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Maud E. Kingsley, a. m.




The Palmer Company

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Boston University Class of 1906
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Outline of
Grecian History



Outline of

Grecian History

by Maud Elma KingsleyJS4>S



Copytighl. 191 1, by

The Palmer Company

Boston



BOSTON UNIVERSITY

mitmi. 0^ LIMRAL ARTS

LIBRARY



The Palmer Company, Publishers
J20 Boylston Street^ Boston



:recc«



_H.S\.



PRESS OF

NEWCOMB & GAUSS

SALEM, MASS.



Fll



Outline Study of Grecian
History.



A. PRELIMINARY WORK,

L NATURE AND SCOPE OF GREEK HISTORY.

Note 1. The history of Greece and the Greek race is
the history of the beginning's of civilization in
Europe. All the essential inspirations and ideas
of modern European civilization are Greek in their
origin and w^ere developed and utilized in Greece
for ages before the ancestors of the leading Euro-
pean peoples of today had emerged from primitive
barbarism. Greek history, consequently, is, in some
sense, part of the real history of all European or
European-descended nations.

Suggestion 1. Give the meaning of the veords Hellas,
Hellenes, and Hellenic, as they are used in Greek
History.

n. ETHNOLOGY.

Suggestion 2. What is the meaning of the word Ethnol-
ogy? Name the five races into which, for purposes
of historical study, the human race is divided. To
which of these races do the Greeks belong?

U The ARYAN Race.

a. Its original liome; its migrations.

b. Branches of the Aryan Race.

c. The science of Philology — its uses and limitations.

d. Kinship of the Greek and Italian l)ranches of the Aryan

Race; how determined.



2 Outline Study of

B. PREHISTORIC GREECE.

L AS REVEALED BY ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.

Suggestion 3. What is meant by the science of Archaeol-



J» The Pre-historic Palace of Cqossus (Crete).

Note 2. At Cnossus, near the north coast of the island
of Crete, evidences of hig-h civilization have recently
been discovered w^hich are believed to be of date
as early as 2500 B. C. The remains consist chiefly
of the ruins of a splendid palace which seems to
have been the abode of rich and powerful kings
through many generations, possibly several centu-
ries. The building appears to have been three or
more stories in height and to have been ornamented
throughout with frescoes and statues in a style
of art which shows many of the characteristics
of the art of historic Greece. These early
Cretans made vases of artistic shape and col-
oring, wove elaborate fabrics, and even pos-
sessed a system of x^icture writing adapted to in-
scriptions of considerable length. Since this early
civilization, which archeologists have named "Ae-
gean" or "Minoan," has been recognized, traces of
it have been identified on other islands of the Ae-
gean Sea, on the Asiatic coast, and in Sicily.

2. The MYCENAEAN AGE : conditions of Life in this Period as
Shown by Archaeological Discoveries.

a. Intercourse ivith Egypt.

b. Probable acquaintance with the civilization of the

East through the Phoenicians.
Suggestion 4. Give the geographical location of the Ae-
gean Sea, Crete, Mycenae, Tiryns, Orchomenos, the
Troad.



Grecian History 3

n. AS REVEALED IN THE LEGENDS OF LATER AGES.
Xe The meaning of the word legend ; distinction between legend and
history; value of the legend as evidence accessory to archaeolog-
ical investigation.
'Note 3. A Legend is any story which, to the primitive
mind, explains or accounts for an existing- condi-
tion. The^ legend differs from tradition in not being
confined by fixed formula; and from history in that
its basis is ignorance, not knowledge, of past events.
The value of a legend in historical investigation
lies in the evidence it affords as to the ideas and
habits of thought of the people who originated and
circulated it.

2, THE HEROIC AGE: Significance of the Term.

a. Legends of the Heroic Age.

(1). The Legend of King Minos; of his Palace in
Crete; of his Cruelty, Power, and Dominion of the
Sea.

Note 4. The all-wise and all-powerful king of Crete
who exacted tribute from the islands and shores of
the Aegean Sea is the subject of these legends. Con-
nected with him is his associate, Daedalus, the mas-
ter craftsman.
(2). The Legend of the Descendants of Pelops ; of
their Dominion in the Peloponnesus ; of their Mas-
terful Character, their Wealth and Splendor.

