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selves. But it is nevertheless time that the State's classification
of the insane as a distinct group should be carried out so that
the State Infirmary may turn all its energy to its more legiti-
mate purposes.

As appears from the increased estimate for maintenance, the
Trustees seek to place all their employees, especially their nurses,
upon a 48-hour per week basis. It is believed that higher effi-
ciency, and consequently greater ultimate economy in admin-
istration, will be thus secured.

Including improvements above mentioned, the Trustees ask
the following special appropriations, all of which, with the
exception of the building for 100 boys, are approved by this
Board: —

1. Hot-water circulating system $16,600 00

2. Mechanical handling of coal 8,000 00

3. Four-inch pipe line from pumping station . . . 1,604 00

4. A nurses' home, accommodations for 100 nurses . . 69,208 46

5. A building for boys, accommodations for 100 boys . 73,741 02



$169,153 48



The items relating to water supply are repetitions of esti-
mates not granted by the Legislature last year. In connection
with its approval of these items, the Board believes that the
request for an appropriation to extend and render more avail-
able the cold water supply, refused by the Legislature last year,
should also be repeated this year. The nurses' home would
greatly enhance the effectiveness of the nursing staff, by better
housing for the corps. The request is the result of overcrowd-
ing in present quarters.



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34



STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [P. D. 17.



The State Farm ai Bridgewater.

HoLLis M. Blackstone, Superintendent,

Numbers.



INMATES


Paupub


Pboonebs


Cbuonal
Imbanb


Totals


















M.


F.


T.


M.


F.


T.


All Males




Number December 1. 1912


849


2


851


1.282


177


1.459


788


2.598


Admitted during year


471


20


491


4.132


649


4.681


107


5.279


DuchATfed during year .


475


22


497


4.106


668


4.674


92


5.263


Number November 30. 1913 .


346


-


345


1.308


158


1.466


803


2.614


Claanfioatio


n of die


charge


i: deaths. 115; i


removals. 6.148.







Total valuation of plant, real and personal, $1,724,037.13.
Value per unit of capacity, $556.14.

Provides custodial care for persons of both sexes committed
by the courts for drunkenness or vagrancy ; also almshouse care
for indigent persons not chargeable to any city or town; and
hospital care for insane male convicts. Persons committed for
drunkenness are in almost all cases chronic drunkards.

During the year, 7,877 persons have been cared for, 31 more
than last year, but 316 less than in 1911. Largest daily census,
2,706 ; smallest, 2,488 ; daily average, 2,592. Normal capacity
of plant, 3,100. Of the whole number under care, 6,140 were
prisoners, 842 were paupers, and 895 were insane convicts. The
total number of commitments was 4,681, of which 4,136, or 88.3
per cent., were for dnmkenness. Of these 4,681 persons com-
mitted, 1,164, or 24.8 per cent., were returned for violation of
parole; 70.2 per cent., or 3,286, of all the new conmiitments
had served time at the State Farm before. Of all commitments,
37.2 per cent, were made from Boston. These 4,681 commit-
ments represent 2,190 separate individuals. A comparative
classification of all commitments showing data for nine years
follows : —



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Parti.] GENERAL WORK OF THE BOARD.



35



CUurificatioH of Commitments.



Causc


liM


UN


UN


im


IfM


19N


nil


mi


1112


1113




1.92S


2.U4


3.«0.


3.900


8.177


3,417


3,783


4472


3.945


4.138


Tmnping


77


78


113


78


144


99


107


90


67


•6


Vagrancy


300


241


295


2«3


m


389


360


419


381


331


AU oth«r .


es


M


108


93


120


124


133


180


129


148


ToUl« . .


2^65


2.780


3,920


3.334


3,945


3,999


4,373


4,9«1


4.522


4.881



The total number of persons leaving the institution during
the year, whether by death, discharge, or release on parole, was
5,263. The deaths numbered 115.

Out of an appropriation of $848,000, a total of $347,993.53
was expended for the maintenance of this institution. Of the
amount expended, $108,615.03 was for salaries, wages, and
labor ; all other expenses, $239,378.60. Weekly per capita cost
of maintenance computed on expenses less sales and refunds
from maintenance, $2,525. Total receipts from all sources other
than the State treasury, $22,938.96. Net cost of maintenance
to the Commonwealth, $325,054.57. Ratio of daily number of
persons employed to daily average number of inmates, 1 to 15.
For detailed analysis of receipts and expenditures, see pp. 69-80.

