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Maud E. Kingsley, a. m.



The Palmer Company

BOSTON




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COPYRIGHT DEPOSm



Outline of
English History



Outline of

English History

by Maud Elma Kingsley



Copyright, 1912, by

The Palmer Company

Boston



The Palmer Company, Publishers
J20 Boylston Street, Boston






PRESS OF

NEWCOMB & GAUSS

SALEM, MASS.



XlfO

CI.A320820



Outline Study of English
History.



A. PRELIMINARY WORK.

I. ENGLISH HISTORY INCLUDES

J. The History of the British Islands (Particularly that of the Island of
Great Britain*)

2. The History of the English People*

a. Including- the development of the English language
and distinctive racial characteristics.

3. The History of the English Monarchy,

a. Including the development of English political insti-
tutions and ideas.
Note 1. The English people did not become the dominant

race in the British Islands until after 450 A. D. ;

English political history begins with the completion

of the Norman Conquest, 1066.

II. THE HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN BEFORE THE
ENGLISH SETTLEMENT.

Note 2. The island of Great Britain was known to the
Bomans as Britannia, whence the English Britain.

J. Traces of Primitive Man in Britain.

a. The paleolithic or chipped flint implements: their

occurrence in geological strata in connection
with the remains of animals long extinct in
Europe.

b. The neolithic or polished stone implements associated

with remains of animals of existing or recently
extinct species.



2 Outline Study of

c. The Bronze Age.

(1). Meaning- of the term.

(2). The great advance in civilization indicated by the

knowledge of smelting metals.
(3). Extensive remains of the prehistoric Bronze Age
in Britain,
(a). The Cromlechs : Dolmens: Stonehenge.
Note 3. Nothing is known of the language or race affilia*
tions of the people who erected these structures.

2* The Celtic Race : Its Part in European History*

a. Conquests of the Celts in western and southern

Europe ; in Asia Minor.

b. Settlement of the Celts in Britain, B. C. 600 to B. C.

200.

c. Complete absorption or extermination of previous

population by the Celtic invaders.

d. Introduction of the use of iron during the period of

Celtic settlement.

Note 4. Two very distinct varieties of the Celtic speech
exist in the British Islands : the Goidelic, represented
by the Irish and Highland Scottish languages ; and
the Brytlionic, represented by the existing Welsh and
the recently extinct language of Cornwall. This
fact is regarded as indicating progressive waves of
Celtic invasion.

e. Characteristics of Celtic civilization.

(1). The clan system of social organization.

(2). The use of both iron and bronze implements.

(3). Savagery of the masses but a certain degree of

barbaric magnificence among the chiefs.
(4). The Druid priesthood: its mysterious rites and

secret influence.

f . The Phoenicians of Cadiz and the Greeks of Marseilles

seek commerce in Britain.



English History 3

(1). Exploration of the coast of Britain by Pytheas
of Marseilles, 4th century B. C.
Note 5. The narrative of this early explorer is known
only by scanty and garbled quotations in later
writers.

3, The Roman Conquest of Britain : Britain Under the Romans.

'Note 6. The Bomans were the recognized protectors of
civilization and commerce in western Europe after
200 B. C, their dominions including the com-
mercial settlements of both Greeks and Phoenicians.

a. Conquest of Celtic Gaul by the Bomans under Julius

Caesar, 58 B. C. to 51 B. C.
(1). Invasion of Britain by Caesar in 55 and 54 B. C.
Note 7. These invasions were mere raids for political
effect since no claim of sovereignty over Britain was
made by Caesar.

b. Establishment of Boman interest in Britain through

commerce ; the adoption of Boman manners by
the British princes and noblemen.

c. Invasion of Britain by the Boman Emperor, Claudius,

to protect the Boman interest, A. D. 43.

d. London and Camuledunum (Colchester) centers of

Boman power.

e. Obstinate resistance of the Celts of the north and

west ; slow progress of the Boman Conquest.

f. Destruction of the Druids in the Island of Anglesey

by Suetonius Paulinus, A. D. 61.

g. Bevolt of Boadicea in the east, A. D. 62 ; cruel re-

venge of the Bomans.

h. Final establishment of the Boman power in Britain
by the victory of Julius Agricola over the Cale-
donians in central Scotland, 90 A. D.

i. Britain organized as a Boman province.

