UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES
Massachusetts Teachers 1
PUBLISHED BY THE ASSOCIATION.
r. PREFACE, ..... Page V.
N ORIGIN OF THE ASSOCIATION, . . . " 1.
o= ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS, ... "9.
ACT OF INCORPORATION, . . . " 149.
CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS, . . " 150.
OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION, . . " 153.
FIRST MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIATION, . " 159.
ALPHABETICAL, LIST OF MEMBERS, . . " 161.
TIMES AND PLACES OF MEETING, . . " 201.
LIST OF LECTURERS, ETC., . . . " 202.
MASSACHUSETTS TEACHER, . . . " 206.
EDITORS OF MASSACHUSETTS TEACHER. " 208.
The MASSACHUSETTS TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION
was organized in 1845. Its history is substantially
embodied in the following abstract of its proceed-
ings. In preparing this abstract, the committee to
whom the work was assigned have aimed to record
every important act of the Association ; to give
the names of all persons who have favored it with
lectures, papers, or illustrative exercises, and the
subjects thereof ; to specify the topics of all the
discussions and the persons who participated in
them ; and to furnish a complete list of the officers
of the Association and their time of service, and
of the editors of the Massachusetts Teacher. The
limits necessarily assigned to this publication are
such as to forbid all attempts to present an abstract
of the discussions. Such an abstract would fill
The changes made from time to time in the Con-
stitution of the Association have been stated in im-
mediate connection with the original articles. Two
of the changes are specially noteworthy, as having
been the occasion of long-continued discussions. Ar-
ticle 6 excluded the Vice-Presideiits from the Board
of Directors, making their office simply honorary.
In 1846 Mr. Gideon F. Thayer proposed an amend-
ment which was designed to include those officers
among the Directors. In 1847 the amendment was
rejected. In 1849 Mr. Thayer again presented his
motion to amend. The next year it was again
rejected. In 1853 a special committee reported
in its favor. The following year it was for the
third " time rejected. Mr. William H. Wells re-
newed the proposition to amend. No further action
on the subject was taken until 1858, when Rev.
Charles Hammond revived the amendment, and in
1859 it was adopted, thus constituting all the offi-
cers members of the Board of Directors.
The other change, which is far the most impor-
tant of all the amendments that have been adopted,
relates to membership. Under the original second
Article of the Constitution, only male teachers
were eligible to membership. By a vote of the
Association, female teachers were invited to con-
tribute essays on educational topics. In 1851, Rev.
Cyrus Peirce proposed an amendment to strike out
of the second Article the word " male," in order to
admit female teachers to membership on equal
terms with male teachers. The following year the
proposition was negatived by a large majority.
Mr. Peirce renewed his motion. In 1853 he called
up his amendment, but it was soon laid on the
table. lie once more renewed his motion. In 1854
it was rejected, but, in its place, an amendment
admitting female teachers to honorary membership
was adopted. In 1858 Mr. Homer B. Sprague pre-
sented the original amendment. The next year the
Association refused to take the subject from the
table. No further action on the proposed change
was taken until 18(56, when Mr. D. B. Hagar, in
behalf of a special committee on amendments to
the Constitution, presented a report in favor of
granting full membership to female teachers, and
the word " male " was then unanimously stricken
from the Constitution. Since that time a large
number of female teachers have become members
of the Association, a goodly number of whom have
served on the Board of Directors.
In 1868 an important change was made in the
mode of conducting the exercises of the annual
meetings. Then, for the first time, the Sectional
System was adopted. A part of the exercises were
held in general session, and for the remainder, the
Association resolved itself into three sections,
called respectively Primary School, Grammar
School, and High School Sections. This system
has been followed at all subsequent meetings, ex-
cepting that of 1872. Among its results have been
a great increase of interest in the work of the
Association and a much larger attendance at its
During the thirty-six years of its existence, the
Massachusetts Teachers' Association has accom-
plished a most beneficent work in behalf of popular
education. It is gratifying to know that its pros-
pects of continued usefulness have never been
brighter than they are at the present time.
DANIEL B. HAGAR,
ADMIRAL P. STONE,
ALBERT P. MARBLE,
ORIGIN OF THE ASSOCIATION.
CIRCULAR OF THE ESSEX COUNTY TEACHERS' AS-
SOCIATION, calling for a convention of practical
teachers to organize a State Association of Teachers.