Appropriations of $800 for recording machinery, $4,000 for
land, and $10,000 for additional water supply were granted in
1913. Under these authorizations land has been acquired and
wells driven. This work, with the necessary piping and con-
nections, was advancing toward completion at the close of the
year. The recording machinery authorized for the power plant
has been installed.

Other permanent improvements under way during the year
have been the prison addition, the extension of the buildings for
the insane, and the remodelling of the old chapel. The first of
these is completed permitting greatly improved housing and
classification of inmates. Operations upon the buildings for the
insane were well advanced by the close of the year, while the
remodelled chapel enclosure has been finished and is now in use.

Unfavorable weather conditions have resulted in smaller crops
of all the farm products, with an excess of labor in harvesting.



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36 STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [P. D. 17.

In other aspects this institution reports steady gain. The gen-
eral health of inmates has been excellent, marred neither by epi-
demic nor accident Commitments, however, appear to be on the
increase, the total this year showing 4,681 as against 4,522 last
year; and the proportion of those who had served time at the
institution before was only slightly more, 70.2 per cent as
against 66.1 per cent, for the preceding year.

It is hoped that the constant growth of the probation sys-
tem with its emphasis upon larger parental responsibility, sup-
plemented by the development of Norfolk State Hospital for the
hopeful inebriate, will tend, with increasing effectiveness, to
prevent chronic drunkenness. The conmiunity which permits
this traffic in its weaker temperaments for a return in money
should not draw back from the application of a small portion
of such gains in an attempt to save and prevent a part of the
wreckage.

The Trustees make the following estimates for special pur-
poses, all of which are approved by this Board : —

1. For additional sewage filtration beds .... $4,000 00

2. For indicating and recording instruments, to detect

waste and promote operating eflSciency in the central

heating and power plant 2,200 00

3. For consolidating in the central plant heating for alms-

boase, watchmen's building and two farmhouses . 7,500 00



$13,700 00



Items 1 and 2 are renewals of last year's requests, which
were rejected.

Norfolk State Hospital.
Ibwin H. Nefp, M.D., Superintendent,
Total valuation of plant, real and personal, $96,995.20.
Normal capacity of plant, 97. Value per unit capacity, $999.95.
Provides care and treatment for inebriates and users of
drugs in cases not deemed incurable, also detention colony for
noncriminal chronics.

Though the institution has been partially occupied through-
out the year, the actual transfer of all the inebriates and drug

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Part LI GENERAL WORK OF THE BOARD. 37

habitues from Foxborou^ State Hospital has been deferred
until the spring of 1914. By that time the service building
and other of the necessary portions of the new plant will have
been completed. Two cottages at the Oval, housing 25 patients
each, have been fuUy occupied since August.

During the year there has been a daily average of 68.25
inebriates and drug-users in residence at Norfolk State Hos-
pital. The corresponding average of the same class at Fox-
borough State Hospital has been 156.64. All of the patients
at Norfolk have been occupied in developing the new plant
They have dug the trenches, cleared and excavated building
sites, and reclaimed sprout land for tillage purposes. In addi-
tion, the patients at Foxborough have made the cement bricks
for the buildings in the hospital group.

During this year, as well as last, the functions of the new
hospital are hardly capable of consideration apart from the
Foxborough institution. The system of after care for patients
released on parole, which has applied during the past year to
both institutions, without distinction, shows encouraging results
for the four-year period just closed. During that time, as ap-
pears from the superintendent's report, 2,261 inebriates and
drug habitues were released to the out-patient department after
having been in the institution a sufficient length of time for
classification. Such transfer to the out-patient department is
effected with the patient's consent and with his promise of
co-operation. Of the total nimiber, 631, or 27 per cent., are
now at work and doing well. They show themselves to have
been unmistakably benefited by the hospital treatment. Six
hundred and eighty-five, or 30 per cent, show no improvement ;
836, or 37 per cent., were not located ; 74, or 3 per cent., have
died; and 35, or 1 per cent, have become insane. If the 836
cases not located were excluded from the total under considera-
tion, the percentage of improvement would be 44. It is be-
lieved that the new institution, with its vastly greater oppor-
tunities for self-help by the patients, will greatly strengthen
the foundation upon which the out-patient work is based and
consequently increase its effectiveness.

