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served here seven months. Warden has seven rooms and a bath-
room. One room, with two beds, set apart for hospital use. One
sitting-room and a smoking-room. Fifteen sleeping-rooms, with
twenty-seven beds. Two bath-rooms, with hot and cold water.
Three water-closets. Heating by steam. Lighting by electricity.
Complete separation of sexes. Total number of inmates during
year, nineteen; largest number at one time, thirteen; smallest num-
ber, eight. Number at time of visitation, ten, viz., six men, four
women. One man does general chores, one does bam chores, one
helps in men^s dining-room; one woman helps with housework; one
cares for women's dining-room, all women care for own rooms.
Ages : one between 30 and 40 ; one between 40 and 60 ; four between
50 and 60 ; one between 60 and 70 ; one between 70 and 80 ; two
between 80 and 90. Nine inmates permanent, one temporary. One
man and one woman mentally defective ; two men cripples ; one man
blind. One boarder, a man. Fourteen acres of land; seven acres
ploughed; five acres tilled. Chief products : milk and vegetables.

Valuation of almshouse property, $10,241.28. Total annual cost,
$2,572.80; net, $2,066.75.

Westpield. Population, 16,044.

Inepeoted May 16, 1913.

Warden, Charles E. Hatsall; matron, Mrs. Hatsall; salary, $700;
served here ten years. Five assistants, three men and two women,
paid by town. Warden has seven rooms. A separate building, with
three rooms and three beds, a water-closet and lavatory set apart for
hospital use. Corridors used as sitting-rooms. One smoking-room
and a library of books. Forty sleeping-rooms and three dormitories,
with forty beds. Two bath-rooms, with hot and cold water. Seven
water-closets. Heating by steam. Lighting by electricity. Com-
plete separation of sexes, except at meals. Total number of inmates
during year, thirty-eight; largest number at one time, twenty-six;
smallest number, twenty-three. Number at time of visitation,
twenty-four, viz., fourteen men, ten women. One man does general
chores, one helps with washing; one woman does general housework,
two prepare vegetables. Ages : one between 40 and 60 ; nine between
60 and 70 ; six between 70 and 80 ; seven between 80 and 90 ; one
between 90 and 100. All inmates permanent. Three deaths during
past year. One man and one woman mentally defective ; three men
and one woman cripples ; one man blind. One boarder, a man. Two
nurses, one man and one woman. Sixty tramps during year, sep-



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88 STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [R D. 17.

arated from other inmates, fed only. One hundred and fifty acres
of land ; fifteen acres ploughed ; fifteen acres tilled. Chief products :
milk, butter, vegetables, and poultry.

Valuation of almshouse property, $13,750. Total annual cost,
$8,097.41; net, $7,699.51. Cost of improvements and repairs,
$1,586.03.

Westpord. Population, 2,851.

Inspeoted Apxil 14, 1913.

Warden, Harry W. Barnes; matron, Mrs. Barnes; salary, $500;
served here one year. One assistant, a man, paid by town. Warden
has six rooms and a bath-room. One room, with one bed, set apart
for hospital use. One sitting-room. Thirteen sleeping-rooms, with
thirteen beds. One bath-room, with hot and cold water. Two
water-closets. Heating by steam. Lighting by oil. Complete sep-
aration of sexes, except at meals. Total number of inmates during
year, six; largest number at one time, six; smallest number, four.
Number at time of visitation, four, viz., two men and two women.
Two women help with housework ; one man does light work. Ages :
two between 50 and 60 ; one between 60 and 70 ; one between 80 and
90. Three inmates permanent, one temporary. One man and one
woman mentally defective. Three tramps during year, separated
from the other inmates, lodged, fed, not required to work. One
hundred and fifty-eight acres of land; nineteen acres ploughed:
twenty-five acres tilled. Chief products : milk and vegetables.

Valuation of almshouse property, $11,537.92. Total annual coet,
$4,010.05; net, $1,010.42.