SALEM, Nov. 3, 1845.
SIR: At a recent meeting of the Essex County Teachers'
Association, the undersigned were appointed a committee
for the purpose of calling a convention of practical teachers,
with the view to the organization of a State Association,
the membership of which shall be limited to actual teach-
ers. It is the opinion of the Association which we repre-
sent that much good results from organized meetings of
teachers, at which discussions of a truly practical nature
are made prominent. We feel that our own Association,
formed more than sixteen years ago, has, in a quiet and
unobtrusive manner, done much for the cause of education
in our county, and we are desirous that a State organization
may be formed, which shall exert a similar and more
extended influence. Such an association will bring to-
gether teachers from various parts of the State, and among
them will be men of sound views and large experience, who
will be ready to impart of " their abundance" for tho com-
mon good. In this way, whatever of excellence may exist
in one part of the State will be diffused through other
We believe that such an association will meet the hearty
approval of all who are engaged in teaching and especially
of all who are employed in the instruction of Public
Schools. We do, therefore, in accordance with tho cx-
2 ORIGIN OF THE ASSOCIATION.
pressed wish of our County Association, most cordially and
earnestly invite you to meet us in convention at Brinley
Hall, in Worcester, on Monday evening, the 24th instant, at
6 o'clock, then and there to consider the expediency of
forming a State Association of Practical Teachers. The
meeting will continue through the 25th instant.
Please extend to Teachers in your vicinity an invitation
to meet as above.
CHARLES NORTIIEND, ]
DAVID P. GALLOUP, Committee of
E. S. HOWARD, Essex County
EBEN S. STEARNS, Teachers' Association.
In accordance with the foregoing invitation,
teachers from various parts of the State assembled
in Brinley Hall, Worcester, on Monday, November
24, 1845. Charles Northeud, of Salem, called the
meeting to order and stated the objects of the call
for the Convention.
The Convention was organized by the choice of
the following officers :
President. Oliver Carlton, Salem.
Vice-Presidents. Thomas Sherwin, Boston; Ariel Parish
Springfield; Barnum Field, Boston; Warren Lazelle, Wor-
cester; Ebaii S. Steams, ISTewburyport; P. II. Sweetser,
Secretary. Samuel Swan, Boston.
Assistant Secretaries. Winslow Battles, Boston; W. K.
On motion of Mr. Sweetser, voted that all actual
teachers present be considered members of the
ORIGIN OF THE ASSOCIATION. 3
Messrs. Charles Northend, S. S. Green, E. S.
Stearns, Ariel Parish, and Warren Lazclle were
appointed a committee to draft a constitution for a
State Teachers' Association.
They reported a constitution which was unani-
mously adopted. This constitution, with amend-
ments made from time to time, is as follows :
ART. 1. This Society shall be called the MASSACHUSETTS
TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, and shall have for its objects the
improvement of teachers and the advancement of the
interests of popular education.
ART. 2. Any practical male teacher, of good moral char-
acter, within this Commonwealth, may become a member
of this Association by signing this Constitution and paying
an admission fee of one dollar.
At the meeting of the Association held in
1854, the following amendment was unanimously
All practical female teachers of this Commonwealth
may become honorary members of this Association by
signing tbe Constitution.
At the same meeting, the following amendment
was adopted :
Any person may, on the nomination of the Board of
Directors, be elected an Honorary Member of this Associa-
At the meeting held in 18GG, the word "male"
was, by a unanimous vote, stricken out of Article
2, thus admitting female teachers to full member-
phi}) in the Association.
A IIT. :}. Each member shall be furnished with a certifi-
cate of membership, having the seal of the Association and
4 OBiam OF THE ASSOCIATION.
the signature of the Recording Secretary; and any member
in good standing shall, at his own request, receive a certifi-
cate of honorable discharge.
ART. 4. Ladies engaged in teaching shall be invited to
attend the regular meetings of the Association.
This Article was superseded by the third
amendment to Art. 2, and was formally repealed at
the meeting held in 1876.
AKT. 5. The annual meetings of the Association shall be
held at such time and place as the Directors may designate ;
and notice shall be given at the previous meeting.
At the meeting in 1854, the words " and notice
shall be given at the previous meeting " were strick-
ART. 6. The officers of the Association shall be a Presi-
dent, fourteen Yice-Presidents, a Recording and a Corre-
sponding Secretary, a Treasurer, and twelve Councillors,
who, with the President and Secretaries, shall constitute a
Board of Directors. These officers shall be elected by
ballot at the annual meeting.
