Copyright
Maurice G. (Maurice Garland) Fulton.

Southern life in southern literature; selections of representative prose and poetry online

. (page 35 of 35)
Online LibraryMaurice G. (Maurice Garland) FultonSouthern life in southern literature; selections of representative prose and poetry → online text (page 35 of 35)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


the old-time darky that was even in his time beginning to disappear."

NEBUCHADNEZZAR (PAGE 410)

yeah s advancin : advances of supplies which the negro had secured
from some merchant against the value of his crops.

QUESTIONS, i. Relate the incident. 2. Is the habit of philosophizing
with the animals a negro may be working with characteristic of the
race ? 3. Is the humorous acceptance of discomfiture also one of their
characteristics ?

SELLING A DOG (PAGE 412)

QUESTIONS, i. Who is speaking? 2. To whom ? 3. What character
istics of the negro as a trader are shown.?

DAT PETER (PAGE 413)

QUESTION. What characteristics of the younger generation of
negroes is brought out in this poem ?



SIDNEY LANIER
THE TOURNAMENT (PAGE 416)

This was one of the earliest poems of Lanier. The first part was
written in 1862, amid the horrors of war, while the poet was in camp
near Wilmington, North Carolina. The second part was written three
years later at his home in Macon, Georgia, whither he had returned after
the war. The poem was first published in " The Round Table," in 1867.

QUESTIONS, i. Interpret the meaning of the first joust. 2. Does the
last stanza of this part of the poem seem to give the poet s attitude
toward the war in which he was engaged ? If so, what does it seem to be ?



NOTES 521

3. Interpret the meaning of the second joust. 4. What application
does this part of the poem have to conditions after the war ? 5. Note
the poet s emphasis on the need of the world of love as a vital element.

SONG OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE (PAGE 419)

This poem was first published in Scotfs Magazine, Atlanta, Georgia,
from which it is here taken.

The Chattahoochee is a river in Georgia that rises in the mountains
of that state, passes in its upper course through the counties of Hall and
Habersham, and flows through the lowlands into the Gulf of Mexico.

QUESTIONS, i. What reason does the river assign for resisting all
temptations to stay in its onward course ? 2. Apply this to life. 3. Is
the rippling and animated movement of the poem appropriate to the
song of a mountain stream ?

THE CRYSTAL (PAGE 421)

QUESTIONS, i. Under what conditions did the poet begin his mus
ings? 2. What conclusion did he reach in regard to great mankind?
3. In what way is Christ different from these so far as stainlessness of
character is concerned ?

SUNRISE (PAGE 422)

This is Lanier s last completed poem. It was first published in The
Independent, December 14, 1882, from which it is here taken. In the
words of Mrs. Lanier, it was written " while the sun of life seemed
fairly at the setting, and the hand which first penciled its lines had not
strength to carry nourishment to the lips." The poet is supposed to be
standing where he can look out over the salt marshes of Glynn County,
Georgia.

gospeling glooms : glooms that teach high truths. purfling : em
broidering. menstruum: a solvent. Olympian leisure: the leisure
of the deities of Olympus. Explain the force of " dateless " in this con
nection. born in the purple : of imperial rank, purple being the official
color of the Roman emperors. innermost Guest At the marriage of
elements : an allusion to the chemical action of the sun in the world of
matter. fellow of publicans : one who associates with everybody.
The publicans, or tax collectors, of the Roman Empire were a despised
class among the Jews and other Roman dependents.



522 SOUTHERN LIFE IN SOUTHERN LITERATURE

QUESTIONS, i. How have the marshes called to the poet in his
slumbers ? How is his awakening described? 2. In what spirit does he
go out to the live-oaks and the marshes ? 3. By what terms does he
address the trees and the leaves ? What question does the poet ask ?
4. What is the poet s petition ? 5. What bird emerges from the trees ?
6. What is the thought of the stanza addressed to the " reverend
marsh"? 7. Give the details of the full tide. 8. Explain the line
" The bow-and-string tension of beauty and silence." 9. How is the
motion of the dawn described ? 10. In what terms does Lanier describe
the first flush of the eastern sky ? 1 1. Trace his description of the slow
rising of the sun above the horizon. 12. Give the substance of the apos
trophe to heat. 13. What is the thought about the worker and his toil?
14. In what spirit does the poet return to the haunts of men after this
contact with nature ?

