liesembles both Dendritic Agate and Moss Agate in the chalce-
donic matter enveloping a pre-existent structure, which acts as a core
to pseudo-stalactites. This structure in Jasp- Agate is, however, much
larger in amount, and as it consists of Jasper, it has its variegated
Sutherland. About one and a half miles south of Cape Wrath, near
an outlier of Torridon Conglomerate, in small veins in the Hebridean
Gneiss, in close association with Actinolite, Pdpidolite and Potstone.
The filamentous net-work is here brown.
Ayrshire. At Lagg Quarry, Fisherton, Ayr. The mossy or stalactitic
structure is yellow or brown, it is surrounded by purple Chalcedony,
which is zoned by layers of pale lavender (Blackwoocl). On both banks
of Burn Anne, about one and a half mile from Galston, in veins which
are segmented by Calcitic partings into brick-shaped masses. The chal-
cedonic matter rarely is arranged conformably to the sides of such forms,
but much more generally is disposed in sheathing layers around pendu-
lous " stalactites " of Jasper. The Chalcedony is, for the most part, of
its usual blue-grey colour, but occasionally it is sprinkled with yellow or
red spots, and rarely it is bright red. The included Jasper is of yellow,
brown, green, red, and scarlet tints ; frequently in clouded mixtures of
these, and the tints are for the most part vivid. The commonest
variety, which is a mottled mixture of brown, yellow, and a little red,
is termed the " Partridge." The most select variety is one in which the
earliest investing sheath of violet Chalcedony contains suspended spheres
of red, white, or yellow colour. These spheres have a minute opaque
Cacholong centre, a surrounding mass of radiating Chalcedony, and a
peripheral layer of a milky tint. A still more inexplicable structure is
one which resembles fragmented desmids enveloped in alternating layers
of Cacholong and Chalcedony. Occasionally a true agate structure of the
fortification type occupies such portions of the stone as contain less of
the Jasper. The specimens are altogether unrivalled in beauty.
Haddingtonshire. At Thorntonloch, near Dunglass (Greg), probably
from a breccia overlying the Silurian grey wacke, and inferior to the lowest
sandstone of the Old Eed.
Sutherlandshire. At Stronchrubie and elsewhere in the Cam-
brian dolomite [Durness Limestone] in large masses, of grey to red colour,
and of a cherty appearance. Elginshire : at Duffus, with Chalcedony and
Galena, in limestone. Aberdeenshire : at -f- Moreseat near Ellon, loose
Fracture subconchoidal to splintery ; lustre greasy to horny.
Hebrides : Bum, at Sgurr Mor, brown, blackish - green, and
lavender, banded with Prase. Eigg, in the Scuir, with Chalcedony and
Heliotrope. Inverness-shire: on the summit of Braeriach, banded
brown. Aberdeenshire : on the Ladder road and west side of the
summit of Mount Keen, purple. Strath Dee, on the right of the
road, near its turn to Glen Tilt, in beds, greenish-grey. Perthshire:
south-west of Ben Vuroch, Blair Athole, earthy, banded brown and grey.
Fifeshire : west side of Largo Law, banded green and wax-grey (Howie).
Haddington : at Dunbar. Garleton Hills, with Chalcedony, Quartz,
and Jasper. At Pencraik, near Traprain Law, in claystone, with
porphyritic slate. At the summit of Lucklaw, passing into felspar.
Midlothian : Blackford Hill, brown Anal. 1. Pentland Hills, with clay-
stone. Liulithgowshire : in an opening near the old quarry of Kirkton,
in imbedded masses in limestone of Yoredale age. Lanarkshire:
Tinto, in the Kirk Burn, Petrosilex, approaching to Hornstone, with
imbedded crystals of Hornblende. Kirkcudbrightshire : at Barlocco
Cave, brecciated (Dudgeon).
A1 2 3
Fe 2 3
1. Chalcedonic Hornstone
of Blackford Hill, .
2. Green Chert, Strontian,
076 2-843 ...
3. Cambrian Chert, Smoo,
076 -301 1 -153
4. Lydian Stone, Kinkell,
17-536 5-446 3'163
Impalpable granular ; fracture flat, angular, splintery ; lustre glisten-
ing. Sutherland : Smoo, snow-white, in a thick bed in Cambrian dolo-
mite, on the west side of the Geo Anal. 3. Inverness-shire : top of
Braeriach, banded yellow and brown. Banffshire : Cairngorm, greenish-
yellow. Aberdeenshire : Hill of Fare, rarely, in veins in granite, red.