At the beginning of the year some of the buildings for which
appropriations were granted by the Legislature of 1912 were

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38 STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [P. D. 17.

still in process of construction. At the close of the year the
six cottages at the Oval had been completed, and the hospital
building, the two hospital cottages, and the service and in-
dustrial buildings, all at the hospital group, were nearing com-
pletion. The spur track for which $2,000 was granted was
carried as far as the service building. Connections for hot
and cold water supply and for sewage have been made coin-
cidentally with construction.

For the coming year the Trustees ask appropriations for the
following special improvements, all of which are approved by
the Board: —

1. Six cottages and eqaipment for men, each cottage

accommodating 25 persons $51,000 00

2. Chapel and recreation building 15,000 00

3. Extension to power house and equipment . . . 12^000 00

4. Underground piping, conduit, insulation, etc. . . 20,000 00

5. Outside wiring 2,900 00

6. Officers' quarters and equipment 5,700 00

7. Congregate dining room and recreation building . . 18,500 00

8. Cottage and equipment for women, the cottage accom-

modating 17 women 8^00 00

9. Bam 6,000 00

10. Extension of coal trestle and spur track . . . 4,000 00

11. Sewer and water construction ..... 2,500 00

12. Additional land 10,000 00



$156^00 00



The six cottages would form a part of the hospital group.
The chapel and recreation hall would provide a conmion place
of meeting in this group for religious services and necessary
assembly.

The power-house extension restores that unit to the di-
mensions originally recommended. In its present form it is
inadequate. The three other improvements for the hospital
group zre the small house for medical officers, the bam for
horses and the storing of ambulance and vehicles, and the coal
trestle. The last is an extension of the spur track, contemplated
at the time of the original appropriation.



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Part I.] GENERAL WORK OF THE BOARD. 39^

THE STATE TRAINING SCHOOLS.

The Lyman School for Boys at Westborough, the Industrial
School for Boys at Shirley, and the Industrial School for Girls
at Lancaster are the three industrial schools provided for by
the State for juvenile delinquents. They are administered by
a single Board of Trustees known as the Trustees of the Massa-
chusetts Training Schools, with offices at 274 Boylston Street,
Boston.

Boys under fifteen years of age may be committed to the
Lyman School, and under eighteen years of age to the school
at Shirley. Girls under seventeen go to the institution at Lan-
caster. All persons committed remain under the control of the
Trustees during minority. For greater efficiency in adminis-
tration, the Lyman School cares for boys under fifteen, while
those over that age go to Shirley.

The total number of persons under care in these three insti-
tutions during the year was 2,182. Of these, 1,049 were boys
under fifteen, all at Lyman School, 570 were boys over fifteen,
at Shirley, and 563 were girls, cared for at Lancaster.

In the three schools there were, at the beginning of the year,
867 inmates, namely, 568 boys and 299 girls. One thousand
three hundred and fifteen were received during the year, and
1,258 went out either by discharge or upon parole, leaving 924
on November 30, 1913, viz., 619 boys and 305 girls.

As noted last year, the numbers in these three schools are
rapidly increasing, a fact which has forced the trustees of
Lyman School to ask for a new cottage. They ask for exten-
sive construction at the Shirley School as a part of the develop-
ment of that new institution.

The combined appropriations for the maintenance of the
three schools totalled $260,730. On this account, $266,782.73
was expended, deficits of $2,999.60 and $3,053.34 occurring at
Lyman School and at the Industrial School for Girls respec-
tively. Subtracting all receipts from sources other than the
State Treasury, the net cost of maintenance to the Common-
wealth was $265,618.42. Details of administration and cost
are considered under each school separately, as follows : —

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40 STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [P. D. 17.

Lyman School for Boys, Westborouoh.
EiiiCER L. CorFBEK, Superintendent

Total valuation of plant, real and personal, $479,996.31.
Normid capacity, 383. Value per unit of capacity, $1,253.25.

Provides custodial care and industrial training for delin-
quent boys under fifteen years of age. Cottage plan.

