boss's work^
under the name of Gcrgonocephalus arcticus, and it is still to be
seen in the British Museum. It appears to have measured no
less than 2 feet in length when fdiy expanded. In the same
work Sir John Boss also says (vol. ii. p. 5)^ '^ When the Une
came up^ a small Star-fish was found attached to it^ below the
point marking 800 fathoms.^' The sea was then a dead calm^
and the line became perfectly perpendicular. Animals of a
higher degree of organization (such as Mollusca and Crustacea)
were also procured by Sir John Boss^ during the same expedi-
tion, at rather less depths, in Baffin's Bay. Dr. Wallich was, of
course, not aware of his supposed discovery having been thus
anticipated more than forty years ago. Sir James Boss's ac-
count of his antarctic voyage of discoverv should also be con-
sulted by those who take an interest in this subject with respect
to the results of his deep-sea dredging.

I remain, Gentlemen,

Your faithful Servant,
25 Devonshire Place, Portland Place. J. GwTN JEPraSTS.

March 12, 1861. .

XXX. — Observations on the Bignoniacese.
By John Mibrs, F.B.S., F.L.S. &c.

[Continued from p. 168.]

The group of the CrescentiacecR merits observation in this in-
quiry : it was considered by Jussieu, Endlicher, and DeCandoUe
to be a tribe of the Bignoniacece, Gardner first proposed it as a
distinct family, which view was adopted by Prof. Lindley ; and
lately Dr. SeemanD has supported this opinion. DeCandolle
divided it into two sections — ^tne Tanaeciea, possessing a bilocular
ovary, and the Crescentiea, a 1-celled ovary — ^all being distin-
guished from the Bignoniea by their indehiscent fruit and
apterous seeds. Dr. Seemann, in maintaining its claims to rank
as a distinct family, also separates it into two sections under the
same names*; but he simply distinguishes the Tanaeciea by a
persistent, and the Crescentiea by a deciduous calyx ; and he
affirms, contrary to the statements of preceding botanists, that

* Bot. Herald, 181 ; Proc linn. Soc iL 269.

Digitized by


256 Mr. J. Miers on the Bignoniacese.

all alike possess at an early stage a unilocular ovary with pa-
rietal placentations, the fruit becoming bilocular by the subse-
quent enlargement and confluence of the placentse : this view
is not confirmed by the analyses I have been able to make^ and,
as regards the Tanaeciea, is not supported by the evidence on
record, which 1 here reproduce.

First, as respects Colea, the several details of C. Mauritanica
(Bot. Mag. tab. 2817), of C. Telfairii {ib. tab. 2976)*, and of
C.ftoribunda (Bot. Reg. v. 27, tab. 19), all prove most distinctly
the presence of a broad membranaceous wing around the seeds,
as in Bignonia ; and the capsules, though covered by a some-
what fleshy epicarp, indicate, by well-marked grooves, the sutural
lines of their dehiscence into two valves. Prof. Lindley has
remarked that no instance is known of the existence of winged
seeds in indehiscent pericarps ; for as the function of the wing
of the seed is to carry it from a height to a long distance by the
force of the wind, this object could not be effected were the fruit
indehiscent. Colea, with its winged seeds in a 2-valved capsule,
and its ecirrhosc pinnated leaves, may probably find its place
near Tecoma, among the Catalpea; but if, as Sir Wm. Hooker
states, the valves of its capsule be parallel to the dissepiment, it
must belong to the Bignoniea, In regard to the stnicture of
the ovaiy in Colea, Prof. A. DeCandolle found it to be distinctly
bilocular. We have not as yet sufficient knowledge of the struc-
ture oiPhyllarthron and Periblema to enable us to judge of their
true position : in the latter the ovary is bilocular, with only two
ascending ovules in each cell, attached to the dissepiment, and
the calyx is enclosed in a tubular ventricose 4-fid involucre,
which characters, as Prof. DeCandolle remarks, are quite foreign
to the order. Of Phyllarthron very little is known. Even in re-
gard to Tanaecium, our information concerning the structure of
the ovary, fruit, and seed, as far as has been heretofore known,
has not been sufficiently positive. The genus was established
by Swartz upon two species so dissimilar in floral organization,
in the size and form of the fruit, in their habit, and in the shape
of their leaves, that he classed them together with great doubt.
DeCandolle and other succeeding botanists have not attempted
to disassociate them ; but when another species, closely allied to
T. parasiticum, was first described by Miquel, he made it the
type of a new genus, calling it Schlegelia lilacina. Prof. De-
Candolle, however, expresses a doubt whether it be sufficiently
different from Tanaecium to claim a generic distinction: this
remark is true as respects T, parasiticum, which is certainly con-
generic with it. Now, if we compare the drawings of Swartz of