At the annual meeting in 1859, the words " all of
whom" were substituted for the words " who with
the President and Secretaries."
At the meeting in 1876, the words " Secretary
and two Assistant Recording Secretaries" were
inserted after the word " Recording."
AKT. 7. It shall be the duty of the President to preside
at all meetings of 'the Association; provided, however, that
in his absence, or at his request, one of the Vice-Presidents
ART. 8. The Recording Secretary shall keep a record of
the doings of the Association, and of the Directors, and
shall notify all meetings.
ART. 9. The Corresponding Secretary, subject to the
ORIGIN OF THE ASSOCIATION. 5
order of the Directors, shall be the organ of communication
with other societies and with individuals.
ART. 10. The Treasurer shall collect and re.ceive all
moneys for the Association, and shall present a written
report of his receipts and disbursements, at the annual
meeting, and whenever required by the Board of Directors.
He shall make no payments, except by order of the Board.
At the meeting in 1876, the following Article
was substituted for this Article :
ART. 10. The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due to
the Association, and pay all bills of the Association which
have been approved by the Board of Directors. He shall,
also, at the annual meeting make to the Association a writ-
ten report of the exact condition of the Association at the
beginning and at the close of the year for which the report
is made, including a statement of his receipts and disburse-
ments during the year. He shall, also, report to the Direct-
ors, at any time when required by them, the condition of
the treasury at the time the report is made.
ART. 11. The Board of Directors shall have the general
superintendence of the interests of the Association, with
authority to devise and carry into execution such measures
as will, in their opinion, promote its objects. They shall
engage suitable persons to deliver addresses and lectures at
the meetings of the Association, and make necessary ar-
rangements for the accommodation of annual and other
ART. 12. The Constitution may be altered at any regular
meeting by a vote of two-thirds the members present at
said meeting and voting thereon ; provided that the motion
for amendment shall be made at a previous meeting.
The Convention then dissolved.
The MASSACHUSETTS TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION was
called to order in Brinley Hall, Worcester, Nov.
25, 1845, at 1\ o'clock, P. M., by Josiah A. Stearns,
of Boston. Thomas Sherwin, of Boston, was ap-
pointed Chairman and George Allen, Jr., Secretary.
Permanent officers were afterwards chosen as fol-
President. Oliver Carlton, Salem.
Vice-Presidents. Thomas Sherwin, Boston ; David P. Gal-
lonp, Salem; A. K. Hathaway, Medford; Levi Reed, Rox-
bury; Warren Lazelle, Worcester; Gideon F. Thayer,
Boston; Emerson Davis, Westfield; Lucius Lyon, Shelburne
Falls; James Ritchie, Plymouth; Goo. A. Walton, Martha's
Vineyard; Joshua Bates, Jr., Boston; Calvin S. Pennell,
Cabotsville; William Russell, Andover.
Corresponding Secretary. Charles Northern!, Salem.
Recording Secretary. Samuel Swan, Boston.
Treasurer. Josiah A. Stearns, Boston.
Councillors. Ariel Parish, Springfield; Sam'l S. Greene,
Boston; Eben S. Stearns, Newburyport; Thomas Gushing,
Jr., Boston; Rufus Putnam, Salem; John Batchelder, Lynn ;
William H. Wells, Andover; William D. Swan, Boston;
Elbridge Smith, Worcester; James Bachellcr, Marblehead;
P. H. Sweetser, Charlestown; J. P. Cowles, Ipswich.
10 ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS.
The following resolutions, submitted by William
H. Wells, of Andover, were unanimously adopted :
1. Resolved, That the subject of school discipline is one
of inconceivable importance at all times, not only to teach-
ers, but to the whole community ; that the spirit of subor-
dination to rightful authority is the first element of all true
freedom, and that the very permanency of our free institu-
tions rests, in no small degree, upon the correct discipline
and healthful influence of the nursery and the schoolroom.