Note 8. A Boman province was a portion of the world of



Outline Study of

•which the Eoman people assumed the protection and
government. It was not regarded as an integral part
of a Eoman nation, nor were the provincials, as
such, Eoman citizens. The Eomans modified their
system of provincial government to suit the needs
of each individual province. People who were sub-
missive and capable were allowed some degree of
municipal independence ; a thoroughly trusted prince
or nobleman might be allowed to rule part of a
province as a vassal king. In general, the provincials
were forbidden the use of arms and were heavily
taxed to support the Eoman military garrison and a
swarm of civil officials sent from Italy to govern
them. A heavy tribute for the Eoman imperial treas-
ury was also exacted, and resident Eoman citizens
formed a privileged class. At the sacrifice of all
national aspirations, all political, and much of their
personal, freedom, the provincials gained protection
against foreign enemies and civil dissentions, a sys-
tematic and fairly just government, good roads, and
as much of the refining and civilizing influence exist-
ing in the Eoman world as they were capable of as-
similating.

Britain under the Eomans.
(1). Geography.

(a). Walled towns of Chester, Lincoln, London, St.
Albans, York.
(2). Eoads.

(a) . Importance of Eoman roads to Eoman civiliza-
tion,
(b). Survival of some of the Eoman roads in Britain
into Saxon and even later times.
(3). The Northern Frontier.

(a). No attempt made by the Eomans to extend
their conquests into the extreme north of Britain,
(b) . Consequently the Eomans were compelled to de-
fend a frontier against active savages constantly



English History 5

reinforced from Ireland and, perhaps, from Scan-
dinavia,
(c). The wall of the Emperor Hadrian (A. D. 122)
from the Tyne to the Solway : its purpose : exist-
ing remains.
(4). Advance of the Eoman frontier.

(a). The wall of the Emperor Antonius Pius (A. D.
142), between the Forth and the Clyde.
(5). Eevolt of the Caledonians and northern Britons

(A. D. 160-185).
(6). Expedition of the Eoman Emperor Septimus
Severus to Britain: his death at York (208) :
the frontier of Eoman Britain again established
at Hadrian's wall.
k. Life in Britain as revealed by excavation of Eoman
ruins.
(1). Towns generally small and mean as compared

with those of Gaul and Italy.
(2). Much of the country held, apparently, in vast
estates tilled by slaves and serfs.
1. Introduction of Christianity into Britain.

(1). Flourishing Christian churches in Britain in the

latter part of the third century.
(2). Legend of St. Alban of Verulamium.
(3). The town population apparently thoroughly
christianized during the fourth century,
m. End of Eoman Britain.

(1). Increasing pressure of the barbarians on all the

frontiers of the empire after 300 A. D.
(2). New tribes of savages, the Scots and the Picts,

appear in North Britain.
(3). German tribes from the region of the mouth of
the Elbe appear in Britain ; known to the Eomans
as Saxons.
(a). Their piratical incursions.
(b). The Count of the Saxon Shore.



6 Outline Study of

B, ENGLISH HISTORY PROPER,

I* THE ANGLO-SAXONS AND THE EARLY ENGLISH.

J, The Downfall of Roman Civilization in Britain Contemporaneous
with the Occupation of the Eastern Half of the Island by
German Invaders*

Note 9. A line drawn from the mouth of the Tweed
through the mouth of the Severn to the south coast,
would represent roughly the boundary between the
Celts and the Germans at the time when Eoman civ-
ilization finally disappeared, early in the 7th century.

2. Evidence that the Celtic Race became Extinct in the Region
included in the Earliest German Conquests*

3* Points to be Noted Regarding the Anglo-Saxons*

a. Their language, the earliest form of the English

language, was radically identical with the
languages of the German coast of the North Sea..

b. Meaning of the word Saxon as applied to these Ger-

man invaders by the Romans and the British-
Celts.
Note 10. The Germanic peoples called the British Celts.
"Welsh". There was a sharper distinction, physi-
cally, between the Englishman and the Welshman
than between the Englishman and the Hollander, or
North German.
Suggestion 1. Give the derivation and meaning of the
word "Welsh".

c. Traditional racial divisions of the German settlers in

Britain.
(1). The Angles, Jutes, Saxons; location of their re-
spective settlements.
Suggestion 2. Note the following points: (1) The deriva-
tion of the word "England" ; (2). Derivation of the
word "English"; (3). Original meaning of the term
"Anglo-Saxon"; (4). Extent to which the word



English History 7

"Anglo-Saxon" is synonymous with the word "Eng-
lish"; (5). The difference oetween the common use
of the term at the present day and its historical
significance.

d. Traditional or mythical stories of Hengist and Horsa
and the conquest of Kent ; of Aella and the South
Saxon settlements ; of Cerdic and the foundation
of the West Saxon kingdom.
"Note 11. There is no real history of the English con-
quests in Britain nor any surviving tradition or
myth to account for the English settlements north
of the Thames.