Cabrach, Eedford, green, pseudomorphous after Calcite. Argyllshire:
Strontian, Fee Donald, grass green, with Galena Anal. 2. Lanarkshire :
Camilty Hill, near Harburn Station, blue-green. Renfrewshire : Cathkin
Hills, Carmunnock quarry, in green, fragmented, layers, with Saponite,
CpJcite, and Zeolitic Quartz (Skipskey). Roxburghshire : near Hadden,
in translucent red veins, with an agate vein in limestone. At Bedrule.
MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND
Printed by Nfill and Company, Limited, Edinburgh
LONDON . . . SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND CO., LIM.
CAMBRIDGE . . MACMILLAN AND BOWKS.
GLASGOW . . JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS.
MINERALOGY OF SCOTLAND
BY THE LATE
M. FORSTER HEDDLE, M.D., F.R.S.E.
KMBRITUS PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY, ST ANDREWS
J. G. GOODCHILD
H.M. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, F.G.S.
DAVID DOUGLAS, 10 CASTLE STREET
[All Rights Reserved]
CLEMENTINA C. S. THOMS (NEE HEDDLE),
OLDEST AND LOVED DAUGHTER OF THE AUTHOR,
WHO, ON THE DEATH OF HER MOTHER, ASSUMED THE CHARGE OF HER FATHER'S HOUSE,
ACTING A MOTHER'S PART TO HER BROTHERS AND SISTERS
WITH LARGE-HEARTED GENEROSITY AND UNSELFISH LOVE, AND
DEVOTED HERSELF TO HER FATHER
UP TO AND ALL THROUGH HIS LONG AND LAST PAINFUL ILLNESS
WITH A TENDER LOVING CARE WHICH NEVER FLAGGED,
TKaorfc of bee ffatber'0 is De&icateO bv
HER AFFECTIONATE HUSBAND.
IT is now well on to fifty years since the author of the present work
began to turn his attention to Mineralogy. During the time that has
since elapsed he collected an exceptionally large number of specimens
from almost every known mineral locality in Scotland, and made several
hundred analyses. In addition, he drew a large number of figures, and
published various papers containing the results of his investigations
upon both the Geognosy and the Mineralogy of his native land. The
present work may be regarded as the outcome of all this labour. Dr
Heddle had been engaged in the preparation of The Mineralogy of
Scotland for so many years that his friends had begun to despair of
ever seeing it published, but when his health finally gave way and he
foresaw that he could no longer hope to see the book completed in his
own lifetime, he made over the manuscript and the figures of crystals
to Mr Thorns, expressing the wish, as he did so, that he should get
the book published.
In the case of a posthumous work to be completed and published
under these circumstances, it was but natural that the family of the author
should regard it as a point of the first importance that the book should
appear as nearly as possible in the form in which it is believed the
author would have completed it himself. Accordingly, as few alterations
as possible have been made, and but little additional matter has been
appended, except what appeared to be necessary for the full under-
standing of the author's meaning. The unfinished sections have been
completed as much as possible from material left by the author ; and in
each case where any doubt arose with regard to the author's latest views,
we have been guided by the information afforded by the Scottish Mineral
Collection in the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art, which was
arranged under the author's own supervision, with the assistance of the
All additional matter supplied by the Editor is enclosed within
A comparatively small number of the figures of crystals which have
been engraved were left in the condition of first sketches. The majority
of these have been carefully projected, in accordance with Dr Heddle's
views, by Mr Wilbert Goodchild.
As Dr Heddle's labours extended over so many years, it has happened
that he did not employ any particular crystallographic notation consis-
tently throughout the work. It does not seem to have occurred to him
that he might not finish the book himself, and it was, possibly, for that
reason, that he left no clue to either the meaning of his symbols or the
sources whence his figures of crystals were taken. As far as possible
these defects have been made good; and Dr Heddle's symbols are
now given with what are believed to be their indexes, which are
accompanied by the symbols employed by Dana (6th Edition, System
of Mineralogy), in each case where these differ from those employed
by the author.
The author died before making the final selection of the illustrations,
and it has therefore been deemed advisable to have these all engraved,
just as they left his hands, even though some of them appear to have
been taken from other sources.
