Massachusetts Bureau Of Statistics Massachusetts. Bureau of Statistics of Labor.

The Annual Statistics of Manufactures 1903 online

. (page 20 of 23)
Online LibraryMassachusetts Bureau Of Statistics Massachusetts. Bureau of Statistics of LaborThe Annual Statistics of Manufactures 1903 → online text (page 20 of 23)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


sex or age. On this basis we find that in the 4,740 establish-
ments the average amount earned by each man, woman, and
child in 1898, was $419.91, and in 1899, $427.71, an increase
in the latter as compared with the former year of $7.80, or
1.86 per cent. Reproducing the figures for the nine leading
industries we secure the following table :



INDUSTBISS.



Number of

Estab-
lishments
Con-
sidered



Boots and shoes,
Carpetings, ....
Cotton goods.
Leather, ....
Machines and machinery, .
Metals and metallic goods.
Paper,



12
168

96
368
893

80



AVBIUOK
TSABLT EABNIKOS



$460.10
340.69
322.99
466.22
660.64
606.76
423.08



$460.04
373.06
331.92
470.42
664.27
610.89
431.19



INOBSASB IN 1800



Amounts



$8.94
32.37
8.98
6.20
8.73
6.14
8.11



Percent-
ages



1.94
9.60
2.76
1.11
0.68
1.02
1.92



Digitized



by Google



136 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. [Pub. Doc.



1NDU8TBU8.



Woollen goods, ,
Worsted goods, ,

Nine industries, ,
Other industries,
All industries, ,



Kamberof
Estab-

Usbments

€k>n-

sidered



138
34

1,957
2,783
4,740



Atebage

YSABLT EABNINaS



$370.73
361.09

400.78
455.49
419.91



$374.92
362.76

410.21
460.37
427.71



iNCBBAflB IN 1899



Amounts



$4.19
1.06

9.43

4.88
7.80



Percent-
ages



1.13
0.29

2.35
1.07
1.86



Each of the nine leading industries shows an increase rang-
ing from $1.06 in Worsted Goods to $32.37 in Carpetings.
Referring to page 49 of the Industrial Chronology we find
that there were the following reported instances of increase in
the rate of wages paid in 1899 :

Boots and Shoes, 50

Carpetings, 1

Cotton Goods, 175

Machines and Machinery, 2

Metals and Metallic Goods, 10

Woollen Goods, 11

Worsted Goods, 4

Average yearly earnings should not be considered as indica-
tive of the rate of wages. The apparent increase or decrease
in average yearly earnings while to a certain extent indicative
of the fluctuationis in employment, has but limited significance
when considered alone, as many conditions aflfect the averages.
The fact that the average number of persons employed is used
as the divisor and the total amount paid in wages as the divi-
dend in obtaining the average yearly earnings, implies that an
uncertain figure, having no real statistical importance when
considered apart from other elements, will be the result of this
division, for males and females, young persons and adults, day
hands and piece hands, are indiscriminately included in the
average number of persons employed. To illustrate our
meaning, we show in the following table the percentages of in-
crease or decrease in the average number of males and females
employed, in the amount of wages paid, and the average yearly
earnings :



Digitized



by Google



No. 36.] LABOR AND ITS COMPENSATION.



137



Boots and shoes,
Carpetings, . . . .
Cotton goods,
Leather, . . . .
Machines and machinery, .
Metals and metallic goods,

Paper,

Woollen goods, .
Worsted goods, .



Pkbckntaobs of Incbbasb in —



Fera<m$ Employed



Both
Sexes



8.35
8.67
9.44
8.11
24.05
13.40
2.37
0.40
13.56



Males



0.03
7.00

11.67
7.86

24.30

14.35
2.93
0.40

10.76



6.88
9.26
7.24

64.00
8.21
6.80
1.61
0.66

16.80



Total
Wages
Paid



10.46
18.88
12.47
9.82
24.89
14.65
4.33
1.63
13.90



Average

Yearly

Earnings



1.94
9.60
2.76
1.11
0.68
1.02
1.92
1.18
0.20



As has been previously stated, the average amount earned
by an employ^ is but one factor among the many connected
with the question of wages. The duration of employment, the
method of payment (whether on the day or piece basis), the
employment of a larger number of females and young persons
in one year as compared with another, each has some effect on
the average yearly earnings. Besides these elements, the
question of skill forms an important part, and to it is undoubt-
edly due some of the fluctuations which may be observed in the
different industries.