4, Racial Development of the Early English*

a. Barbarians lifted above utter savagery by their

knowledge of the rudiments of agriculture and
the simple domestic arts.

b. The social unit, the family.

"Note 12. Either the natural family, descendants of one
ancestor ; or the artificial family, formed by the de-
pendents of one lord. A man looked to his relatives
or lord for protection and was responsible to his rel-
atives or to his lord for his own conduct. No more
was expected of public authority than to see that
disputes between families or lords were terminated
in accordance with law and custom.

c. The economic unit, the household.

Note 13. By household was meant the actual household
and the hide or measure of land sufficient for the
support of one household. A man's wealth was
measured by the number of hides, the householders
of which were his serfs and tenants.

d. Classes of society.

(1). The King, believed to hold his rank, if not his
power, by right of divine descent and appoint-
ment.



S Outline Study of

(2). The Thanes (Anglo-Saxon Thegn), or chosen
warriors and counsellors of the king-; often
members of his own or other royal families and
usually landholders and lords,
(a). The thanes in actual military service, attending
the king, were called knights.

(3). Wealthy landholders or members of families
which, collectively, held much land.

(4). Free householders (ceorls or churls) who lived
on one or two hides of land which they either
owned or rented of a thane or wealthy land-
holder whom they accepted as their lord.

(5). Slaves, and freedmen who earned their living by
menial service,
(a). The wergeld or money value of a man's life.

5» Government of the Early English.

a. Large states incompatible with primitive social or-

ganization.
(1). Consequent division of England into a large
number of small kingdoms,
(a). Bernicia, Lindsey, Mercia, East Anglia, the
kingdom of the Hwicce, Wessex, and others.

b. Duties of government limited to keeping the peace and

defending or extending the boundaries of the
kingdom.

c. The king and his thanes the only public authorities.

d. Each landholder liable, under some circumstances, to

various taxes and tributes for the king's use, and
always liable to military service.

e. For administrative purposes, each kingdom was di-

vided into districts ; each district, under a thane,
who was known as the king's reeve.
Note 14. The administrative divisions of the kingdom of
Wessex were known as shires and their royal govern-
ors as shire reeves (contracted to sheriffs), names



English History 9

which English speaking emigrants have taken with
them into all parts of the world.

6* Manners and Customs*

a. Warfare.

(1). Wealthy classes best equipped for military ser-
vice, and, consequently, most relied upon.

(2). The kings, thanes, and knights, the nucleus of the
military force ; the horseman preferred to the
foot-soldier.

(3). A general levy of freemen in cases of emergency.

(4). Weapons and armor.
'Note 15. The two-edged cutting sword, the pike or
thrusting spear, and the javelrn were the usual
weapons of this period. The long bow did not
become the distinctive weapon of Englishmen un-
til after the Norman Conquest. The armor con-
sisted of a small round shield, a helmet of iron,
and a coat of iron chain mail.

b. Agriculture.

(1). Basis, the heavy plow drawn by eight oxen; vil-
lage co-operation enforced by the use of such
clumsy machinery.

(2). Fertility of the soil maintained by the prohibi-
tion of continuous cropping according to the uni-
versal mediaeval custom.

c. Social life.

(1). Little if any town life in earliest England. -
Note 16. London, Canterbury, York, and Lincoln, the
oldest English towns, were, perhaps, in existence
one hundred or one hundred and fifty years after
the destruction of the Eoman towns on the same
sites.
(2). Houses.

(a). Small, usually of one room, with high pitched
roofs covered with thatch or tiles.



10 Outline Study of

d. Trade.

( 1 ) . Exports : — cattle, wool, slaves.

( 2 ) . Imports : — gold and silver ornaments ; rich cloth-
ing.
(3). Gold, silver, and bronze coins in use.
Note 17. The words penny and shilling come from the
earliest English, but the names have indicated widely
different values at different periods.

e. Writing.

( 1 ) . The Runic alphabet.

(2). Knowledge of letters confined to a few and re-
garded as a magic art.
(3). Roman letters introduced "with Christianity.

f. Religion.

(1.) Same gods as those worshipped in Germany and
Scandinavia.
~Note 18. This is indicated by English names of the days
of the week. Tuesday (Tyr's day), Wednesday
{Woden* s day), Friday (Frigga's day), etc.
(2). Mythology and form of worship of the early
English unknown.
Note 19. The Teutonic religion seems to have been an
extremely primitive superstition which had been out-
grown long before Christianity was preached in the
north.

