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hours a week; 40.3 per cent of all employees worked over 64 hours; and
55.3 per cent of the male employees worked over 54 hours. In October,
1912, there were 1,254 male employees who customarily worked two shifts,
or an average of 12 hours a day.

Our supplementary inquiry, made in March, 1914, showed that the
total niunber working on the two-shift system had been reduced to 1,071,
and several of those mills which still continued on the two-shift system
were already endeavoring to make a change to the three-shift system.
Men on the two-shift system usually work from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. when on
the day-shift and from 6 p.m. to 7 a m. when on the night-shift, and every
week change from the day-shift to the night-shift, or vice versa, which
consequently requires them to accustom themselves to the changed condi-
tions of eating and sleeping. It is also to be noted that unless sufficient
provision be made by the mills for additional help, shift-workers may be
called upon at the end of their shift to work for several hours until some
repair job is completed or to work in the place of absent workmen, and
thus be obliged to remain on duty for an excessive niunber of hours be-
yond a normal day.

During the inquiry, those in charge of the mills, in their discussions
with the representatives of the Bureau, frequently emphasized the fact
that the men working these long hours are not kept busy all the time. To
a considerable extent this may be true, although the opinions of the
workers and the employers do not always agree on this subject. At any
rate, the employees in question are on duty and subject to orders during
the entire period, and they are not (except in rare instances^) allowed to
leave the plant. It is not, therefore, simply the character or the continu-
ity of the work, but the fact that in the case of the 12-hour-a-day-man,
one-half of each working day is spent on duty in the mills, which is of
significance to the worker and his family. Occasional extended periods
of overtime serve to increase these customary full-time hours, — 260, or
20.7 per cent of the two-shift workers, having worked overtime in a repre-
sentative week, their average customary full-time hoiu^ being 64.9, while
their average hours actually worked were 75.6.

1 MMhine tenders are sometiines held reeponaible for their product, oven though they may be allowed to leave
the mill.



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NO. 103.] WAGES AND HOURS — PAPER INDUSTRY. VII. 9

For years past the general tendency in manufacturing industries, as
well as in other groups of trades or business, has been toward a shorter
working day. Years ago the 10-hour day became almost a standard;
since that time further reductions have brought the working day to nine,
and in many cases to eight hours, and this reduction has been accom-
panied by a part-holiday on Saturday. In the paper mills of Massachu-
setts it was found by our inquiry that 23.5 per cent of the male employees
actually worked over 60 hours a week; also, that 55.3 per cent actually
worked over 54 hours a week; on the other hand it should be noted that
the customary working time of 28.2 per cent of the male employees was
48 hoiurs and imder, while 27.4 per cent actually worked 48 hours and
under.

In this connection, and indeed with respect to the facts presented in
general in this report, an important consideration to be borne in mind is
the peculiar character of the paper industry which differentiates it from
nearly every other industry in Massachusetts, namely, the necessity of
continuous operation of machinery due to inherent difficulties in the nature
of the work; that is, the stock or pulp must be run off into the finished
paper, if possible, before shutting down the machinery, since to allow the
latter to become cold would necessitate often from two hows to half a.
day before the plant could be got under way again; i.e., before the paper
made could be matched for thickness and weight per pound .with paper
made at the time preceding the shut-down. For this reason the mill must
be kept constantly running without shutting down at night, as may be
done in practically every other large industry without any effect upon the
output except to limit the quantity. In other words, the running of the
paper mill continuously and the consequent employment of the workers
day and night is not generally, at least, attributable to unusual market
demands or to a desire to turn out the greatest possible product in the
shortest possible time for the purpose of enhancing profits, as may be the
case in other industries where this is done, but to the fact that paper
can not be made in any other way. But while this condition, inseparable
from the industry, necessitates the organization of the working ^force into
shifts or "tours," that fact can of itself scarcely be cited in justification
of the custom hitherto quite generally prevailing in the industry of divid-
ing the 24-hour day into two periods of 12 working hours each; and it is
hardly a candid answer to criticisms of this custom to say that the men
working these long hours are not necessarily kept actually busy all the
time. Surely the three-shift system, as already adopted by 53 of the 79
paper mills of Massachusetts, which are in continuous operation for six



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VII. 10 STATISTICS OF LABOR — 1914. [l. B.

days a week,^ or 67.1 per cent of the whole number, is a long advance step
to an approximation of ideal conditions as respects hours in this industry,
conditions which, it is to be hoped, will become generally prevalent in the
near future.