The highest average yearly earnings in 1899 are found in
Liquors (Malt), the amount earned by each employ^, on an
average, being J795.87. The lowest average yearly earnings
are found in Flax, Heipp, and Jute Goods, the average amount
earned per employ^ being $314. In Liquors (Malt) all the
employ6s are males, and according to the Census of 1895,
99.45 per cent were day hands, 0.43 per cent hour hands, and
0.12 per cent piece hands. So far as the industry in which
the lowest average annual earnings are found, nearly 55
(54.66) out of every 100 persons employed were piece hands.

Actual wage conditions may, in the absence of individual
returns be quite accurately ascertained by a comparison of the
fluctuation in amounts paid weekly to male and female em-
ployes. Of course the question of age affects these returns,
and to obviate this element as much as possible the separation
of minors and adults was requested in 1899. On pages 121
to 125 are presented, for the nine leading industries and for
All Industries, the number of males and females, without



Digitized



by Google



138 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. [Pub. Doc.

regard to age, receiving certain specified amounts weekly for
the year 1898, and for 1899 the number of adult males and
females and minor persons receiving the same wages. From
considerations of space we have confined the presentation to
certain specified industries, but the figures in detail for any
industry desired will be supplied upon application to this
Department.

The following table reproduces the figures for 1899 and also
shows the percentages of adult males and females and of young
persons in each class :



Eakmihos.


Adults

(21 Years of Age

and over)


Young
Persons

(under
21 years

of age)


Totals


PSBCBNTAGBS


Males


1
Females


Males


Females


Young
Persons


Under $5 9,608


18,722


31,181


59,511


16.14


31.46


52.40


$6 bnt under $6,








9,438


17,490


13,633


40,561


23.27


43.12


33.61


$6 but under $7,








18,038


21,038


8,954


48,030


37.56


43.80


18.64


$7 bnt under $8,








23,409


16,479


4,092


43,980


53.23


37.47


9.30


$8 but under $9,








24,009


12,335


1,390


37,734


63.63


32.69


8.68


$9 but under $10,








34,349


8,342


864


43,555


78.86


19.15


1.99


$10 but under $12,








38,624


6,196


472


45,292


85.28


18.68


1.04


$12 bnt under $16,








43,690


8,212


133


47,035


92.89


6.83


0.28


$15 bnt under $20,








33,580


969


22


34,571


97.13


2.80


0.07


$20 and over, .








10,620


127


1


10,748


98.81


1.18


0.01


Totals, .


245,365


104,910


60,742


411,017


59.70


25.52


14.78



In each class the percentages add across to 100. In the
class including those paid under $5 per week, over one-half
(52.40 per cent) are persons under 21 years of age, about
one-third (31.46 per cent) are adult females, and about one-
sixth (16.14 per cent) are adult males. In the second class,
slightly over one-third are young persons, and in the third
class, a little less than one-fifth are young persons. The
total number of young persons in these three classes aggre-
gate 53,768, or 13.08 per cent of the total number of persons
employed during the week considered. The total number of
young persons in all the classes represent 14.78 per cent of the
aggregate number of persons employed and together with the
adult females affect in a considerable degree the average yearly
earnings of all persons employed. This is, perhaps, more
clearly shown in the following table :



Digitized



by Google



No. 36.] LABOR AND ITS COMPENSATION.



139











Percbntaoes


Classification of Wbbkly




1S9S






ISM




Eabninos.


