7. The Celtic Neighbors of England.

a. Wales, including Shropshire and Herfordshire, until

the middle of the 8th century.
Note 20. The Celts of Wales were restless and warlike
but were seldom united against the common enemy.

b. West Wales (Cornwall and part of Devon).

Note 21. This section was cut off from Wales by the
victory of the Saxons at Deorham, 577. It was a
rude and barbarous region having little connection
with early English history.



English History 11

c. North Wales, comprising the western Lowlands of

Scotland, with Cumberland and Westmoreland.
Note 22. This section was cut off from Wales when Ches-
ter was taken by the English, 613.
(1). Not a political unity at this time, later the pow-
erful British kingdom of Strathclyde.

d. The wandering Gaelic savages of the eastern and

northern Highland of Scotland who were known
as Picts.

Note 23. The Celts, at the beginning of the 7th century,
were all Christians, and all except the Highland
Picts retained some memory of Eoman civilization;
but, cut off from the Christian world and confined
by rugged mountains and desolate moors, they were,
in some respects, more barbarous than the heathen
English. The Celts and the English regarded each
other with mutual contempt.

8. The Civilizing of the English through the Introduction of
Christianity.

a. Survey of the situation.

(1). Gaul, Spain, and Italy, as well as Britain, con-
quered by German barbarians.
Note 24. The conquerors of these provinces, unlike the
English, were already Christians, familiar with the
ideas of civilization and open to civilizing influences.
(2). The Christian Church organization the most vig-
orous institution in the later Eoman Empire and
the most efficient protector of civilization during
the barbarian conquests.
(3). The universality of the Church kept alive the
Eoman Empire in spirit for ages after it had
ceased to exist in bodily form.
(4). Organization of the Church.

(a). Secular clergy who performed the services ol
the Church for the laity.



12 Outline Study of

(b). Eegular clergy or monks, who devoted their
lives wholly to religious contemplation and ex-
ercises,
(c). The Bishops or overseers of the Church, the
Popes.
1\ Gregory I. (Known as Saint Gregory), Pope
of Eome, 590-604 : his energetic character ; his
efforts to develop the primacy of the Eoman
Church into an effective dominion over other
churches ; his dream of a reunited Christian
world.
Suggestion 3. Eead the story of Pope Gregory and the
English slaves. State its meaning.

b. The Coming of Augustine, a Eoman monk, dispatched

by Pof>e Gregory as missionary to the heathen

English lands, 597.
(1). The conversion of Ethelbert, King of Kent, and

his people.
(2). The rapid evangelization of the greater part of

England.
(3.) Attempt of Augustine and his disciples to induce

the Celtic Christians to join "with the English

converts in communion with Eome ; the attempt

fails.
{4). Heathen reaction; the Eoman clergy driven from

Northumbria, 633.
(5). Northumbria reconverted by the Celtic missiona-
ries from the great monastery of Saint Columba

in the island of Iona.
(6). Contest between the Celtic and Eoman churches

for the control of northern England settled in

favor of Eome by King Oswy at the synod of

Whitby, 664.

c. Effect of the conversion of the English.

(1). Adoption by the English of the Eoman civiliza-
tion, including' what still existed of the Latin
literature.



English History 13

(2). Admission of the English to commercial and dip-
lomatic intercourse with the civilized Franks and
Italians.
Suggestion 4. What is meant by "Franks"?

(3). Establishment of the monastic system through-
out England.
'Note 25. The monasteries served as centers, not only of
learning, but of agriculture and industry as well.
(4). Development of the idea of a common English
nationality from the unity of the Church organi-
zation in England.

9* The English Kingdoms.

a. Varying boundaries and degree of independence.

b. The BreUvalda or chief king.

c. Supremacy of Northumbria, 650-700; of Mercia, 725-

800 ; of Wessex, after 825.

d. King Egbert recognized as BretwaJda, after 830;

sometimes reckoned as the first king of all Eng-
land.

JO* The Danish Invasion.

a. Beginning of the Danish raids.

(1). Origin and character of the people known to
the English as Danes, and to continental Europe
as Northmen.

(2). Their heathenism, bold seamanship, reckless cour-
age, and savage cruelty.

b. The Danish Invasion.

(1). Impelling motive of the movement.