West Newbuey. Population, 1,473.

Inapeoted November 12. 1913.

Warden, Harrison W. Tyler; matron, Mrs. Tyler; served here
one year and seven months. Warden leases the farm and boards
the inmates. Warden has five rooms. Dining-room used as sitting-
room. Twelve sleeping-rooms, with ten beds. One bath-room, with
cold water only. Three privies. Heating by stoves. Lighting by
oil. Total number of inmates during year, three ; largest number at
one time, three; smallest number, one. Number at time of visita-
tion, one man, between 90 and 100 years of age; permanent; does
no work. One death during past year. Sixty-five acres of land;
four acres ploughed; fourteen acres tilled. Chief products: milk
and vegetables.

Valuation of almshouse property, $7,500.



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Part III.] ALMSHOUSES.



Weston. Population, 2,106.

Inspected September 24, 1913.

Warden, George H. Henderson ; matron, Mrs. Henderson ; served
here nine and one-half years. Warden is allowed use of farm for
care of one inmate, and receives $2 per week for care of each addi-
tional inmate. One assistant, a man, paid by town. Warden has
five rooms. Dining-room used as sitting-room. Five sleeping-
rooms, with four beds. One bath-room, with hot and cold water.
One water-closet ; one privy. Heating by stoves and hot air. Light-
ing by oil. Total number of inmates during year, two ; largest num-
ber at one time, two; smallest number, one. Number at time of
visitation, one man, between 70 and 80 years of age; permanent;
does light chores; and is mentally defective. Sixty-eight acres of
land; seventeen acres ploughed; ten acres tilled. Chief products:
milk and vegetables.

Valuation of almshouse property, $6,000. Total annual cost,
$200.83 ; net, $200.83. Cost of improvements and repairs, $364.86.

Westport. Population, 2,928.

Inspected July 24, 1913.

Warden, Aaron Besse; matron, Mrs. Besse; salary, $400; served
here seven months. Warden has six rooms. One room, with one
bed, set apart for hospital use. One sitting-room. Nine sleeping-
rooms, with nine beds. One bath-room, without direct supply of
water. Two privies. Heating by steam. Lighting by oil. Total
number of inmates during year, three ; largest number at one time,
one ; smallest number, one. No inmates at time of visitation. Ten
tramps during year, separated from other inmates, lodged, fed, re-
quired to work one hour at wood pile. Forty-five acres of land;
one-half an acre ploughed; sixteen acres tilled. Chief products:
milk and vegetables.

Valuation of almshouse property, $4,505.18. Total annual cost,
$1,213.90; net, $986.22.

Weymouth. Population, 12,897.

Inspected June 9, 1013.

Warden, John Eldredge ; matron, Mrs. Eldredge ; salary, $1,800 ;
served here one year and two months. Warden has charge of town
wood yard and delivers wood to outdoor poor, without extra com-
pensation. Two assistants, one man and one woman, paid by
warden. Warden has six rooms and a bath-room. One room, with
two beds, set apart for hospital use. One sitting-room, a smoking-
room, and an assembly-room. Thirty-four sleeping rooms, with



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90 STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [R D. !?•

forty-five beds. Three bath-rooms, with hot and cold water.
Three water-closets; three privies. Heating by steam. Lighting by
electricity. Complete separation of sexes. Total number of inmates
during year, sevenly-eight; largest number at one time, forty-one;
smallest number, thirty-one. Number at time of visitation, thirty-
two, viz., twenty-two men, nine women, one boy. Two men do gen-
eral farm work, two do light chores, two help with washing, four
help in house; one woman does housework and sews and mends.
Ages : one between 15 and 21 ; one between 40 and 50 ; five between
50 and 60 ; eleven between 60 and 70 ; ten between 70 and 80 ; four
between 80 and 90. Twenty-nine inmates permanent, three tempo-
rary. Six deaths during past year. Two men and two women men-
tally defective ; one man epileptic ; two men and one woman cripples ;
one man mentally defective and crippled. Three consumptives,
two men and one boy, separated from other inmates at night
only, receiving special treatment and diet. Sixty-four acres of land ;
sixteen acres ploughed; seven acres tilled. Chief products: milk
and vegetables.