During the year 1,049 cases have been under care, repre-
senting 832 separate individuals. This total number of cases
is 115 more than in 1912 and 245 more than in 1911. The
number in the school at the beginning of the year was 385 ; ad-
missions numbered 664 ; discharges, 609 ; remainder at the close
of the year, 440. The daily average number of inmates was
408.39, exceeding last year's average by 46.7.

The list of causes of admission in the 664 cases received dur-
ing the year was as follows: absconders returned, 118; assault,
1 ; breaking and entering, 54 ; delinquent child, 86 ; false fire
alarm, 2 ; larceny, 60 ; returned or transferred from other in-
stitutions, not penal, 56; returned or transferred irom other
institutions, penal, 1; returned from place of parole, 235;
setting fires, 1; trespassing, 1; carrying firearms, 1; man-
slaughter, 1; transferred by the State Board of Charity, 9;
stubbornness, 34 ; vagrancy, 4. Two himdred and fifty-four of
the foregoing cases were committed by the courts. Of this
number, 131 had been arrested before and 53 had been inmates
of other institutions. Fourteen per cent, were of American
parentage ; 48 per cent, of foreign parentage, and 10 per cent,
were unknown. Thirty-one of these boys were foreign born,
while 222 were bom in the United States. The nativity of
one was unascertained.

There has been a steady growth in numbers at the school dur-
ing the past year. The average number was 408 as compared
with 358 in 1912-13. The present equipment is capable of
caring adequately for 360 boys, and the problems of adminis-
tration are greatly increased by overcrowding. Discipline is
more difficult to maintain and suffers seriously because proper
classification is impaired when there is such scarcity of room.

The cottage at Berlin for the younger boys has been com-
pelled to handle 82 boys during the year, whereas, 50 is about

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Parti.] GENERAL WORK OF THE BOARD. 41

the number that can be put through the course of training
with reasonable success. The younger boys are placed out, as
a rule, directly from Berlin, and if their stay has been long
enou^ to insure them a proper amount of preparation for
normal family life they are saved from being sent to the main
schooL In so far as this plan succeeds, the purpose of Berlin
cottage is fulfilled, but the chance of success is greatly dimin-
ished when more boys must be cared for than can be properly
handled. As the number of commitments steadily increases,
the logic of the situation demands another cottage for this class.

While there is every advantage in establishing isolated cot-
tages for the care of the very young boys, the time is ripe to
consider whether the school proper has grown as large as one
institution for the care of juvenile delinquents should be per-
mitted to grow, in justice to the magnitude and importance of
the problem. As the numbers increase the personal attention
possible to be given to the individual by the superintendent
becomes more limited, and the boy must of necessity be left
more and more to the care of the subordinates. This is a great
loss to the boy and defeats the purpose of the school, which
succeeds or fails largely as the trained expert has the oppor-
tunity to come into intimate contact with the individual.

There have been no radical changes in policy during the
year and no important additions to the academic or industrial
resources. The presence of feeble-minded and defective de-
linquents is a continuing factor and an embarrassing problem,
which can only be solved by the provision of more facilities for
the care of these classes.

Despite the fact that the physical condition of the boys ad-
mitted to the school is generally very poor, the school has been
ixy good health. There have been no epidemics and only the
normal number of accidents and minor ailments.

With an appropriation of $114,000, a total of $116,999.60
was expended for the maintenance of this institution, creating
a deficit of $2,999.60. Of the amount expended $47,120.73
was for salaries, wages, and labor; all other expenses, $69,-
878.87. Weekly per capita cost of maintenance computed on
expenses less sales and refunds from maintenance, $5,465.
Total receipts from all sources other than the State treasury,

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42 STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [P. D. 17.

$685.94. Net cost of maintenance to the Commonwealth,
$116,313.66. Ratio of daily average number of persons em-
ployed to daily average number of inmates, 1 to 4.79. For de-
tailed analysis of receipts and expenditures, see pp. 69-80.

The ice house provided last year by the Legislature has been
COTistructed and is in service. The total expended out of ap-
propriations for special purposes was $981.08.