(a). Over population of the sterile North; love of

adventure ; later, the desire for the luxuries of

civilization and the attractions of mild climate

and fertile soil.
(2). England exposed to attack: — neglect of the sea

and seacoast ; inefficiency of government ; lack of



14 Outline Study of

national spirit and co-operation for common de-
fence.
(3). The raids of Danish sea rovers in the reign of
Egbert become actual invasions in the reign of
Egbert's son, Mhelwolf, and his sons, 836-871.
(a). East Anglia, the southern half of Northumbria,
and the eastern half of Mercia became Danish
lands, before 875.
(b). Alfred, son of Ethehvolf, King of Wessex, at-
tacked by a great Danish host, 876.
1\ The defeated Danes forced to surrender to Al-
fred, 878.
(4). Treaty between the Danes and the English, after
897 ; The Danes accept Christianity, and acknowl-
edge Alfred as their over-lord.
(5). The Danish Dominion.

(a). Eecognition of Danish dominion in East Anglia,

Mercia, and Northumbria.
(b). The Danelagh: — East Anglia, the Five
Boroughs, York.
Note 26. A straight line drawn from Chester to the
Thames at London will roughly represent the
southern boundary of the Danelagh.
(6). Most important result of the Danish invasions,
(a). The development of an English nationality.
Note 27. With the exception of a small English kingdom
in Northumbria, north of the Tyne, all Englishmen,
who had escaped subjection to the Danes, recognized
Alfred, King of Wessex, as their sovereign.

\ I* Alfred the Gfeat : His Character.

(1). His military skill and his success in war; his
greater success in arousing national spirit and
enthusiasm ; his ability as an organizer of civil
life ; his patronage of learning and literature ;
his own literary work; his place in English lit-
erature.



English History 15

J 2. Efforts of Alfred's successors, Edward, Athelstan, Edmund, and
Erred to extend their sovereignty over the Danelagh,
900-955.

\ 3. End of the Political independence of the Danelagh, about 950.

Note 28. The Danes adopted the English, language with
some variations of dialect, and became Englishmen in
name and national instinct. They preserved, however,
many of their distinctive customs and laws and re-
mained an active and influential element of the Eng-
lish people.

J4. Reign of Edgar, 959-975, the culmination of the power of the
house of Alfred*

a. Archbishop Dunstan Edgar's chief counsellor ; his
enlightened statesmanship in Church and State.

J 5. Confusion after the death of Edgar; Aethelred the Redeless, or the
Uaready; meaning of the epithet,

J6. Renewed Danish invasions; conquest of England by the Danish
king, Sweyn.

1 7. Defeat of Edmund Ironside, son of Aethelred, by Canute, son of

Sweyn.

18. Canute, King of England, J0J7-X035,

a. His character ; his popularity in England.

b. His vast empire (including England, Denmark, and

Norway) in direct sovereignty, with overlordship
far to the east and west.

c. End of the Danish line with the deaths of the sons of!

Canute, 1040-1042.

19. England from the end of the Danish line to the Norman Conquest.

a. Eestoration of the line of Alfred in the person of Ed-

ward, son of Edmund Ironside.

b. Reign of Edward (known in history as Edward the

Confessor) , 1042-1066.
(1). Character of Edward I.



16 Outline Study of

Note 29. Edward the "Confessor" was a crowned monk,
respected only for his moral virtues and sincere
piety.

(2). The kingdom held for Edward by the three earls :
Leofric of West Mercia, Siward of Northumbria,
Godwin of Wessex.

(3). Growing- influence of continental ideas in English
politics ; increasing intercourse with the Nor-
mans across the channel.

III. THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

J. The Normans in France; their origin; their enthusiastic adoption of
Latin civilization; their energy and virility*

a. The Duchy of Normandy ; its relation to the Norman
race and to the French monarchy ; its situation,
extent and neighbors.

2. The Feudal System.

a. Effect of the feudal system upon society.

(1). Sharp division of classes; crushing burden of the
military class on the agricultural and industrial
population relieved somewhat by the institution
of free towns.
(2). Political effects of the Feudal System.

(a). The king only one of many great lords in his

kingdom,
(b). The dukes and counts legally royal officers
really independent sovereigns ; royal power over
them merely nominal.

3. Relations by marriage between the kings of England and the dukes

of Normandy. 4$

Note 30. Edward the Confessor was, through his mother,
a grandson of Eichard I, the third Duke of Norman-
dy; William, the reigning Duke of Normandy after
1035, was a great-grandson of Duke Eichard I.



English History 17

4. Harold* son of Earl Godwin ; his ascendency over King Edward;

story of his oath of homage to Duke "William of Nor-
mandy*

5. Death of King Edward, J 066, without direct heirs.

6. Harold, regent of the kingdom, immediately chosen king by the

Witan.

Suggestion 5. Explain the word "witan".

Xote 31. The action of the witan amounted to nothing"
more than a formal recognition of the fact that Har-
old had made himself king. The male line of the de-
scendants of Alfred was not extinct, and Harold had


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