2. Resolved, That it is the duty of this Association to
express in unequivocal terms their sentiments on this
3. Resolved, That at the present time especially, teachers
suffer much embarrassment from the irresolute, wavering
opinions which prevail in the community on the subject of
corporal punishment, a,nd that unless more sympathy and
support are offered to teachers in enforcing the wholesome
restraints of the rod, when necessary, the evils of anarchy
and insubordination will ere long greatly increase in the
4. Resolved, That not only as an Association but as indi-
vidual teachers, we owe our most sincere and active efforts
to maintain what is right, and to correct what is wrong, in
the views of the community on the subject.
5. Resolved, That we regard it as one of the highest
duties of our profession to exercise the wholesome restraints
of disciplinary control in whatever form the nature of the
case may demand, and that all attempts to render the
judicious use of the rod odious in the estimation of the
public, tend to paralyze the free discretionary action of the
teacher, to cramp his authority and greatly to abridge his
influence and success.
The following resolution, offered by Joshua
Bates, Jr., of Boston, was unanimously adopted:
Resolved, That we most sincerely approve of the late
ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 11
movements of the teachers in the State of New York, in the
formation of a State Teachers' Association, and that they
have the sympathies and cooperation of the Massachusetts
Teachers' Association in all their efforts to promote the
general interests of Common School Education.
Rev. Cyrus Pcirce, of West Newton, submitted
the following resolutions, which were adopted :
Resolved, As the sense of this Association, that the Amer-
ican Institute of Instruction, for the important service they
have done, are entitled to the gratitude of all friends of
Resolved, As the sense of this Association, that the State
Teachers' Association is not formed to contravene the
operations of the American Institute of Instruction, or any
other literary association, but rather cooperative with it,
in one great and good cause.
Mr. Sweetser, of Charlestown, presented the fol-
lowing preamble and resolution, and they were
unanimously adopted :
WHEREAS, It is an established fact, that civilization and
refinement, morality and religion, have followed the intro-
duction of the Bible, wherever its principles have been
received and its claims acknowledged, therefore
Resolved, That, in the opinion of this Association, the
Bible, or selections from it, including such parts as relate to
the highest interests of man, and are calculated to fit him
for the various duties of life, ought to be introduced as a
text-book into our public and private schools.
James Waldock, of Mcdford, offered the follow-
ing resolution, which was adopted :
Resolved, That we appreciate fully the importance of
securing the sympathy and cooperation of practical female
teachers, throughout the Commonwealth, in furtherance of
our efforts for the advancement of the interests of educa-
tion; that we fully value the lessons which their ob. civa-
12 ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS.
tion and experience teach them, as highly as any that may
result from our own; and that we respectfully solicit them
to impart to us of their abundance, by written communica-
tions, at the regular meetings of the Association, or through
any organ of the Institution that may hereafter be estab-
A resolution with regard to the Board of Educa-
tion was offered by Rev. Cyrus Peirce, of West
Newton, which, on motion of William D. Swan, of
Boston, was laid on the table.
On motion of Charles Northend, of Salem, it was
voted to petition the Legislature for an act of incor-
On motion of Mr. Field, of Boston, it was voted
that the Board of Directors be requested to ap-
ply to the Legislature for pecuniary aid.
On motion of Mr. S. S. Greene, of Boston, a
committee, consisting of Messrs. Greene, Northend,
Sweetser, Lazelle, and Field, was appointed to re-
port on the expediency of establishing a Teachers'
SECOND ANNUAL MEETING,
Held in Brinley Hall, Worcester, on Monday
and Tuesday, November 23 and 24, 1846. President
Oliver Carlton of Salem, occupied the chair.
were delivered as follows :
By Elbridge Smith, Principal of the Worcester High
ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 13
School. Subject: " The Claims of Teaching to the Bank of a
Distinct and Independent Profession." Discussed by Messrs.
Th aye r of Boston, Greenleaf of Bradford, Field of Boston,
Richardson of Connecticut, W. D. Swan and Isaac F. Shep-
ard of Boston, and Sweetser of Charlestown.
By J. P. Cowles, of Ipswich Female Seminary. Subject:
" The Firxt Principles of School Government."' Discussed by
Rev. Cyrus Peirce of West Newton, Hale of Boston, Leach
of Randolph, and the lecturer. Voted to request a copy for
By Samuel S. Greene, Master of the Phillips School, Bos-
ton. Subject: " Teaching Grammar." Discussed by Messrs.
Andrews and Field of Boston.
By Ariel Parish, Principal of the Springfield High School.
Subject: " The Management of the Schoolroom." Discussed
by Messrs. Field and S. "W. Bates of Boston, Greenleaf of
Bradford, and Pennell of Springfield.