* If the presence of a wing on the seed of C. Telfairii be questioned,
there can be no doubt of its existence in C.floribunda,

Digitized by


Mr. J. Miers on the Bignoniacese. 257

his T. albiflorum (Fl. Ind. Occid. tab. 20) and of T. crucigerum
(Plum. Am. tab. 254), on the one hand, with T. parasiticum
(Sw. icon, cit.) and with jP. {Schlegelia) lilacinum, Miq. (AubK
Guian. tab. 254), on the other, no one can doubt that the two
former species are generically distinct from the two latter. In
the former group the plants are scandent, their leaves conjugate^
with a long cirrhus, as in Bignonia ; the calyx is green, long,
and tubular ; the corolla is white, pubescent within and without,
with a very narrow hypocrateriform tube, of unusual length (6 or
7 inches), with an undulately crispate 5-lobed border ; the sta-
mens and style (of great length) are exserted j the anther-lobes
are linear, widely divaricated, with a terminal excurrent connec-
tive ; the fruit is very large, oblong, often a foot in length; and
the seeds are large, broad, compressed, and not imbedded in pulp.
In the latter group the stem is radicant ; the leaves arc quite
simple, as in many of the Catalpea ; the calyx is coloured, short,
and globosely campanulate ; the corolla is deep violet or purple,
quite glabrous, scarcely more than | inch long, much swollen
and ventricose above a short basal constriction, with an oblique
bilabiate border, the upper lip of which is erect, bifid, scarcely
cleft to the base, and the lower lip is trifid, reflected, with the
middle lobe considerably the largest, apd enveloping all the
others in aestivation ; stamens and style only half the length of
the short corolla, and of course included ; anthers very small,
ovate, white, with nearly parallel lobes ; fruit globose, only J inch
diameter in one species, and not more than \ inch in the other,
with projecting seminiferous placentae, rendering it falsely 2-
locular, as in Kigelia, and containing numerous minute, angular,
oblong seeds enveloped in pulp. These characters are severally
as opposite as possible, rendering it evident that Schlegelia is not
only generically distinct from Tanaecium, but appertains to a
diflFerent family. The former genus manifestly belongs to CreS'
centiacetB, while Tanaecium will probably find its place near Ade-
nocalymna in Bignonieay because it possesses a similar habit, has
the same kpd of cylindrical elongated fruit, as we have seen
(p. 167), and its seeds are, in like manner, large, apterous, and
closely packed together, without intervening pulp.

The remaining genus, Parmentiera, placed by DeCandoUe near
Tanaecium on account of its bilocular ovary and indehiscent
fruit, is referred to his tribe Crescentiea by Dr. Seemann, who,
in detailing its generic character, affirms that the ovary is at
first unilocular, but that by the enlargement of the placentae it
becomes 2-4-locular in the fruit * ; but he nowhere states that
he had examined the ovary or had witnessed the organization
just mentioned, and we may infer that he copied this character
* Hook. Kew Joum. Bot. ix. 82.

Digitized by


258 Mr. J. Mien on the BignoniacesB.

from DeCandoUe's aocoont of the fruit of P. edidis, a description
framed entirely upon the drawing and descriptions of Mocino
and Hernandez. It is to be regretted that in the excellent
drawing of Parmentiera cerifera (Bot. Herald^ pi. 32), no figure
of the structure of the ovary is given ; but it will be there seen
how remarkably that plant agrees in the peculiar shape of the
spathaceous calyx and the form of the corolla with Spathodea,
and scarcely less so in the shape of its cylindrical siliquose fruit^
which^ according to that drawing, is evidently 2-valvular, with
numerous small apterous seeds, not enveloped in pulp, but fixed
to a greatly enlarged central dissepiment that nearly fills the
whole space within the valves, precisely as in the genus last
mentioned and in Siereospermum. Dr. Seemann mentions that
the fruits of P. cerifera are given as food to cattle, when mixed
with Guinea-grass and a kind of sweet potato, but does not say
which part of the fruit is eaten : this probably is the pericarpitu
or valvular covering, which he defines as a "fructus camosus"
similar to that of P. edtUis, described as being baccate and fleshy
like a cucumber, which it resembles in form : this agrees with the
fruit of Spathodea campanulata, which again offers much analogy
in its internal structure with that o{ Parmentiera cerifera^ whose
fruit is said by Dr. Seemann to be " eptdposa^'^ — its seeds, like
small lentils, being figured as seated around the greatly enlarged
dissepiment, within the small annular space left between it and
the pericarpial covering. If, therefore, Parmentiera be found to
have a bilocular ovary with numerous ovules upon the dissepi-
ment, the genus ought at once to be consigned to the BignO'
niacea; indeed its characters appear wholly at variance with the
CrescentiacetB, As its species form upright trees, it probably
belongs to the tribe Catdpece, and will find its place near 8p<i-
thodea (where DeCandolle was originally disposed to fix it), there
being a very close approximation in the form and structure of
the fruit in Parmentiera^ Spathodea, and Stereospermum. Dr.
Seemann considers that the growth of the flowers upon its trunk
indicates its affinity with Crescentia; but we find the same mode
of floral development in Colea, and I have occasionalTy witnessed
the same in some species of Tecoma, where racemes grow out of
the old leafless axils of the stems.