Males


Females


Totals


Males


Females


Young
Persons


Totals


Under $5,


9.34


29.07


16.06


3.92


17.85


61.33


14.48


$5 but under $6,








6.26


18.86


10.64


8.84


16.67


22.44


9.87


$6 but under $7,








8.67


18.07


11.87


7.36


20.05


14.74


11.69


$7 but under $8,








9.61


13.16


10.81


9.54


15.71


6.74


10.70


$8 but under $9,








9.01


8.60


8.87


9.78


11.76


2.29


9.18


$0 but under $10,








12.06


5.10


9.69


14.00


7.96


1.42


10.60


$10 but under $12,








13.87


4.27


10.61


16.74


5.91


0.78


11.02


$12 but under $15,








16.72


2.21


11.13


17.81


3.06


0.22


11.44


$15 but under $20,








11.77


0.68


7.96


13.68


0.92


0.03


8.41


$20 and over,








8.71


0.09


2.47


4.33


0.12


0.01


2.61


Totals,


100.00


100.00


100.00


100.00


100.00


100.00


100.00



In this table, the percentages in each column add to 100,
and it is seen that over one-half of the young persons em-
ployed in 1899 were paid under $5 a week and nearly nine-
tenths of all the young persons are in the first three classes.
Under the system of classification shown for 1898, the pro-
portion of the sexes is approximated the same in the wage
class $8 but under $9 ; but in 1899, owing to the presentation
of young persons, no such approximation appears and in no
wage class do the adult males or females approach one another
so closely, showing clearly that the inclusion of young per-
sons in the divisor which is used in obtaining the average
yearly earnings reduces that amount to a considerable extent.
For the purpose of analysis we have, in the following table,
distributed the average number of persons employed (361,031)
in 1899 into the several wage classes, based upon the percent-
ages shown in the preceding table, and show the amount paid
to adult males, adult females, and to young persons for one
week of the year 1899 :



CLASSmCATION OF WBXKLT


NUMBKB OF —


Estimated Wbbklt Earn-
ings OF —


Eaknikos.


Hales


Females


Young
Persons


Males


Females


Young
Persons


Under $5,

$6 but under $6, .
$6 but under $7,
$7 but under $8,
$8 but under $9, .
$9 but under $10, .


8,438
8,292
15,852
20,563
21,089
80,179


16,446
15,365
18,485
14,476
10,884
7,328


27,393

11,977

7,867

3,592

1,220

762


$25,314
45,606
103,038
154,223
179,257
286,701


$49,338
84,508
120,153
108,563
92,089
69,616


$82,179
66,874
61,186
26,940
10,370
7,239



Digitized



by Google



140 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. [Pub. Doc.



CLASSmCATIOH OF WeBKLT


NUMBKS OF —


EsmCATSD WSBKLT EaBH-
ISGfl OF —


Easninos.


Males


Females


Yonnif
Personi


Males


Females


Young
Persons


$10 bnt under $12, .

$12 but under $15, . .

$15 but under $20, .

$20 and over, ....


33,929
38,365
29,492
9,311


6,443

2,821

850

111


414

116

21

1


$373,219
617,928
516,110
209,498


$59,873
38,084
14,875
2,498


$4,554

1,566

368

23


Totals, ....


215,510


92,158


53,363


$2,410,894


$639,597


$250,249



Bearing in mind that the above figures are only estimates
based upon the actual percentages shown in the table on page
138, we see that out of a total of $3,300,740 paid out during
the week considered, $2,410,894, or 73.04 per cent, was
earned by the adult males; $639,597, or 19.38 per cent, by
the adult females; and $250,249, or 7.58 per cent, by the
minor persons of both sexes. If we take the total amount
paid out in wages during 1899 ($154,415,381) as shown on
page 118 for All Industries, and distribute it in the same
proportion among the males, females, and young persons we
secure the following estimated amounts paid to each class :

Males, $112,784,994

Females, 29,925,701

Young persons, 11,704,686

Total, $154,415,381

Dividing these amounts by the estimated average number
of adult males, adult females, and minor persons, we secure
as an average amount earned yearly as follows :

Males, $523.34

Females, 324.72

Young persons, 219.34

It will be remembered that the average yearly earnings for
all persons without regard to age or sex was $427.71. Dis-
tributing the persons employed on this same basis for indi-
vidual industries would show somewhat different results from
those given in the presentation on pages 119 and 120, and this
can be done in 1900 when comparative statements will be shown,
prepared from the figures returned on the same basis of sex and
age classification as is shown in this report for the year 1899.



Digitized



by Google



No. 3d.] WORKING TIME — PROPORTION. 141



Working Time and Proportion of Business Done.

On the following pages we show the average number of days
in operation and the average proportion of business done for
the 4,740 establishments making return in each of the years
1898 and 1899.

The average number of days in operation is based upon the
average number of persons employed, the number of days re-
ported by each establishment being multiplied by the figures
representing the average number of persons employed therein,
and the sum of these multiplications for all the establish-
ments divided by the aggregate average number of persons,
an average for each industry and for All Industries being thus
obtained. The actual number of working days exclusive of
Sundays and holidays was 306 in 1898 and 305 in 1899.