As regards the Scottish Mineral Localities, it is important to
remember that much of Dr Heddle's collecting was done before there
were many railways in Scotland, and also before the Ordnance Survey
maps appeared. As a consequence, there existed much diversity in the
spelling of many place-names, and furthermore, many such of great
importance as mineral localities never found their way on to even the
best maps. Dr Heddle was, therefore, often led to adopt a phonetic
spelling for the names of some of these. These, and other reasons, have
made the task of identifying the exact localities whence the minerals
were obtained one of considerable difficulty. A large number of
correspondents in all parts of Scotland, as well as the officers of the
Geological Survey, have aided in lessening this difficulty. The chief
helper, however, in this as well as in other matters connected with the
revision of the proof sheets, has been Mr James Currie, who has
gone over much of the ground, especially on the west coast of Scotland,
from which Dr Heddle collected, and whose extensive knowledge of
Scottish minerals and their localities has been placed unreservedly at
our disposal. Fortunately Dr Heddle traced the course of his annual
wanderings upon a set of the Ordnance Survey maps of Scotland, which
maps were bequeathed to the Scottish Mountaineering Club.
The Editor of the present work has also marked all the known
localities of Scottish minerals upon a set of the Ordnance maps, from
data got from the pages of this book, and from numerous other sources.
These maps are kept for public reference at the Edinburgh Museum of
Science and Art.
In an Appendix references are given to information which has been
acquired since the manuscript went to the printers. The Editor has
drawn some maps from data which are chiefly taken from the 6th
Edition of Dana's System. The methods of construction of these maps
is fully described by the Editor in a paper published in the Proc. Roy.
Phys. Soc. Edin. for 1900. He has also drawn up a full Index to
Localities, and has added other indexes which the reader may find useful.
Mr Thorns has compiled the County List.
Messrs Macfarlane & Erskine's engravings speak for themselves, and
it is certain that mineralogists will be grateful to Mr Wood for the care
and skill he has bestowed upon the reproduction of Dr Heddle's delicate
and artistic drawings of crystals.
EDINBURGH, 30th January 1901.
MEMOIR OF DR HEDDLE
BY ALEXANDER THOMS.
MATTHEW FORSTER HEDDLE, the second son of the late Eobert Heddle,
Esquire, of Melsetter, in Hoy, Orkney, was born there in the year 1828.
When the question of his education had to be considered, he was sent
for that purpose to Edinburgh, the Edinburgh Academy and Merchiston
both having had him as a pupil at different times. During the latter
part of that period he was boarded with John Brown (Author of Rob
and his Friends), of whom he always spoke with kindly feelings.
He afterwards attended the Edinburgh University, where in 1851 he
graduated as M.D., and subsequently for a short time he practised as a
Doctor in that City.
Chemistry and Botany, however, greatly interested him, and he took
to these with the energy and enthusiasm that was a characteristic of
Before long, however, he lent his Herbarium to a friend for a special
purpose, but an accident occurred whereby this was utterly ruined.
Thinking over his loss, he determined to relinquish Botany as a special
study, and to devote himself to Geology and Mineralogy, which determina-
tion he never afterwards regretted.
In 1856 Professor Connel, Professor of Chemistry in the University
of St Andrews, being unable from bad health to continue lecturing,
Dr Heddle was appointed his Assistant, on the understanding that he
Was to succeed to the Chair, which he eventually did in 1862, holding
the Chair until 1880, when he resigned. He was an able and interesting
Lecturer and Experimenter, and is still remembered by many of his old
students with respect and affection.
The summer holidays gave him the leisure, and year after year he
Xll MEMOIR OF DR HEDDLE.
devoted his time and talents to the study in the field of the Geognosy
and especially the Mineralogy of Scotland, with occasional trips to other
Dr Heddle's knowledge of Chemistry came to his aid, and enabled him
to distinguish many doubtful minerals, and to add very considerably to
the number known.
Of great physical strength and power of endurance, few parts of
Scotland and its adjacent Islands, whether mountain-tops, valleys,
railway cuttings, or mines, where there was any chance of finding rocks
or minerals, were unvisited and unexplored by him. "With hammers up
to 28 Ibs. weight, blasting powder, or dynamite, and wedges, he made
the rocks give up their hidden treasures, while, on his return to St
Andrews, the Chemical Laboratory, Microscope, Polariscope and Gonio-
meter revealed many a secret.
For some years Dr Heddle's attention was more particularly directed
to Sutherland and the Shetland Islands, and his published geological
maps of these speak for themselves, having been adopted, with only a few
changes, by the Authorities of the Geological Survey.