Note 5. This is the legend of Pelops, who by fraud,
acquired the dominion of that part of Greece which
from him took the name of Peloponnesus, and of
his sons and grandsons who ruled there with great
power and splendor, but always under the curse of
family discord and domestic treason.
(3). The Legend of the Eeturn of the Descendants
of Heracles (Hercules) ; of their Invasion and Con-
quest of the Peloponnesus; of the Migrations of Peo-
ples, which Accompanied and Followed this Con-



4 Outline Study of

quest; of the Greek Settlements on the Eastern
Shores of the Aegean Sea.

Note 6. The leg-end of Heracles {Hercules), the national
hero of the Greeks ; and of the HeracUdae, or sons of
Hercules, the rightful rulers of the dominions which
the descendants oi Pelops had usurped ; and of the
conquest of the Peloponnesus by the HeracUdae,
aided by the rude and warlike tribes of northern
Greece.

Suggestion 5. Give the location of Thessaly, Boeotia,
Attica, The Peloponnesus, The Isthmus, Elis, Laco-
nia, Argolis, Aeolis, Ionia.

3. CHARACTERISTICS OF GREEK QVILIZATION DE-
VELOPED IN THE PREHISTORIC PERIOD.

a. The Greek Religion.

Note 7. The Greek religion was based on the idea that
the life of man is surrounded and controlled by
powers and influences, unseen and intang-ible, but
readily discerned by the rightly directed human un-
derstanding. These powers appeared in the oper-
ations of nature : the all-nourishing- atmosphere was
the greatest of all ; others were the sea and the fer-
tile soil. These powers also appeared in the work-
ings of the human mind; good counsel, the spirit
of combat, and the emotions of love being divinities
of the highest order. These gods were regarded
as individuals, and, ultimately, as persons ; they
were supposed to be endowed with the attributes of
humanity, but in their divine form they were never
visible to mortals. The gods were angry when neg-
lected by mortals and could be propitiated by acts
of worship, particularly by sacrifice. The idea of
sin as an abstract conception had no place in the
Greek religion, but just and righteous conduct be-
tween man and man was an essential condition
of the favor of the gods.



Grecian History 5

(1). General ideas as to the nature of the gods and
their relation to mankind. (See Note 7.)

(2). Idea of the universe in general; of the nature
and shape of the earth ; of the underworld ; of the
world of the dead.

(3). The Olympic gods: their names and attributes.

(4). The gods of the underworld: their nature and
power.

(5). Inferior divinities: — sea gods, river gods, dry-
ads, muses, etc.

(6). Demigods: — Heracles {Hercules), Perseus, Cad-
mus, etc.

(7). Heroes or "god-like" men.

(8). Forms of worship: — sacrifice, festivals, games,
(a). Oracles.

The GreeTc Character and Characteristics.
Suggestion 6. What effect did the climate and the sit-
uation of Greece have upon the physical develop-
ment of the Greek?

(1). Moral character.
HJote 8. The typical Greek was reverent but not super-
stitious. He was absolutely independent in thought ;
but in action he subordinated his individual will to
the interests of the community of which he was a
part. He was not instinctively warlike, but was a
good fighter, was unduly covetous of wealth and
honors, and easily fascinated by a display of wealth
and power. The Greeks passionately admired beauty
of form and elegance of expression and had high
ideals, of right and Justice.
The Greek Language.

(1). The bond of union of the Greek race.

(2). The pride of the Greeks in all ages in its purity
and systematic development.

(3). Its adaptability to all purposes of expression.

(4). The three dialects: Ionic, Doric, Aeolic.

( 5 ) . The alphabet : its eastern origin, indicating



Outline Study of

Phoenician influence in prehistoric Greece ; its two
leading varieties.

(a). Eastern, or Ionic, the alphabet of Greek liter-
ature.

(b). Western, or Chalcidian, the basis of the Latin
alphabet.

C HISTORIC GREECE.

"Note 9. The material remains of Greek civilization are
of artistic and archaeological value only ; for the de-
tails of Greek history, we are dependent upon the
works of historians who wrote at, or after, the
period when Greek civilization stood at its meridian
height. These historians, whose works have served
as models for similar literature in all succeeding
ages, made use of the works of earlier writers, now
known only by name, and of a vast amount of his-
torical record which has perished. They placed a
higher value on mythology and legend as historical
evidence than modern historians will allow, but
otherwise, were painstaking and conscientiously
critical in the use of their material. Unfortunately,
the Greek historians, whose works are known to the
modern world, by no means cover the entire ground
of their subject ; hence our knowledge of Greek his-
tory enables us to do no more than trace in out-
line, the general development of the race and to
fix the dates of the most striking incidents in the
history of the leading states, after 700 B. C.