The proportion of business done is based upon the greatest
amount of goods which can be turned out in an establishment,
presupposing a sufficient demand for goods, without increasing
its present facilities. This greatest amount is considered as
100 per cent. If an establishment produced goods equivalent
to three-quarters of its greatest capacity, the proportion of
business done would be 75 per cent, while if only one-half
of a possible output was reached it would be considered as
50 per cent. For example, in All Industries the average pro-
portion of business done for the year 1899 is represented by
66.21 per cent; that is to say, it amounted to two-thirds of
what could have been done, had business conditions warranted,
without enlarging the capacity of the manufacturing plants.
The several proportions returned by the establishments in
each industry have been aggregated and the sum divided by
the fiill number of establishments to obtain the average for
each industry and for All Industries.



Digitized



by Google



142 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. [Pub. Doc.



DAYS IN OPERATION^: BY mDUSTRIES.

1898, 1899.

[The figaret given in fhif presentation represent the average number of days each person was
employed in the industries considered during the years 1893 and 1899. The average number of
days in operation is based upon the average number of persons employed, the number of days
per establishment being multiplied by the figures representing the average number of persons,
and the sum divided by the aggregate average number of persons, an average for each industry
and for All Industries being thus obtained. Comparison is made between 1898 and 1899, and
the relative increase or decrease in 1899 as compared with 1898 is given with its equivalent per>
centage.]



Agricultural implements.
Arms and ammunition,
Artisans' tools, .
Awnings, sails, tents, etc..



Bicycles, tricycles, etc., .
Boots and shoes, ...

Boots and shoes (factory product)

Soles, heels, and cut stock, .

Boot and shoe findings, .

Stitching, heeling, etc., .
Boxes, barrels, kegs, etc.,
Boxes (paper), ....
Brick, tiles, and sewer pipe, .
Brooms, brushes, and mops, .
Building materials, .
Burial cases, caskets, cofBlns, etc..
Buttons and dress trimmings, .



Carpetings,

Textile,

Other

Carriages and wagons.
Cement, kaolin, lime, and plaster,
Chemical preparations (compounded)
Clocks and watches, .

Clothing,

Cooking, lighting, and heating apparatus,
Cordage and twine, ...
Cotton goods, ....

Cotton goods (woven), .

Cotton yam and thread.

Cotton waste, ....
Crayons, pencils, crucibles, etc..

Drugs and medicines,
Dyestuffs,



Earthen, plaster, and stone ware.
Electrical apparatus and appliances,

Electroplating

Emery and sand paper and cloth, etc,



Fancv articles, etc., .
Fertilizers, ....
Fine arts and taxidermy, .
Fireworks and matches, .
Flax, hemp, and jute goods,



Number of

Estab-
lishments
Con-
sidered



9
18
76
44

21
688
460
200
23
15
119
63
67
22
60
6
16

12

8

4

128

9

12

11

146

42

21

158

115

35

8

8

24
6

10

20

12

9

18
6
3
4
8



AVKRAGB

Number of Days
IM Opkbation



277.41
290.92
287.77
289.87

295.92
287.39
287.28
287.49
295.70
290.42
282.99
286.61
206.71
292.74
289.89
302.32
279.63

223.08
219.81
296.21
286.29
268.21
296.74
282.62
289.65
260.14
290.44
293.01
291.80
801.34
803.75
292.63

296.06
270.26

282.41
298.94
276.39
294.31

295.79
800.56
303.71
274.64
286.48



289.21
295.11
296.91
291.18

296.06
290.69
290.36
293.68
295.14
292.56
287.90
287.63
218.94
296.61
296.33
294.01
298.17

274.67
273.78
293.44
291.68
263.21
292.06
286.42
290.26
274.67
293.61
302.06
302.04
802.14
802.48
287.73

297.73
277.71

283.00
299.48
272.63
297.67

295.64
299.78
304.42
268.80
296.12



Increase (-f-)

or Decbeask (— ) IN

189»



Days



4-11.80

-H.19
-1-8.14
4-1.31

—0.86
-1-3.30
-f3.08
-1-6.09
—0.56
-1-2.13
4-4.91
-1-2.02
4-7.23
4-2.77
-f5.94
—8.31
-fl8.64