In 1858 he revised and practically edited Greg and Lettsom's
Mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland, making many original
additions thereto. He also wrote the article " Mineralogy " for the last
edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Dr Heddle contributed a number of papers in connection with the
rocks and minerals of Scotland, his "Chapters on the Mineralogy of
Scotland," printed in the Transactions of the Eoyal Society of Edin-
burgh, and " Geognosy of Scotland," printed in the Mineralogical
Magazine of the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland,
being the larger. An active member of the Scottish Mountaineering
Club, few of the mountain peaks in Scotland of any pretensions but
have been climbed by him at one time or other, and some weird but
highly interesting stories of the Brocken, and kindred phenomena, seen
by him on a few of these expeditions, when overtaken by mists and
states of the atmosphere favourable to such, were related by him, either
in the shape of Lectures to Societies or in private conversation. At an
early period, however, he conceived the idea of bringing out a book on
The Mineralogy of Scotland, and among all the other work he under-
took, he gradually but steadily added to the material for this, in the
shape of drawings of forms of crystals, analyses, localities, etc.
The slitting of Agates, Eocks and Minerals, for specimens and micro-
MEMOIR OF DR HEDDLE. xiii
scopic slides, which he did actually by thousands, amid all his other
work, was little less than marvellous.
Dr Heddle gradually got together himself a collection of Scotch
minerals (irrespective of a large and valuable general collection), now in
the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, which is generally admitted
by experts to be the finest collection ever got together of any one
Besides the above, Dr Heddle made the subject of the formation of
Agates a special study, and left a separate collection of these quite
unique showing the various phases, peculiarities, and varieties that
occur. This collection has now been placed in the Museum of Science
and Art alongside of his Scotch collection.
Dr Heddle was a F.K.S.E., and in 1851 was appointed President of
the Geological Society of Edinburgh, and in January 1884 this Society
appointed him as their first Associate.
In February 1876 the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and
Ireland elected him as Vice-President, while in 1879 he was elected
President. He was also a recipient of the Keith Gold Medal for his
researches upon the Ehombohedral Carbonates and on the Feldspars, an
honour he valued highly.
Although a specialist in Mineralogy, Dr Heddle's sympathies and
researches were not by any means confined to this subject, and embraced
not only cognate sciences, such as Chemistry and Geology, but extended
to other branches of science.
Dr Heddle was a man of very high and honourable principles, to
whom anything mean or dishonourable was abhorrent, and it may safely
be said of him, that among all the large mass of original work he did, he
never appropriated the discoveries or work of others, while he never
shirked stating his convictions, however antagonistic they might be
to what had previously been generally accepted.
Somewhat quick of temper, he was devoid of malice, and was of a
genial, kindly and generous disposition, while those who knew him best,
knew best his finer qualities and esteemed him most.
ST ANDREWS, 30th January 1901.
CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.
MEMOIR OF DR HEDDLE
SYSTEMATIC LIST OF MINERALS
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MINERALS .
INDEX OF SCOTTISH PAL^EOSOMATIC MINERALS
SCOTTISH MINERALS ARRANGED UNDER COUNTIES
Arsenic (8) .
CLASS I. NATIVE ELEMENTS.
NON-METALS. SUB-CLASS III.
1 Gold (13) .
Copper (15) .
Iron (25) .
CLASS II. SULPHIDES, ETC., OF THE SEMI-METALS.
SUB-CLASS I. SULPHIDES, SELE-
NIDES, TELLURIDES OF THE
Stibnite (28) . . . .14
Molybdenite (34) .... 15
SUB-CLASS II. SULPHIDES, ETC.,
OF THE METALS.
Argentite (42) . .16
Gakna (45) ... .16
Chalcocite (54) . .20
Blende (58) ... .21
Pentlandite (65) . . 23
Greenockite (68) . .23
Millerite (70) . .24
Niccolite (71) .... 25
Pyrrhotite (74) .... 27
Bornite(78) .... 29
Chalcopyrite (83) ... 30
Smaltite(87) .... 34
Gersdorffite (90) .... 35
Marcasite (96) .... 35
Mispickel (98) .... 36
Kermesite (107) .... 37
CLASS III. SULPHO-SALTS.
Bournonite (136) .... 37
CLASS IV. HALOIDS.
ANHYDROUS CHLORIDES AND
Halite (166) .... 39 Fluor (175)
CLASS V. OXIDES.
SUB-CLASS I. OXIDES OP SILICON.
Quartz (210) .... 43
Sapphire (231) ....
Hyaline Quartz, ... 49
Haematite (232) ....
Amethyst, . . . '49
Martite (232a) ....
Massive Quartz, ... 52
Ilmenite (233) ....
Crypto-Crystalline Quart/, . 55
Iserine (233a) . . .
Agate. Variegated Chalce-
dony. " Scotch Pebbles." 58
COMPOUNDS OF SESQUIOXIDES WITH
Agates ; Normal Structure, . 58
PROTOXIDES (SPINEL GROUP).
Abnormal Structures, . . 66
Abnormal Structures in the
Layers, . . . .69
Cracks in Agates, ... 72
Picotite (234) ....