Valuation of almshouse property, $26,009. Total annual cost,
$10,662.36; net, $5,749.58. Cost of improvements and repairs,
$653.26.

Wilmington. Population, 1,858.

lupeoted January 29, 1913.

Warden, William S. Benson; matron, Mrs. Benson; salary, $500;
served here one and three-quarters years. One assistant, a man, paid
by town. Warden has five rooms. One room, with two beds, set
apart for hospital use. Dining-room used as a sitting-room. Seven
sleeping-rooms, with seven beds. Two privies. Heating by stoves.
Lighting by oil. Sex^s separated at night only. Total number of
inmates during year, four ; largest number at one time, four ; small-
est number, three. Number at time of visitation, three, viz., two
men, one woman. Men do no work ; woman helps with housework.
Ages : one between 40 and 50 ; one between 80 and 90 ; one between
90 and 100. All inmates permanent. One woman mentally de-
fective; one man a cripple. Eighiy-five acres of land; eight acres
ploughed; fifteen acres tilled. Chief products: milk and vegetables.

Valuation of almshouse property, $7,565.95. Total annual cost,
$2,628.32; net, $692.82. Cost of improvements and repairs,
$146.41.

WiNCHENDON. Population, 5,678.

IiMpeot«d November 19, 1913.

Warden, Amos L. Johnson ; matron, Mrs. Johnson ; salary, $600 ;
served here one and one-half years. Two assistants, one man and
one woman, paid by town. Warden has five rooms and a bath-room.



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Part III.] ALMSHOUSES. 91

One room, with one bed, set apart for hospital use. One sitting-
room, a smoking-room, and a reception-room. Sixteen sleeping-
rooms and two dormitories, with twenty-two beds. Three bath-
rooms, with hot and cold water. Four water-closets. Heating by
steam. Lighting by oil. Complete separation of sexes. Total num-
ber of inmates during year, twenty-seven; largest number at one
time, sixteen; smallest number, twelve. Number at time of visita-
tion, thirteen, viz., ten men, two women, one boy. Three men do
general farm work, one does bam chores, one helps in house; one
woman does sewing and mending and helps with dishes. Ages : one
between 16 and 21 ; one between 21 and 30 ; one between 40 and 50 ;
one between 50 and 60 ; three between 60 and 70 ; five between 70
and 80; one between 80 and 90. All inmates permanent. One
death during past year. One woman mentally defective; one man
a cripple; one boy and one man mentally defective and cripples.
Two hundred acres of land; fifteen acres ploughed; thirty acres
tilled. Chief products : cream and vegetables.

Valuation of almshouse property, $16,984. Total annual cost,
$6,178.32; net, $3,848.40. Cost of improvements and repairs,
$546.67.

WoBURN. Population, 16,308.

lospected January 28, 1913.

Warden, Thomas J. Begley; matron, Mrs. Begley; salary, $700;
served here nine years. Warden also delivers supplies to outdoor
poor and manages city store, without extra compensation. Five
assistants, one man and four women, paid by city. Warden has
eight rooms and a bath-room. One room, with two beds, set apart
for hospital use. Two sitting-rooms, a smoking-room, and a library
of books. Nineteen sleeping-rooms and two dormitories, with fifty
beds. Three bath-rooms, with hot and cold water. Six water-
closets. Heating by steam. Lighting by electricity. Complete
separation of sexes. Total number of inmates during year, seventy-
seven; largest number at one time, fifty-two; smallest number,
thirty-two. Number at time of visitation, thirty-four, viz., tweniy-
seven men, five women, two boys. Eighteen men help in caring for
pigs, hens, and cattle, saw and chop wood and help in the house;
one woman helps with housework. Ages: one between 2 and 6;
one between 5 and 15 ; three between 30 and 40 ; one between 40 and
50 ; three between 50 and 60 ; ten between 60 and 70 ; nine between
70 and 80; five between 80 and 90; one between 90 and 100.
Twenty-eight inmates permanent, four temporary. Ten deaths dur-
ing past year. Four men and one woman mentally defective; six
men and one woman cripples: three men blind. One able-bodied
inmate, a man, under sixty years of age. Three boarders, two men
and one woman. One man supported by Winchester. Thirty-five