JOHN BANISTER TABB

Father T abb s poems are all short, a favorite form being the quatrain.
Critics have aptly called them cameos the most delicate art in the
smallest compass. Poetry of this sort demands the most refined tech
nique, and that of Father Tabb is almost perfect.

MY STAR (PAGE 429)

QUESTIONS, i. What is the thought of the first stanza? 2. What
application is made of it in the second stanza ?

KILLDEE (PAGE 430)

Killdee : the killdee, or killdeer, is a bird of the plover family that is
named from its cry " Kill-dee, Kill-dee."

QUESTIONS, i. What description is found in the first two stanzas?
2. What reflection does the poet put in the last stanzas ?

JOHN HENRY BONER

Edmund Clarence Stedman wrote of Boner as " that gentlest of
minstrels who caught his music from the whispering pines."

MOONRISE IN THE PlNES (PAGE 431)

bull bats : a colloquial name for the nighthawk. Heat-lightning :
more or less extensive and vivid flashes of lightning without thunder,
seen at the close of a warm day.



NOTES 523

QUESTIONS, i. What details of the evening scene are presented in
lines 1-32 ? 2. What aspects of the pines are presented in lines 33-48?
3. What elements has the poet emphasized in his description of the
moonrise, lines 49-64 ?

THE LIGHT OOD FIRE (PAGE 434)

light ood : a dialectal term applied to very dry pitchy and pine
wood used for making a fire quickly. Boreas : the north wind.

POE S COTTAGE AT FORDHAM (PAGE 435)

here unmated: the reference is to the death of Poe s wife. Apollo :
the Greek god of wisdom and prophecy. Astarte : the Phoenician
goddess of love. Dis : the lower regions. stranded: stringed
a oold use of the term. Israf el : see Poe s poem with the title, page
227, and the notes thereon. cenotaphed : erected a monument, or
cenotaph, to his fame.

QUESTION. \Vhat thoughts arise in the poet s mind at the recol
lection of Poe s cottage ?

W T ILL HENRY THOMPSON
THE HIGH TIDE AT GETTYSBURG (PAGE 437)

It seems to be one of the laws of literature that the best poetry
is not produced under the immediate stimulus of the event, but, as
Wordsworth expressed it, originates " from emotion recollected in
tranquillity." At any rate, this particular poem, written in 1888, has been
regarded by many as the most notable achievement in the verse
inspired by that great struggle.

The battle of Gettysburg was a development of General Lee s push
ing forward into Pennsylvania in 1863. At Gettysburg he met the
Federal forces under General Meade, and after three days of fierce
fighting (July i, 2, 3) he was forced to retreat southward. This battle
has been regarded as the turning-point in the Civil War, the fortunes
of the Confederacy steadily waning thereafter.

Pickett : General George E. Pickett, who led the final charge of the
Confederates in the battle. Shiloh s woods: an important battle of
the war, fought near Shiloh Church near Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee,
April 6 and 7, 1862. Chickamauga s solitudes : one of the most hotly
contested battles of the war, fought September 19 and 20, 1863, near



524 SOUTHERN LIFE IN SOUTHERN LITERATURE

Chickamauga Creek, about twelve miles east of Chattanooga, Tennes
see. Pettigrew : General J. J. Pettigrew, a Confederate officer who
was killed during the retreat from Gettysburg. A Khamsin wind : a
hot, dry wind of the African deserts. Kemper: General J. L. Kemper
of the Confederate forces. Garnett: General R. B. Garnett, who was
killed while leading Pickett s charge. Armistead : General L. A.
Armistead, who was killed in Pickett s charge. Doubleday: General
Abner Doubleday of the Federal army.

QUESTIONS : i. What details of the battle are given? 2. Show that
a spirit of broadest patriotism breathes through the poem.



SAMUEL MINTURN PECK
A SOUTHERN GIRL (PAGE 440)

QUESTION. What characteristics of the Southern girl are brought
out?

THE GRAPEVINE SWING (PAGE 441)

bayou : a sluggish stream which forms an inlet into a river or other
body of water.