Magnetite (237) ....
Chromiferous Magnetite (237a) .
Chromite (241) ....
Mocha-Agates, ... 73
Jasp- Agates, .... 73
Minium (244) ....
Alterations of Colour, . . 75
Jasper. ..... 82
Tridy mite (211) .... 84
Opal (212) 84
Rutile (250) . ...
Plattnerite (251) ....
Pyrolusite (254) ....
OXIDES OP THE SEMI-METALS.
Valentinite (216) . ... 85
Cervantite (221) .... 85
Turgite (255) ....
Manganite (258) ....
Limonite (259) ....
OXIDES OF METALS.
Limnite (260a) ....
Water (223) 85
Pyroaurite (267) ....
Cuprite (224) .... 86
Melaconite (230) .... 87
CLASS VI. OXYGEN SALTS.
Calcite(270) ... 114
Cerussite (281) . .
Dolomite (271) ... 137
Phosgenite (286) ....
Ankerite (271a) ... 139
Malachite (288) .
Magnesite (272) ... 139
Azurite (289) ....
Breunnerite (272a) . . 139
Siderite (273) ... 140
Hydrocemssite (292) .
Sideroplesite (273) . 141
Hydromagnesite (300) .
Smithsonite (275) . . 141
Aragonite (277) ... 141
Hibbertite (302) ....
Witherite (279) . . 142
Zaratite (303) .
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOLUME L
Portrait of Dr Heddle ...... Frontispiece
1. Axe-shaped Agate in two positions ..... 59
2. Onyx- Agate. Onyx parallel to flat side, druse filled with Quartz . 59
3, 4. Varying order of deposition ...... 60
5. Celedonite Stalactites ....... 60
6. Interlacing Celedonite, the framework . . . . .61
7. First coating of Chalcedony on Celedonite filaments . . .61
8, 9. Varieties of Agate building ...... 62
10. Fortification- Agate, with sectioned stalactites . . . .64
11. Fortification- Agate ....... 64
12. Cacholong and Chalcedony Agate, with one tube for all the Cacholong
layers. ........ 65
13. Cacholong and Carnelian Agate, with two tubes for the Cacholong and
one for the Carnelian layers ...... 66
14, 15. Dilatation on the tube the first filled with same material as the centre,
Quartz ; the second with Cacholong ..... 67
16. Onyx Agate ........ 68
17. Plynthoid Agate ........ 68
18. Wave Onyx ........ 68
19, 20, 21. Cross-section of Eyed Agate ...... 69
22. Section of Cacholong Eyes ...... 69
23. Cacholong Eyes. Inside skin of an Inky Onyx . . . .69
24. Disc-bearing Agate ....... 70
26. Discachatae and Oonachatae ...... 72
27. Hsemachatse Ovoids ....... 72
28. Hsema-Ovoid Rings ....... 72
29, 30. Longitudinal and transverse sections of Stalactite structure in Jasp.
Agate Ayrshire ....... 74
Stalactitic and Botryoidal masses of Psilomelane Lead Geo, Hoy, Orkney
(Plates X. and XI. of Min. Mag. III.) . . . To face 112
MAPS /JV TEXT
Gnamonogram of Quartz ....... To face 43
Gnomonogram of Calcite (Dana's Symbols) . . . . ,,114
Aragonite . ....... 141
Cerussite . . . . 143
LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS.
PLATES AT END OF VOLUME.
Gold, figs. 1, 2 Silver Copper Molybdenite Argentite Galena,
Galena, figs. 2 to 9.
10 to 17.
18 to 25.
fig. 26 Blende, figs. 1 to 7.
Blende, figs. 8, 9 Greenockite, figs. 1, 2 Pyrrhotite, figs. 1, 2 Chalco-
pyrite, tigs. 1 and 2.
Chalcopyrite, figs. 3 to 9 Pyrites, fig. 1.
Pyrites, figs. 2 to 9.
10 to 17.
18 to 22 Marcasite Tetrahedrite Fluonte, fig. 1.
Fluorite, figs. 2 to 9.
10 to 18.
Quartz, figs. 1 to 8.
9 to 16.
17 to 24.
25 to 32.
Haematite Ilmenite Magnetite, figs. 1 to 6.
Magnetite, figs. 7, 8 Rutile, figs. 1 to 5 Gothite.
Calcite, figs. 1 to 8.
9 to 16.
17 to 24.
25 to 32.
33 to 40.
41 to 48.
49 to 56.
57 to 62.
63 to 69.
70 to 76.
77 to 84.
85 to 92.