In 48 of the 86 paper mills in Massachusetts the Saturday half-holiday
was granted the day-workers, this custom prevailing in 73.3 per cent of
the mills located west of Worcester County as compared with 15.4 per
cent of the mills in Worcester County and Eastern Massachusetts.

Of the total of 9,301 male employees in the paper mills for whom
records of actual hours worked were shown on the pay-rolls, 3,187, or
34.3 per cent, earned less than 20 cents an hour, and 6,664, or 71.6 per
cent, earned less than 25 cents an hour, while, of the total nimiber of
female employees from whom actual hours were matters of record, 725, or
20.5 per cent, earned less than 12 cents an hour, and 2,709, or 76.5 per
cent, earned less than 16 cents an hour.

About two-thirds (67.3 per cent) of the 13,871 employees for whom
rates of wages were secured were males, and among the males, 56.2 per cent
were day-workers and 43.8 per cent were shift-workers. Among the male
day-workers 98.1 per cent were time-workers and 1.9 per cent were piece-
workers. Among the females, however, piece-workers formed 42.3 per cent
of the aggregate number (4,540) reported.

Nearly three-fifths (59.4 per cent) of the employees worked full time*
in the week for which particulars were obtained; 22.7 per cent worked
undertime;* and 17.9 per cent worked overtime.* Nearly one-foiurth (24.3
per cent) of the male employees worked overtime as compared with 1.1
per cent of the female employees.

The average weekly earnings of all employees, regardless of sex or
whether working full time or less or more than full time, were $10.93; for
full-time workers the average was $11.36. The average for males, 16
years of age and over, who worked full time was $12.82; for males, under
16 years of age, $7.47; for females, 16 years of age and over, $7.41; for
females, under 16 years of age, $6.13; while the averages for all work-
people, including those who worked less or more than full time, were:
Males, 16 years of age and over, $12.91; males, under 16 years of age,
$6.96; females, 16 years of age and over, $7.00; and females, under 16
years of age, $4.92. One mill paid a minimum wage of $8.40 a week to
female employees who worked full time. Another mill rented its own
houses to its employees at from $5 to $8 a month.

^ Seven paper milla in Massaohuaetts do not operate continuously and therefore employ only day-worken.

> In this report the term "full time" meana exactly the recular customary number of hours in a full-time
week; the term "ovwtime" means more than the exact full-time number of hours; and the term "undertime"
meana less than the exact number of full-time hours. r^ t

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NO. 103.] WAGES AND HOURS — PAPER INDUSTRY. VII. 11

The customary working days of shifts were six a week for all of the
4,540 female employees and for 86.9 per cent of all of the male employees.
The customary working days were seven a week for 336, or 3.6 per cent
of the male employees; the remainder of the male employees (9.5 per cent)
customarily worked other than six or seven days a week. The customary
working days or shifts for the two-shift workers were five and six days or
shifts alternately for 67.5 per cent of the total, six days or tours for 30.0
per cent, six and seven days or tours alternately for 17 employees, and
seven days or tours a week for 13 employees. Of the three-shift workers
92.2 per cent worked six days a week and 7.7 per cent worked seven days
a week.



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VII. 12



STATISTICS OF LABOR — 1914,



[l. B.



II.

NATURE OF DATA AND METHOD OF PRESENTATION.

1. LOCATION OF THE PAPER MILLS OF MASSACHUSETTS.

The data presented in this report cover 86 paper and wood pulp milLs
located in 37 cities and towns of the Commonwealth. The distribution of
the mills by districts and cities and towns is shown in the following table.



LocAUTias.


Number
of Mills.


LocAunss.


Number
of Mills.


The State.


M


Holyoke.


22


Weetem MMtachuietto.


IS


Central Mawaohuiettt.


16




2


Dighton,




Becket


1


FlTCHBURO,




Dalton,


3


Groton,




Great Barrington,


1


Hardwick




Lee


5


Leominster,




Middlefield


1


Pepperell




Monroe,


1 ;


Templeton,




PiTTSFIELO,


1 I








1


Baetem Maaeachuietti.