The Trustees make the following requests for appropriations
for special purposes: —

1. Milk house and creamery building $1,800 00

2. New cottage for 30 boys and attendants, and for heat-

ing, furnishing, and equipment 22,000 00

3. Extension and repair of cow barn 1,850 00

4. New boiler, engine, electrical apparatus, and repairs

for power plant 13,000 00

5. Additional equipment for printing shop and for dairy

equipment 1,300 00

$39,950 00

The items relating to the dairy and equipment represent
much-needed improvement in the conditions under which the
milk supply is produced. The request for an additional cottage
arises out of pressing necessity, since the numbers at the school
are now beyond the facilities for their care, and the present
rapid rate of increase shows no sign of abatement. The burdens
upon the heating and lighting units in the power plant have
grown with the expansion of the institution until enlargement
has become not only advisable but urgent for purposes of safety
as well as efficiency. The request is based upon careful survey
by competent engineers.

Industrial Schooi. for Boys, Shirley.
George P. Campbell, Superintendent,
Total valuation of plant, real and personal, $228,435.67.
Normal capacity of plant, 180. Value per unit of capacity,
$1,269.08.

Provides custodial care and industrial training for boys over
fifteen and under twenty-one years of age. Only boys under
eighteen may be admitted.



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Part I.] GENERAL WORK OF THE BOARD. 43

During the year 570 cases have been cared for, representing
215 separate indiyidnals. This total nnmber of cases is 58
more than in the preceding year. The number in the school at
the beginning of the year was 183. Admissions numbered 387 ;
discharges, 391 ; remainder at the close of the year, 179. The
largest daily census was 192; the smallest, 172; daily average,
182.26.

The list of causes of admission in the 387 cases received
during the year was as follows: absconders returned, 54; as-
sault, 2 ; breaUng and entering, 29 ; breaking and entering and
larceny, 20 ; cruelty to animals, 1 ; delinquent child, 29 ; dis-
turbing the peace, 1 ; drunkenness, 3 ; failure to report while on
probation, 1; forgery, 1; idle and disorderly, 7; larceny, 58;
IsLTceny and breaking glass, 1; receiving stolen goods, 1; re-
turned after leave of absence, 13; returned from place or
parole, 89; returned or transferred from institutions, penal,
20; returned or transferred from institutions, not penal, 11;
ringing in false alarm of fire, 1 ; robbery, 2 ; stubborn child, 31 ;
taking and using automobile without consent of owner, 1 ; va-
grancy, 5; violating rules of a training school, 1; wantonly
breaking glass, 1.

Two hundred of the foregoing cases were committed by the
courts. Of the boys thus committed, 123 had been arrested
before and 58 had been inmates of other institutions. Twenty-
nine, or 14 per cent., were foreign bom and 84 were unknown.
Of the remaining 86 per cent, bom in the United States, 149,
or 74.5 per cent., were natives of Massachusetts. The average
population of 182.26 exceeds the average of the preceding year
by 4+.

Of the 391 boys discharged or released during the year, 84
were placed at occupations, on parole; 21 were sent to other
institutions for custodial care, and 15 went to other institu-
tions, not penaL

The year has witnessed many physical improvements in the
school property, among which are the completion of one new
cottage and the partial construction of another. Five hundred
yards of concrete walks have been laid, and much grading about
the buildings has been done, giving the school an appearance
in harmony with its beautiful site. Other minor improve-



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44 STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [P. D. 17.

mentSy such as the building of a refrigerator, the excavation of
a cellar under cottage No. 2, for the purpose of installing a
recreation room for use in bad weather, and relocating baths
and toilet conveniences, were either finished or under way at the
end of the year.

These activities served to give employment to the boys, as all
the sand, stone, and gravel used in construction were found
upon the schooFs land, and all the unskilled work was per-
formed by them.

Three hundred feet of water and sewer pipe were laid during
the year. The north bam has been remodelled to house all the
cattle under one roof. The improvement makes this depart-
ment more efficient and easier of administration.

The general kitchen has been wholly rearranged, with great
benefit in economy and cleanliness.

Numbers have been high during the year, being constantly in
excess of the capacity of the dormitories, and there were many
unfilled applications from the courts when the year dosed.

Most of the boys committed to Shirley are disinclined to
work, this general attitude being presumably one of the chief
causes that finally results in their appearance before the court.
The regular habits of living imposed upon the boys at the
school, the careful physical oversight provided, and the program
of work, study and play, corrects this condition temporarily, at
least, in most cases, and permanently in a gratifying number.



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