L CHRONOLOGY,

l>lote 10. The great games in honor of Zeus {Jupiter or
Jove), held at Olympia in the Peloponnesus at mid-
summer of every fourth year, the events of which
were a matter of sacred record, furnished the Greeks
with a common era for fijcing dates. Each period of
four years was known as an "Olympiad" and the



Grecian History 7

four years of each Olympiad were numbered con-
secutively. The year marked in our chronological
system as the year 1 A. D. was known to the Greeks
as the first year of the 195th Olympiad, consequently,
the first year of the first Olympiad was 776 B. C.
The comparison is easily made for other dates.



n UNITY OF THE GREEK RACE.

Evidences of the Unity of the Greek Race.
Note 11. The underlying- fact of all Greek history was
the universal belief among the Greeks that the en-
tire race was of one blood and origin. The evi-
dences of this were :

a. Their common language.

b. Their common religious ideas and mode of worship.

c. The fixed shrines and special abiding places of certain

gods, known to all the Greeks and frequented Ity all
of them.

d. Common manners and customs.

Note 12. All foreign peoples were known to the Greeks
as ''l)arl)arians" the word, as they used it, meaning
nothing more than people who spoke an unintelli-
gible language.



2. Divisions of the Greek Race.

Note 13. The Greeks, however, noted two positively
distinct types of character in the race:

a. TJie Ionic, of which Athens was the leading exponent.

b. The Doric, of which Sparta was regarded as the type.
Note 14. To those members of the race who could not

be classed as either Ionic or Doric, the general term
of Aeolic was applied. Differences of dialect con-
formed, to some extent, to this idea of three
divisions of the Greek race.



Outline Study of

Results of Race Unity.

a. General acquaintance of the Greeks with one another

throughout the Greek world.

b. Hospitality, under reasonable restrictions, was re-

garded as a duty.

c. The greater oracles and shrines were neutral territory.
tiote 15. These oracles were places especially favored

by certain gods. At these spots, a worshipper, after
propitiating the god, might receive some indication
of the divine will or intention in connection with
his affairs. Consequently, well-known oracles were
frequented by worshippers from all quarters of the
Greek world and, in this way, promoted the idea
of race unity.

d. Any idea developed, any knowledge acquired, soon be-

came the common property of all Greeks.

e. Emulation and friendly rivalry.

liote 16. No state could afford to fall behind the race
standard in any important respect ; "Pan-Hellenic"
(All-Greek) fame in any line of worthy endeavor,
was the highest reward that could come to an in-
dividual.

f. Stimulation of literature and art.

Note 17. In other lands, literature and art were de-
pendent on royal or priestly favor; in the Greek
world they were international, and a public taste
was created by free and unbiased criticism.

m. POLITICAL AND SOQAL ORGANIZATION.

Basis of the Greek Political System— The Greek Qty Stote.

Note 18. The feeling of race unity and responsibility
to race opinion, although the most vital element in
Greek civilization, was not the basis of the Greek
political system. The reason for this lies in the
fact that the Greek mind could form no conception
of patriotism except, in connection with a single



Grecian History 9

community contained within one city wall. If the
idea of an all-Greek nationality ever occurred to a
Greek statesman he suppressed it as involving- trea-
son to the city which claimed his individual alle-
giance. When circumstances compelled Greek states
to act in concert, they did so, either by an alliance
of sovereign states on equal terms, or by a depen-
dent alliance of several small states with a greater
one. The equal alliance, owing to the impossibility
of reconciling the conflicting interests of so many
communities, was a rope of sand ; the dependent
alliance seldom lasted longer than the ability of the
leading state to compel obedience.

2. The Greek City State.

a. Points of advantage in its situation.

b. Its walls; the ''acropolis'''; the "'agora'''; temples and

public buildings.

c. The surrounding country : its relations with the city.

d. Social Classes in the Greek City State.

(1). Distinction between citizen and inhabitant.

(2). Noble families: their origin and duty to the
state.

(3). Wealthy citizens: sources of wealth.

(4). Poorer citizens.

(5). Citizens of inferior grade.

(6). Aliens under protection of hospitality.

(7). Transients and slaves.
Note 19. Slavery was the lot of a citizen who survived
the destruction of his city in war ; consequently,
slavery was a fate that might conceivably overtake
any Greek. The loss of personal freedom involved
the loss of all race privileges.

e. Military Service.

(1). The duty of every citizen.
Note 20. More and better service was expected of the
noble and wealthy than of the other classes.



10 Outline Study of

(2). Cavalry; Hoplites; Light-armed Soldiery;
(3). Greek Navies.