12


Connecticut Valley Diitrlct.

CNot including Holyoke.)


22


Boston,






Haverhill,




Agawam,


1 !


Lawrence,




Erving,


2


New Bedford,




Huntington,


1 ,


Newton,




Montague


3


Norfolk




NOBTHAUPTON,


2


Norwood




Russell


2


Walpole




Springfield


1 1


Waltham,




South Hadley,


4 (






Wendell


1






Westfield


1






West Springfield.

WUbraham,


3

1







The mills represented in this table include all those engaged in the
manufacture of paper or wood pulp in the Commonwealth which were in
operation on October 1, 1912.^

The classification of earnings and hours of employees by localities has
been omitted because the mills were widely scattered, and in but three
cities and towns were there more than five paper mills. What concentra-
tion there is in this industry is found in the Connecticut Valley where 44
of the 86 mills are located. In Holyoke there are 22 paper mills, and just
across the river, at South Hadley, there are four more.



2. GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF THE LABOR FORCE.

The labor force of the paper and wood pulp industry may be con-
sidered as consisting of three great groups: (1) The productive force en-
gaged in those departments which involve continuous night and day
operation, (2) the productive force engaged in departments which are in



> See footnote 1 on pace 5, onto.



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NO. 103.] WAGES AND HOURS — PAPER INDUSTRY. VIL 13

operation only during the ordinary working day, and (3) the mechanical
force. This distinction is of considerable importance because of the essen-
tial differences in the working conditions of the three groups. The duties
of the first force consist largely of operating the machines which have to
do with the preparation of the materials and the making of the paper.
The work of this force is necessarily continuous, day and night, except
on Sundays, on which day none of the mills are operated in all depart-
ments, while the mills rumung on two shifts are closed for 36 or 37 hours,
the predominant custom being to begin at 7 a.m. Monday and close at
6 P.M. Saturday. The second group is concerned chiefly with the primary
preparation of materials and the finishing of the paper. The greater part
of their work can be done during the day and their hours can accordingly
be adjusted to any reasonable schedule. The mechanical force is con-
cerned chiefly with keeping the various appliances and machines in proper
working condition, in operating the engines which furnish power to the
entire place, and in transportation. With the exception of the small pro-
portion of the mechanical force who are in charge of the power plants and
those who must be present or ready for call at any time in case of emer-
gency, the greater part of their work can be done during the day. The
working time of this group, however, is likely to be very irregular, with a
great deal of overtime and Sunday work, even though the mills are not
actually operated on Sunday.

In our presentation of data. regarding wages and hours of labor in this
industry the classification of employees into (1) productive occupations,
(2) general occupations in the producing departments, and (3) power,
mechanical, and yard force has been followed, as well as a classification
into (a) day or time-workers, (6) shift-workers, and (c) piece-workers.
Such divisions were necessary to a proper understanding of the labor situa-
tion in the industry, the working conditions of these groups being widely
different as regards physical surroundings, general nature of the work, and
hours of labor. It would be misleading to present the data for those em-
ployees who might be found as well in any other industry without any
differentiation from the data for the employees whose general condition
and welfare are directly dependent upon the paper industry. The em-
ployees in the non-productive occupations are largely in skilled or semi-
skilled mechanical trades, and the paper industry is generally in competi-
tion with many other industries in employing them. In the productive
occupations the work of the skilled or semi-skilled employees is specialized
to a certain degree, so that they are to a considerable extent dependent
upon the paper industry for employment; and because of the location of



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VII. 14 STATISTICS OF LABOR — 1914, [l. B.

many mills in districts where the opportunities for employment in other
industries are not very great, the unskilled employees possibly are to a
certain extent also dependent upon the paper industry for employment.

The productive occupation group embraces 11,038, or 79.6 per cent of
all employees, the general occupations, producing departments, embrace
674, or 4.9 per cent, and the power, mechanical, and yard force embraces
2,159 or 15.5 per cent. There is a considerable divergence between the
mills in the proportion of employees in the non-productive occupation
group, arising from the fact that in the large and modern establishments
the functions are highly specialized and require a large force for power
production, repairs, and yard transportation.