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92 STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [P. D. 17.

and one-half acres of land; five acres ploughed; twenty-two acres
tilled. Chief products : milk and vegetables.

Valuation of almshouse property, $17,300. Total annual cost,
$6,540.92; net, $5,231.89.

Worcester. Population, 145,986.

IiMpected Aocust 18. 1913.

Warden, Thomas Home; salary, $1,650; matron, Mrs. Home;
salary, $500; served here one year and three months. Warden is
also superintendent of city scavenger department, without extra com-
pensation. Forty assistants, twenty-four men and sixteen women^
paid by city. Warden has nine rooms and a bath-room. Twenty-
nine rooms and one ward, with fifty-nine beds, set apart for hos-
pital use. Four sitting-rooms, a smoking-room, an assembly-room,
a nursery, and a library of books. Thirty-five sleeping-rooms and
six dormitories, with one hundred and eighty-five beds. Thirteen
bath-rooms, with hot and cold water. Twenty-two water-closets.
Heating by steam. Lighting by electricity. Complete separation of
sexes. Total number of inmates during year, three hundred and
eight; largest number at one time, one hundred and ninety-four;
smallest number, one hundred and fifty-seven. Number at time of
visitation, one hundred and fifty-seven, viz., ninety-nine men, fifty-
three women, two boys, three girls. Eight men do general farm
work, fifteen do light chores, nineteen help in house; nine women
help with housework, two sew and mend, one works in nursery.
Ages : two under 2 ; two between 2 and 5 ; one between 15 and 21 ;
four between 21 and 30 ; two between 30 and 40 ; seventeen between
40 and 50; twenty-two between 50 and 60; forty-four between 60
and 70 ; forty-two between 70 and 80 ; twenty between 80 and 90 ;
one between 90 and 100. One hundred and forty-nine inmates per-
manent, eight temporary. Thirty-one deaths during past year.
Nine men and twelve women mentally defective; four women epi-
leptics; thirty-four men and ten women cripples; seven men and
two women blind. Twelve able-bodied inmates, nine men and three
women, under sixty years of age. Seven boarders, six men and one
woman. One man and one woman supported by Templeton; one
woman by Southborough ; one man by the State. Four consump-
tives, three men and one woman, receiving special treatment and
diet; women wholly separated from other inmates; men, at night
only. Thirteen nurses, five men and eight women. Three hundred
and seventy-six acres of land ; fifty-four acres ploughed ; one hun-
dred acres tilled. Chief products : milk, vegetables, and pork.

Valuation of almshouse property, $240,835.38. Total annual cost,
$69,858.25; net, $43,652.03. Cost of improvements and repairs.
$3,500.



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Part III.] ALMSHOUSES. 93



Wrentham. Population, 1,743.

iDspected March 18. 1913.