-1-51.59

4-63.97
—2.77
4-5.39
-f5.00
—4.68
4-2.80
-fO.60

-1-14.53
-1-3.07
-f9.05

4-10.24
H-0-80
—1.27
—4.90

-fl.67
4-7.46

-H).59
-hO 49
—8.86
4-3.36

—0.25
—0.77
4-0.71
-6.84
4-9.64



Percent-
ages



4-4.25
4-1.44
-1-2.88
-fO.46

—0.29
-j-1.15
-fl.07
4-2.12
-0.19
-1-0.73
-1-1.74
-H).71
+3.60
-H).96
-f2.06
—2.76
-1-6.67

-1-23.13
-1-24.66
-0.94
-1-1.88
-1-1.94
-1.68
4-0.99
- 0.21
- 5.59
—1.06
- 3.09
- 3.61
- 0.27
—0.42
—1.67

-H)-66
+2.76

-f0.21
-M).16
—1.40
+1.14

—0.08
-0.26
-1-0.23
-2.13
4-3.36



Digitized



by Google



No. 36.] WORKING TIME — PROPORTION.



143



DAYS IN OPEEATION: Br INDUSTBIB8 — 1898, 1899
— Concladed.



IMDUBTBIKS.


Number of

Estab-
lishments
Con-
sidered


Average

NnUBEB OF DATS

IN Operatiok


Inoreasb (+)

OB DbCBEASB (— ) IK

1899




1S9S


1899


Days


Percent-
ages


Food preparatioiifl,

Furniture,


356
131


296.91
293.52


' 297.98
296.21


+1.02
+2.69


+0.84
+0.92


Glass

Glue, isinglass, and starch,


14
19


266.76
244.17


273.74
255.07


+7.98
+10.90


-f3-00

+4.46


Hair work (animal and human),

Hose : rubber, linen, etc., ....

Hosiery and knit goods


4

6
88


267.46
299.91
297.67


273.11
293.96
299.71


+5.65
-5.95
+2.14


+2.11
—1.98
+0.72


Ink, mucilage, and paste, ....
Ivory, bone, shell, and horn goods, etc., .


7
21


800.85
294.40


303.61
292.13


+2.76
-2.27


+0.92
-0.77


Jewelry,


90


282.65


293.53


+10.88


+3.85


Leather,

Leather goods,

Liquors (bottled) and carbonated bever.

agos,

Liquors (malt),

Liquors (distilled),

Lumber,


96
26

33

34

5

25


290.30
801.37

303.18
304.22
254.57
243.45


297.37
300.46

300.54
304.46
273.52
276.33


+7.07
—0.91

-2.64

+0.24

+18.95

+32.88


+2.44
-0.80

—0.87

+0.08

+7.44

+13.61


Machines and machinery, ....
Metals and metallic goods.
Models, lasto, and patterns.
Musical instruments and materials.


358
893

47
65


287.84
282.17
290.44
281.55


299.12
292.78
295.01
294.88


+11.28
+10.61
+4.57
+18.33


+8.92
+3.76

+1.67
+4.78


Oils and illuminating fluids, .


10


802.45


301.55


—0.90


—0.80


Paints, colors, and crude chemicals,

Paper,

Paper goods,

Perfumes, toilet articles, etc

l*hotograph8 and photographic materials,
Polishes and dressing, ....
Printing, publishing, and bookbinding, .
Print works, dye works, and bleacheries,


28
80
41
6
21
31
62
49


287.91
281.48
800.26
280.00
304.18
301.71
298.76
291.96


292.20
288.45
298.77
295.89
301.14
298.39
302.95
299.22


+4.29
+6.97
-1.49
+15.89
-3.04
—3.82
+4.19
+7.26


+1.49
+2.48
-0.50
+5.68
-1.00
-1.10
+1.40
- 2.49


Railroad construction and equipment, .
Rubber and elastic goods,


16
46


290.05
269.28


802.36
270.19


+12.81
+0.91


-1-4-24

-H).S4


Saddlerv and harness, ....
Scientific instruments and appliances, .

BhipbuUding,

Silk and silk goods,

Sporting and athletic goods, .

Stone,

Quarried,

Cut and monumental, ....
Straw and palm leaf goods.


82
22
49
11
7

196
45

151
17


299.20
300.72
295.21
282.29
278.86
276.95
268.10
285.08
280.44


300.96
297.87
292.32
292.39
291.65
268.24
251.14
284.55
277.08


+1.76

-2.85

-2.89

+10.10

+12.79

—7.71

—16.96

—0.53

-3.36


-1-0.59
—0.95
—0.98

-2.79
—6.33
—0.19
-1.20


Tallow, candles, soap, and grease, .
Tobacco, snuff, and cigars,
Toys and games (children's), .
Trunks and valises,


61
73
12

7


295.53
290.05
294.78
266.63


297.14
295.35
293.34
262.80


+1.61
+5.30
—1.44
+6.17


-1-0.54
- 1.83
—0.49
+2.40


Whips, lashes, and stocks.