It was impossible, with any degree of accuracy, to separate the em-
ployees into two groups — one* containing only such employees as were
directly necessary in the production of paper and one including all other
employees — as in many mills all the laborers and many other unskilled
employees were reported without classification and could not, even with
the greatest care, have been separated into these two groups. Field agents
were given special instructions, however, to classify laborers and unskilled
workers under some designation which would indicate to the statisticians
engaged in tabulation the kind of work done. Where any doubt arose as
to the work performed by any employee, letters were written to the es-
tablishments for descriptions of the work performed by the employees in
the doubtful occupations. Another diflBculty in classification arose from
the fact that a large number of laborers and other imskilled employees
are shifted more ot less from one department to another, and therefore
could not be unquestionably charged to any single one. Such employees
we decided, however, to classify with the producing departments, since it
is likely that in a majority of cases they would be properly so charged.

Among the employees in the paper and wood pulp industry in Massa-
chusetts, the proportion of females was slightly under one-third (32.8 per
cent) and the number of minors under 16 years of age was 1.1 per cent.
The number of males (75) and females (77) under 16 years of age was
approximately the same.

There were 6,566 males and 4,472 females in the productive occupa-
tions, a proportion of 59.5 and 40.5 per cent, respectively, as compared
with 67.2 and 32.8 per cent in all occupations.

Considerable diflBculty was encountered in connection with the classi-
fication of occupations, owing to the fact that many occupations are
known by entirely different names in different mills, and in many mills
the managers were unable to state names for some of the occupations. A

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NO. 103.] WAGES AND HOURS — PAPER INDUSTRY. VII. 15

description of processes and occupations in the industry was compiled
from various sources, and the agents were instructed to note and define
any new occupations met with.

In collecting the wages and hours statistics the practice of using one
schedule for an entire mill was followed, and since several of the mills
visited manufactured more than one product, it was often very diflScult to
distinguish between the employees working upon one product and those
working upon another. It was therefore deemed advisable to exclude
from this report all productive employees who were not engaged in manii-
fadmring paper, ^ which will account in part for the difference in the num-
ber of employees in the industry as shown in this report (13,871) and the
average number employed in October, 1912 (14,330) as shown in our
Annual Report on the Statistics of Manufactures for 1912, since the latter
report gives the total number employed in the paper mills, regardless of
whether they are engaged in occupations connected with paper and wood
pulp or some other product.

It was not deemed advisable in presenting the statistics relative to
wages and hours of labor to classify employees according to the class of
product in which they were engaged. In many cases, however, the wages
in a given occupation are not materially aflfected by the character of the
product.

In the paper miUs there were found to be over 100 different occupa-
tions. The number of employees in many of these occupations was, how-
ever, small, and there was found to be considerable variation in occupa-
tions in the different mills, even in cases where the same product was
manufactured. The occupations for which data have been tabulated have
been selected as representative of the industr>\

3. DAY, SHIFT, AND PIECE-WORKERS.

Employees in paper mills may conveniently be divided into two gen-
eral groups: Shift-workers and day-workers. Among the shift- workers
are included those operatives employed on or about the machinery of the
paper mill which must be kept in continuous operation in order to secure
the greatest possible economy of production. The machine crew, beater-
men, engineers, firemen, and men in occupations of a similar nature work
in most mills by the shift. The day-workers are those engaged in work
which does not have to be carried on continuously and includes both time
and piece-workers. In general, employees in this group do their work, as
the designation indicates, in the daytime. The group embraces in most

> See note 1 on page 7; 35 were engaged in the production of paper boxes, 48 wenHPap^i* ooaters, etc.

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VII, 16



STATISTICS OF LABOR



1914.



[L. B.



instances the workers in the finishing department and employees engaged
in keeping the plant in a state of repair^ such as carpenters, machinists,
millwrights, etc.

There is considerable variation in the hours of labor in the different
localities and in the different mills. The shift-men work either three
shifts a day or two shifts a day. In the case of the three-shift men the
shifts are eight hours long, while most of the two-shift men work 11 hours
on the day-shift and 13 hours on the night-shift. In all except one of the
mills the shifts are changed at regular intervals, so that two-shift employees
working at night 13 hours one week, work 11 hours in the daytime the
following week, and three-shift employees report for work at a different
hour for three successive weeks. For day employees the working day
usually consists of either nine or 10 hours.