(a). Triremes: their crews.

(b). Distinction between soldiers and rotvers.

3* The Government of the Greek City State*

27ote 21. Greek states were all republics in the sense
that whatever concerned the city concerned every
citizen, but it was not considered essential that
every citizen should have an equal voice in the man-
agement of affairs. Government by representation
was unknown in the ancient world; whatever po-
litical power the citizen possessed, he was obliged
to exercise in person or not at all.
a. Types of Greek Government.

(1). Constitutional Hereditary Monarchy.
Note 22. This form of government seems to have been
universal in prehistoric times, but it was prac-
tically extinct in historic Greece. The kings of
Sparta were merely hereditary magistrates, not the
rulers of the state.
(2). Aristocracy. (Government hy the nohle families.)
(3), Oligarchy. (Government hp a close corporation

of nobles and of wealthy citizens.)
(4). Democracy. (Government ly all the people).
Note 23. This form of government might be so arranged
that the wealthy citizens (wealth and efficiency
being regarded as identical) were allowed supreme
influence. In this case the form of government was
known as '"ti^nocracy."
(5). Tyranny.
Note 24. It frequently happened that a masterful and
unscrupulous man overthrew the legal constitution
of his state and became the absolute master, or
rather, the sole administrator of the community.
This form of government was known to the Greeks
as a "Tyranny" and was regarded as disgraceful to



Grecian History 11

the state submitting to it, although the ability and
public services of the individual tyrant might be
recognized and respected.

l^ote 25. A few Greek peoples were unable to adapt
their way of life to the city organization, and con-
tinued to live in open villages. Such citizens were
regarded as backward and as lacking in true Greek
spirit,
b. Political Divisions of Greece at the Beginning of His-
tory.

'Note 26. Greece was divided geographically into dis- ,
tricts, the inhabitants of each district adopting the \
name of the district as a kind of national designa- |
tion. In some cases, as in Attica and Laconia, the \
district was politically organized as one city and 1
its suburbs; but usually the cities of a district were /
connected by no other bond than a feeling of com- ■
mon interest.

Suggestion 7. Name the districts of northern, central,
and southern Greece and the chief cities in each
district.

IV. PERIODS OF GREEK HISTORY.

J. PERIOD I. THE BEGINNINGS OF GREEK HISTORY.
B. C. JOOO— 700.

a. Legends of the Period.

Note 27. Of this period there is no actual historical
record, but the legends, accepted by the later Greeks
as constituting such a record, are believed by mod-
ern historians to embody much of the real history
of the time.
(1). The Homeric Poems.
Note 28. The Homeric poems were universally credited
by the later Greeks as historical documents.
(a). The Trojan War.

(b). Political and social organization described in
the poems.



12 Outline Study of

Suggestion 8. Show how this social organization differed
from conditions in historic Greece,
(c). The name ''Achaean'' ; its significance in Ho-
mer ; its significance in later Greek history.
Suggestion 9. What inference do you draw from these
facts?
b. Formation of the Principal States.

(1). The Dorians in the Peloponnesus.

(a). Legendary account of this settlement.

(b). The Spartans and Messenians ; location of

their settlement.
(c). The Aetolians of Elis.

1*. The Olympic Games : — their religious origin
and significance ; the contests and manner of
conducting them ; their early international im-
portance ; the protection of the games disputed
by Argos and Sparta.
(d) . Supremacy of Sparta in the Peloponnesus ;
Spartan conquest of Laconia.

1\ Lycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver: legendary
character of the accounts of his life ; Lycurgus's
system of government.
Note 29. The system of government ascribed to Lycur-
gus was based on the theory that the citizen existed
only for the state.

2\ Life in Sparta : — military training the sole
occupation of the free citizens ; commerce prac-
tically prohibited ; art and literature dis-
couraged ; the public meals ; absence of family
life; all labor performed by serfs; (Perioeci or
serfs of the state; Helots or serfs of the citi-
zens.)
Suggestion 10. Discuss the effect of this system,
(e). Argolis and the Isthmus.
1\ Advantageous position and early importance
of Corinth.



Grecian History 13

2\ King Phidon of Argos; his power and ambi-
tion.

a^. System of coinage, weights, and measures
ascribed to him.
(2). The Aeolians.

(a). The Arcadians; their rude and pastoral char-
acter.
(b) . The Achaeans ; their remoteness and obscurity.
(c). Thessaly and Boeotia.