Warden, Jacob Bleik, Jr.; matron, Mrs. Bleik; salary, $375;
served here ten years. Warden also drives school barge, without
extra compensation. Two assistants, one man and one woman, paid
by town. Warden has four rooms. One room, with one bed, set
apart for hospital use. One sitting-room. Ten sleeping-rooms,
with fifteen beds. One bath-room, with hot and cold water. One
water-closet; two privies. Heating by steam. Lighting by elec-
tricity. Sexes separated at night only. Total number of inmates
during year, seven; largest number at one time, seven; smallest
number, five. Number at time of visitation, seven, viz., five men,
two women. One woman helps a little with the dish washing.
Ages : one between 30 and 40 ; one between 50 and 60 ; one between
60 and 70 ; three between 70 and 80 ; one between 80 and 90. All-
inmates permanent. One death during past year. One man men-
tally defective ; two men cripples. One boarder, a man. Eighty-six
acres of land ; fourteen acres ploughed ; eighteen acres tilled. Chief
products : milk and vegetables.

Valuation of almshouse property, $10,724. Total annual cost,
$4,671.97; net, $1,287.64. Cost of improvements and repairs,
$196.42.



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STATISTICS OF POOR RELIEF.



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STATISTICS OF POOR RELIEF.



I^UMBBBS BeUEVED.

Some improvement is shown both in the completeness and
the accuracy of returns from cities and towns this year over
the data submitted to the Board last year. The information
covers public relief, whether rendered in institutions or out-
side, and, with some defects in analysis to be noted later,
covers aid rendered by all public agencies whether State or
local.

The following tables are arranged to show numbers relieved
and their analysis by sex, nativity, present age, and age at time
of admittance. The tabulations are concluded by figures for
cost of all relief.

Table I. shows the number supported or relieved by the
several cities and towns during the year beginning April 1,
1912, and ending March 31. 1913. All persons are included,
regardless of settlement. The total number receiving aid in any
form, exclusive of vagrants and wayfarers, was 66,737. Of
this number, 15,314 were aided in institutions, and 61,423 —
the remainder — outside, either in private families or in their
own homes. Of the persons aided in institutions, 11,910 were
relieved in the various city and town almshouses, leaving 3,404
who were cared for in other institutions. Of the outside aid,
1,537 cases were aided in private families other than their own,
while 49,886 were reported as having been aided in their own
homes. This last figure thus comprises practically all city and
town aid usually known as local public outdoor relief.

Table II. supplies the same data for persons aided or relieved
by the State as is shown in Table I. for local relief. In addi-
tion to aid rendered directly by the State, this table includes
also all those cases included in Table I., in which the relief
has been rendered by cities and towns in the first instance and

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98 STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [P. D. 17.

reimbursed by the State as required by law. A defect in the
analysis arises from the absence of continued cases, the statis-
tics for which are not thus far available; thus all those cases
under care in the State institutions March 31, 1912, and so
continued to April 1, 1913, are not counted. In an imperfect
way, therefore, the table shows 16,569 persons aided by the
State. Of this number the aid in 11,895 cases was first rendered
by the several cities and towns. The remaining 6,549 cases
were aided by the State ; 3,745 of them at the State Infirmary ;
366 in the almshouse wards at the State Farm; 105 at the
Massachusetts Hospital School, and 458 at the State sanatoria
for tubercular patients.

Table III. affords a rapid glance at the movement of popula-
tion in the dependent group during the year under analysis.
Thus it appears that 33,154 cases represented approximately
the total number of persons receiving aid April 1, 1912. About
85 per cent, of these were receiving relief locally. During the
year 38,257 new cases were admitted to relief, 46 per cent, of
which were aided either directly or through reimbursement by
the State. The persons who passed out of care during that
same period numbered 37,556, viz., cily and town cases, 25,772,
State cases, 11,784. Those in this total released by death
numbered 2,785 ; and 1,552 were persons transferred. At the
close of the year, therefore, the cities and towns had 29,070 per-
sons in receipt of relief, and the State had 4,785, making a
total of 33,855.