Wooden goods,

Woollen goods,

Woven goods and yam, ....

Shoddy, waste, etc., ....
Worsted goods,


11
70
138
119
W
34


298.67
292.74
282.33
282.73
266.02
261.96


298.89
295.92
286.31
286.76
269.83
298.62


+


hO.22
-3.18
-3.98
-4.03
h3.81
36.66


+0.07
+1.09
+1.41
+1.43
+1.43
+13.99




4,740


286.27


294.14


+7.87


+2.75



Digitized



by Google



144 STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. [Pub. Doc.



PKOPORTiON OF busi:n^ess DOI^E

BY II^DUSTRIES.

1898, 1899.



[The figpres given in this presentation represent the average proportion of business done by
each establislunent in the industries considered. Greatest capacity, or maximum prodaotion,
has been considered as 100 per cent, and the percentages given indicate the average proportion
of business done by each establishment during each year on the basis stated. Comparison is
made between 1898 and 1899, and the relative increase or decrease in 1899 as compared with
1898 is given with its equivalent percentage.]



Agricultural implements, .
Arms and ammunition.
Artisans' tools, .
Awnings, sails, tents, etc.,



Bicycles, tricycles, etc., .
Boots and shoes, ...

Boots and shoes (factory product)

Boles, heels, and cut stock, .

Boot and shoe findings, .

Stitching, heeling, etc., .
Boxes, barrels, kegs, etc., .
Boxes (paper), ....
Brick, tUes, and sewer pipe, .
Brooms, brushes, and mops, .
Building materials, .
Burial cases, caskets, cofi^s, etc..
Buttons and dress trimmings, .



Carpetings,

Textile,

Other,

Carriages and wagons.
Cement, kaolin, lime, and plaster,
Chemical preparations (compounded)
Clocks and watches, .

Clothing

Cooking, lighting, and heating apparatus.
Cordage and twine, ...
Cotton goods, ....

Cotton goods (woven), .

Cotton yam and thread, .

Cotton waste, ....
Crayons, pencils, crucibles, etc.,

Drugs and medicines,
Dyestuffs,



Earthen, plaster, and stone ware^
Electrical apparatus and appliances.
Electroplating, , . . . .
Emery and sand paper and cloth, etc,



Fancy articles, etc., .
Fertilizers, ....
Fine arts and taxidermy, .
Fireworks and matches, .
Flax, hemp, and jute goods,



Number of

Estab-
lishments
CJon-
sidered



9
13
75



21

688

450

200

23

15

119

63

67

22

60

6

15

12

8

4

128

9

12

11

146

42

21

158

116

35



24
6

10
20
12
9

16
6



AVKBAOR PBOPOR-
TIOX OP

Business Done



67.00
64.31
66.59
48.91

49.24
61.22
61.86
68.92
70.22
69.13
60.97
64.21
60.77
64.05
69.24
77.00
47.20



70.75
69.00
66.59
69.22
63.42
64.36
66.34
60.71
64.05
87.09
88.23
83.43
86.88
83.33

66.68
61.00

66.50
62.15
60.58

64.78

60.81
62.60
70.00
64.50
72.88



60.33
67.69
61.32
53.02

66.00
66.16
66.13
65.34
74.78
65.00
67.55
70.56
62.80
69.41
61.60
72.83
62.00

77.00
77.25
76.60
60.11
67.11
62.50
66.82
69.78
67.69
n.38
99.89
92.57
84.96
87.50
83.33

60.88
58.67

66.30
66.85
64.00
73.44

60.38
65.83
75.00
63.76
82.63



IMCBBASB (+)

OB DBCRKASB (— ) IK

1899



Proportion



Percent-
ages



-f6.84
4-6.26
+10.31
4-8.40

+13.73
+8.07
+6.92

+10.90
+6.49
+9.93

+10.79
+9.89
-1-3.34
+8.37
+3.81


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 23

Online LibraryMassachusetts Bureau Of Statistics Massachusetts. Bureau of Statistics of LaborThe Annual Statistics of Manufactures 1903 → online text (page 20 of 23)