1*. Boeotia an early seat of Greek civilization;

story of Cadmus.
2\ Constant movement of population southward
caused by pressure from behind; the Arneans.
(3). The lonians of Attica.

(a). Early connection with the East through the
commercial settlements of the Phoenicians on
their coast ; legendary connection with Crete,
(b). Threatened by the advance of the Dorians
from the south and by the Arnean Boeotians from
the north,
(c). Successful defense of their territory,
(d). Consolidation of Attica politically as one city

— Athens.
(e)« Consequent change from a monarchial to an
aristocratic government.
(4). The lonians of Asia.

(a). Their settlement ascribed by legend to the
overpopulation of Attica and consequent migra-
tion of Athenian colonists.
(b). Geographical location; advantages of soil and

climate,
(c). Their twelve cities; the Pan ionium.
(d). Their rapid rise in wealth and power,
(e). Their barbarian neighbors— Lydians, Carians,
Phrygians, etc.; superiority of the Greeks in all
manly qualities.



14 Outline Study of

(f). Asiatic influences; contact with eastern civ-
ilization.
(5). The Aeolians in the northivest angle of Asia
Minor; the Dorians in the southwest.
(a). Origin of these settlements unknown,
(b). Independent cities, rich and populous, but of
minor importance, historically.
(6). Points to be Noted in the Study of this Period,
(a). The Oracles.
Suggestion 11. See Note 15.

1^. The ancient oracle of Zeus at Dodona.
2\ The oracle of Apollo at Delphi.
Note 30. This oracle was especially frequented by the
Dorians and lonians, the most active and widespread
races of Greece.

a\ Early wealth and fame of this shrine.
b\ Manner of consulting the oracle; nature
of the responses given by the priestess ; influ-
ence of these responses in Greek history.
(b). The Amphictyonies or leagues of neighboring
states for the protection of oracles or other in-
ternational shrines.
1\ The Delphic Amphictyony.

a\ Extended by legendary fiction to include
all the leading states of Greece as well as the
small tribes in the immediate vicinity of the
shrine.
h\ Eeciprocal duties and obligations of mem-
bers of the Amphictyonic Council.
c\ This council the germ of an all-Greek na-
tionality, but never developed.
(c). State of civilization in this period.
1\ Agriculture the foundation of all wealth ; each

district supported itself.
2\ Commerce was limited to the importation of

objects of luxury from the East.
3\ Art.



Grecian History 15

'Note 31. Art was, as yet, limited to the fashioning and
decorating of pottery and to such rude attempts
at reproducing the human form in clay and wood
as are found in the prehistoric remains of Mycenae
and Troy. With this form of art, legend associated
the name of Daedalus.
4\ Literature.

Note 32. In literature we find only the names of (1)
Homer, to whom were ascribed the two Homeric
poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, noticed above, and
a number of hymns; (2) iTesiocZ, whose poems of
rural life, *'T/ie Works and Days,'' is surprisingly
modern in tone. It is believed that these poems were
composed for recitation as there is no evidence that
the Greek alphabet was in use before 700 B. C.

2. PERIOD II-GREEK DEVELOPMENT. 700—502 B* C.
a. Constitutional Development.
Note 33. In the eighth and seventh centuries B. C,
kingly government, as described in the Homeric
poems, became obsolete and ceased to exist in all the
important cities of Greece. As a rule, it gave place
to government by an aristocracy which claimed the
right to rule by its exclusive knowledge of the na-
tional religious rites and of the law, as yet un-
written. Sooner or later, such governments became
oppressive and advantage was taken of the popular
discontent to raise some ambitious and able citizen
to absolute power as a tyrant. As the tyranny had
no other basis than force, it seldom lasted long, and
usually gave place to a form of government in which
all the citizens, or at least, all the efficient citizens
had a voice in public affairs. The tyranny in ancient
Greece was by no means the evil thing suggested
by the modern use of the word. The tyrants broke
down the invidious distinction between citizens of
superior and inferior grade and often enriched their



16 Outline Study of

cities with public buildings and works of art and
literature. Many of the tyrants of this period were
known to future ages as the ablest statesmen of
the Greek race. Among them were CUsthenes of
Sicyon, B. C. 595 ; Cypselus and his son Periander, of
Corinth, B. C. 650 to 600; Pittaciis of Mytilene, B.
C. 525 ; Polycrates of Samos, B. C. 532 ; and Pisistra-
, tus of Athens, B. C. 550.

I b. Colonies.

j (1). Phoenician colonies in the western Mediterra-

I nean: Carthage.

Suggestion 12. In this connection, note the Greek ideas


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