In general the day employees work 10 hours in mills in which the
shift-workers are divided into two shifts and nine hours where the three-
shift system is in force.

The following table shows the relative importance of the various
classes of employees.

Table 1. — Number of Time-workers^ Shiflrworkers^ and Piece-workers in Productive,
Generalj and Power, Mechanical, and Yard Occupations, Classified by Sex.



'


NuMBHB or Emplotbss in ~




Ptfcent-

Ah

Claas


CLASaiFICATION.


All
Occupa-
tions


Produo-
Uve

Occupa-
tions


Oenend

Occupa-
tions.

Produc-
ing

Depart-
ments


Power,

Mechan-

icaland

Yard

Force


Produc-
tive

Occupa-
tions


Qenena

Oocupa-

tionST

Produc-

Depart-
ments


Power,
Mechan-
ical and
Yard
Force


Time-workers, .
Two-ehift workers, .
Three-shift workers.
Piece-workers, .

lUtot.

Time-workers, .
Two-shift workers, .
Three-shift workers.
Piece-workers. .

F«m«lM.

Time-workers, .
Piece-workers, .


is,tn

7,783
1,264
2,832
2.022

f,m

5,144

f,264

2,832

101

4,S4t

2,ftl9
1,921


U,Mt

5,540
1,100
2.410
1,982

f,MI

2.970

1.100

2,410

80

4.471

2.570
1,902


m

616
12
9

37

m

567
12
9
18

••

49
19


1.607

136

418

3

2.16t

1,607

136

413

3


Tt.f

71.4
88.2
85.1
98.0

n.i

57.7
88.2
85.1
79.2

98.5

98.1
1 99.0

1


4.f

7.9
1.0
0.8
1.8

f.i

11.0
1.0
0.3

17.8

l.i

1.9
1.0


li.i

20.7
10.8
14.6
0.2

2S.1

81.8
10.8
14.6
3.0


IM.i

56.0
9.0
20.4
14.6

m.%

55.1
13.4

30.4
1.1

IM.i

57.7
1 42.3



0\er one-half (56.0 per cent) of the 13,871 employees included in the
returns were time-workers; over one-fourth (29.4 per cent) were tour or
shift-workers; and 14.6 per cent were piece-workers. Nearly four-^fths

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NO. 103.] WAGES AND HOURS — PAPER INDUSTRY. VII. 17

(79.6 per cent) of the paper-mill employees were engaged in productive
occupations, as were 70.4 per cent of the male employees and 98.5 per
cent of the female employees. The day-workers constituted 70.6 per cent
of the total labor force, and the shift-workers, 29.4 per cent. Over one-
half (56.2 per cent) of the male employees were day-workers and 43.8 per
cent were shift-workers. Less than one-third (30.7 per cent) of the shift-
workers worked on the two-shift system.^ No females were employed as
shift-workers. The proportion of two and three-shift workers in the pro-
ductive and non-productive occupations was nearly the same. The day-
workers include both time-workers and piece-workers, the time-workers
constituting 79.3 per cent of the day-workers and 56.0 per cent of all the
employees, and the piece-workers constituting 20.7 per cent of the day-
workers and 14.6 per cent of all the workers. The proportion of piece-
workers was very much greater among women than among men. Over
98.0 per cent of the male day-workers were time-workers, while, of the
female employees, 57.7 per cent were time-workers and 42.3 per cent were
piece-workers. Practically all (98.0 per cent) of the piece-workers of both
sexes were engaged in productive occupations.

* A supplementary inquiiy made in March, 1914. showed that between October, 1012, and March, 1914, six mills
employing 188 two-shift workers, changed from the two-shift to the three-shift system, so that in March, 1914,
the percentage of shift-workers working two shifts was 25.7.



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VII. 18 STATISTICS OF LABOR — 1914. [l. B.

IIL

EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES AS SHOWN BY THE PAY-ROLLS.

1. INTRODUCTORY.

The statistics of earnings are presented in this report on the hourly
and weekly bases. Hourly earnings render comparisons to be more readily
made because of the definite time basis, while weekly earnings show the
effect of working hours on earnings.

The wage data were secured for all of the wage-earners in every paper



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