Table IV. begins classification of the whole number of per-
sons aided, and shows the analysis by color, nativily and sex.
Of the 71,411 persons so aided, 35,197 were males and 36,214
were females. The colored races furnished only 1.7 per cent.,
or 1,271, of the whole number. The native-bom whites —
45,314 — still number about double the foreign bom of the
white races, the 23,770 of this latter group representing a pro-
portionate increase of 8 per cent over last year. The sexes of
the native born stand about equal, while of the foreign bora,
the females outnumber the males by 19.6 per cent. These
ratios closely reflect those in the population generally.

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Part III.] STATISTICS OF POOR RELIEF. 99

Table V. gives a further interesting analysis of the native-
born persons aided during the year dassified by parent nativity.

The parents of 13,513 were both native; 21,087 were children
of foreign-bom parents; 7,898 were of parents one of whom
was foreign bom ; while the nativity of parents in 3,904 cases
remained unascertained. It appears from this table, therefore,
that of the 71,411 persons receiving aid in Massachusetts in
the year ending March 81, 1913, there were at least 45,013
who were either foreign bom or were of the first generation in
our citizenship.

Table VI. shows the number of poor persons admitted for the
first time during the year ending March 31, 1913, to relief in
institutions and in families, classified by sex and by age at the
time of such admittance. The total shown was 25,062, namely,
13,748 males and 11,314 females. Of this number, 632 were
of unknown age. Of the remainder, there were 4,401 under
five years of age ; 2,932 between five and nine ; 1,930 between
ten and fourteen; 1,179 between fifteen and nineteen; 1,560
between twenty and twenty-four; 1,685 between twenty-five
and twenty-nine; 1,679 between thirty and thirty-four; 1,674
between thirty-five and thirty-nine; 1,421 between forty and
forty-four; 1,150 between forty-five and forty-nine; 1,141 be-
tween fifty and fifty-four ; 954 between fifty-five and fifty-nine ;
972 between sixty and sixty-four; 689 between sixty-five and
sixty-nine ; 526 between seventy and seventy-four ; 295 between
seventy-five and seventy-nine; 170 between eighty and eighty-
four ; 44 between eighty-five and eighty-nine ; 19 between ninety
and ninety-four; 4 between ninety-five and ninety-nine; and
5 over one hundred. It appears, therefore, that 10,442, or 41.6
per cent, of all cases considered in this table, were under twenty
years of age, and that 10,964, or 43.7 per cent, were between
twenty and sixty.

An analysis of the present age of all persons relieved (Table
VIL), when compared with Table VI., in which are shown
ages at time of first admittance to relief, is calculated to show
on the average the length of time during which aid has con-
tinued, and also the number of persons aided during the past

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100 STATE BOARD OF CHARITY. [P. D. 17.

year who fell within the ages of youth, of probable self-support,
and of superannuation. By Table VII. it appears that of the
71,411 cases aided, 7,016 were under five; 25,770 were under
fifteen; 31,124, or 43.5 per cent, including the above, were,
under twenty; 27,354, or 38.3 per cent, were between twenty
and sixty; and 10,663, or 14.9 per cent., were over that age.
The ages of 2,270 were unknown.

Among the poor persons relieved are always a considerable
number of mental defectives who for one reason or another
have not been committed and are therefore not cared for in
the special institutions, such as the asylums for the insane,
maintained for that purpose. In regard to this class it is to
be noted further that, since no court has passed upon their
mental condition, their classification here is made cmly because,
in the opinion of the respective authorities making the returns,
there is no doubt of their defect Table VIII. affords a rough
classification into three groups, according to the nature of the
defect, and a division by sex. The total number thus cared
for was 613, namely, 343 males and 270 females. All of these
cases were relieved by the cities and towns, 95 of the number
having no settlement. Two hundred and seventy-nine of the
whole nimiber were classed as " insane,'^ mostly the senile and
mildly insane to be found in the almshouses. This total in-
cludes 157 males and 122 females. Two hundred and fifty-
three were called " idiotic," namely, 144 males and 109 females.
The " epileptics " totaled 81, of whom 42 were males and 39



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