If these exclusions be adopted, the Crescentiacea would be
reduced to three genera, having for their characters an indehis-
cent fi^iit and apterous seeds imbedded in pulp, this last being
the chief distinguishing feature. These genera are Crescentia,
Kigelia, and Schleffelia; for Dr. Seemann affirms that TYipimunria
belongs to Kigelia, The structure of the ovary in these genera
appears in no way different from that of the Eccremocarpea ; that
is to say, it is unilocular, with two opposite longitudinal parietal

Digitized by


Mr. J. Mien om the Bignoniaceee* 259

placentse; bat a distinction is manifested in the subsequent de-
velopment ; so that^ in examining the fruit, we must bear in mind
the previous structure of the ovary. The want of materials has
prevented me from investigating this subject. I have been able
to examine only a single ovary of Crescentia, which was partly
injured by caries; but this satisfied me that it had only two
parietal pkcentse. Kigelia I found similarly constructed, and not
bilocular, with ovules borne on the centre of the dissepiment, as
is represented in Delessert^s ^ Icones/ v. tab. 93 b. fig. 8 : the
appearance there shown is the result of the touching of the op*
posite projecting placentse, which, in the younger state of the
ovary, and even after the fall of the corolla, I have found sepa-
rated by a long interval. In Schlegelia I have also verified the
same structure. In regard to the fruit of Crescentia, the details
of Gaertner are precise, are illustrated by good figures *, and
appear worthy of full confidence : it is circular in its transverse
section j its indehiscent shell, though thin in substance, is hard
and somewhat ligneous, marked externally and internally by
four equidistant longitudinal ridges, the cavity being filled with
a soft pulp, in which the seeds are imbedded. The description
of Gardnert, in regard to the fruit, is similar ; but he gives a
very different account of the ovary, which he says is " 1-celled,
with four fleshy parietal polyspermous placentse placed one on
each half of the pericarpial leaves, and at equal distances from
each other.^' There appears some error in this statement ; for it
is contradicted in his account of the fruit, which states, " peri-
carp woody, consisting of two indehiscent carpels placed anterior
and posterior to the axis of inflorescence.^' Of the existence of
two opposite placentse there can be no doubt ; the two inter-
vening prominent lines, in the case which I observed, were bare
of ovules, and seemed to arise from the line of junction of the
thickened sterile margins of the normal carpels, similar to what
I observed in the ovaria of Kigelia and ScJdegelia : at first sight
these seem to have four lines of placentation ; but a more careful
observation shows the presence of two only. If this view of the
structure of the ovary in the CrescentiacetB be correct, it will be
represented as in fig. 16, that is to sajr, of two carpels pig. le.
placed face to face, which are placentiferous on their
midribs and conjoined by their sterile margins, a
structure that will be seen to correspond with the
EccremocarpecB (fig. 14), differing only m the greater
thickening of the margins of the carpels. It remains to
be ascertained whether the pulp of the fruit in these genera results
from a secretion formed at the internal surface of the ovary, or

* De Froct iii. 230. tab. 223. t Hook. Joum. Bot. vu 423.

Digitized by


260 Mr. J. Miers on the Bignoniace®.

whether it arises from the existence of an ariUus round each
seed : if the latter be the case, as is very probable, it would
offer a good discriminating character between the CresceniiacM
and Biffnoniacea ; for no trace of any arillus has yet been ob-
served in the latter family ; otherwise there is little real distinc-
tion between the two orders. The floral characters in all the
Crescentiacea are similar to those of the Bignoniacea -, and there

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