By Joseph Hale, Master of the Johnson School, Boston.
Subject: " Thorough Education." Discussed by Mr. Bowers
of Springfield. Voted to request a copy of the lecture for
Mr. Greene, Chairman of the Committee ap-
pointed to consider the expediency of establishing
a Teachers' Journal, reported the following resolu-
tions, which were adopted :
Resolved, That the true interests of the profession and
of the cause of education require the establishment of a
Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed by the
'Association with discretionary power to establish such
Journal, provided it can be done without subjecting the
Association to pecuniary responsibility; and that this
committee act as an editorial committee in conducting it.
The whole subject was then recommitted to the
Committee with discretionary powers.
14 ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS.
The following resolutions, presented by Mr.
Parish of Springfield, were unanimously adopted :
WHEREAS, An impression exists in certain portions of
the community that the Massachusetts Teachers' Associa-
tion contemplated in its origin the purpose of neutralizing
or opposing the influence of the Board of Education, and
still entertains hostile feelings towards that hody, therefore,
Resolved, That if an expression or sentiment tending to
produce such an impression has been uttered in any of our
deliberations, we entirely disclaim it as having been ex-
pressed with any such hostile motive.
Resolved, That it is our great object to advance the cause
of education in all its bearings on society, and that we rejoice
in every effort on the part of other associations and indi-
viduals in cooperating in the same great work.
The resolutions were supported by Messrs. Smith
of Worcester, Greenleaf of Bradford, Wells of
Andover, Swan, Tower, and Thayer of Boston,
Northcnd of Salem, and Cowles of Ipswich.
The principal officers elected for the next year
were as follows :
President. Oliver Carlton, Salem.
First Vice-President. Thomas Sherwin, Boston.
Rec. Secretary. Samuel Swan, Boston.
Cor. Secretary. Charles Northend, Salem.
Treasurer. Josiah A. Stearns, Boston.
First Councillor. Ariel Parish, Springfield.
THIRD ANNUAL MEETING,
Held in Hampton Hall, Springfield, on Monday
ABSTEACT OP PROCEEDINGS. 15
and Tuesday, November 22 and 23, 1847. Presi-
dent Oliver Carlton in the Chair.
Mr. Ariel Parish welcomed the Association. The
were delivered as follows :
By Samuel W. Bates, of the Adams School, Boston. Sub-
ject: " The Relation of Education to its Age." Remarks on
the subject were made by Messrs. Thayer, Bates, and Tower
of Boston, Wells of Andover, and Northeiid of Salem.
By Rev. Charles Hammond, Principal of Monson Acad-
emy. Subject: " The Relation of the Common School System
of New Enyland to Higher Seminaries." Remarks on the
subject were made by Messrs. Libbey of Portland, Sherwin
of Boston, Wells of Andover, Page of Albany, and Sweetser
By Thomas Sherwin, Master of the English High School,
Boston. Subject: " The Influence of Example, especially with
Reference to Education." Discussed by Messrs. North end
of Salem, Sweetser of Charlestown, Libbey of Portland,
Bowers of Springfield, Vail of Xewburyport, Pennell of
Charlestown, and Philbrick of Boston.
By Mr. Wheeler, of the Worcester High School. Subject:
" The Teacher's Profession." The subject was discussed by
Messrs. Bradlee of Charlestown, Bowers of Springfield, and
Sherwin of Boston.
After remarks on the subject of Truancy had
been made by Joshua Bates, Jr., of Boston, Mr.
Northend, of Salem, offered the following resolu-
Resolved, That a committee consisting of seven gentle-
men be appointed to consider the subject of truancy, with-
16 ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS.
power to bring the subject before the Legislature, if thought
The resolution was adopted and the committee
was appointed as follows : Joshua Bates, Jr. of
Boston, Ariel Parish of Springfield, William H.
Wells of Newburyport, Benjamin F. Tweed of
Charlestown, D. P. Galloup of Salem, William D.
Swan of Boston, and Charles Northend of Salem.
The following resolutions were adopted :
Resolved, That the Association recommends to the teach-
ers throughout the State to form themselves into associa-
tions, having their mutual improvement as teachers for
their object, which object they are to gain by suggestions,
discussions, and the expression of mutual sympathy;
That such associations be composed of the teachers of
one town, if the number be sufficient; if not, of those of