QUESTIONS, i. Under what circumstances does the poet long for a
return to the joys of the grapevine swing? 2. What details of Southern
scenery are depicted ?

AUNT JEMIMA S QUILT (PAGE 443)

QUESTION. What details of an old-fashioned quilting party can be
gathered from this poem ?

WILLIAM HAMILTON HAYNE

A MEADOW SONG (PAGE 445)

QUESTION. What constitutes the appeal to come to the meadow?

WHEN DOGWOOD BRIGHTENS THE GROVES OF SPRING /
(PAGE 447)

QUESTIONS, i. What aspects of spring are described? 2. What cor
responding feelings are ascribed to men ?



NOTES 525

ROBERT BURNS WILSON
To A CROW (PAGE 448)

Robin Hood : an outlaw hero of English legend.

QUESTIONS, i. What characteristics of the crow are mentioned?
2. What contrast does the poet draw between the bird and man ?

BALLAD OF THE FADED FIELD (PAGE 448)

QUESTIONS, i. Note details presented to picture the field. 2. What
is the thought the poet wishes to emphasize ?

FRANK LEBBV STANTOX
ANSWERING TO ROLL CALL (PAGE 451)
QUESTION. How is this poem expressive of the spirit of nationalism?

MADISON JULIUS CAWEIN
EVENING ON THE FARM (PAGE 454)

bull bats : nighthawks. teetering : seesawing.
QUESTIONS, i. Carefully point out all the details of the picture
presented. 2. Does it seem lifelike ?

JOHN CHARLES McNEILL

v ,

AWAY DOWN HOME (PAGE 456)

QUESTIONS, i. What details of the coming of spring are given?
2. With what thought does the poem close ?

AN IDYL (PAGE 457)

QUESTIONS, i. What details of the poem are given? 2. Explain the
last two lines.

BAREFOOTED (PAGE 459)
QUESTION. What boyish feelings has the poet tried to describe ?



526 SOUTHERN LIFE IN SOUTHERN LITERATURE

WALTER MALONE
OCTOBER IN TENNESSEE (PAGE 461)

Aladdin : a character in the " Arabian Nights " who becomes pos
sessed of a magic lamp and ring, by rubbing which genii appear to do
his bidding.

Other Poets. A list of some of the more important poets of the later period in
Southern literature not represented in this book is given below. Maryland :
Virginia Woodward Cloud (186 - ), Lizette Woodworth Reese (1856- ) ;
Virginia: James Barron Hope (1827-1887), Armistead Churchill Gordon (1855-
), James Lindsay Gordon (1860-1904); North Carolina: Henry Jerome
Stockard (1858-1914), Benjamin Sledd (1864- ); South Carolina: George
Herbert Sass (1845-1908), Yates Snowden (1858- ), Carlyle McKinley
(1847-1904); Georgia: Robert Loveman (1864- ); Florida: Will Wallace
Harney (1831- ); West Virginia: Danske Dandridge (1858- ), Waitman
Barbe (1864- ); Kentucky: John Patterson (1861- ), Lucien V. Rule
(1871- ), Cale Young Rice (1872- ) ; Tennessee: Will T. Hale (1857- ),
John Trotwood Moore (1858- ), Will Allen Dromgoole (18 - ), Vir
ginia Frazer Boyle (1863- ) ; Mississippi: Lafayette Rupert Hamlin (1861-
1902) ; Stark Young (1881- ) ; Alabama: Clifford Lanier (1844-1908),
Howard Weeden (1847-1905), Martha Young ( - ); Louisiana: Mary
Ashley Townsend (1832-1901), Eliza Jane Poitevant Nicholson (" Pearl Rivers ")
(1849-1896); Texas: William Lawrence Chittenden (1862- ), Clarence
Ousley (1863- ).

SURVIVALS OF OLD BRITISH BALLADS

An account of Southern literature would be incomplete without some
reference to the ballads and songs of popular composition, sometimes
called folk-songs, in which the South is very rich. Though these songs
have endured from the earliest periods of Southern civilization, yet
they have only recently begun to be collected into print. Such poetry
has important historical value because it renders a picture of the life,
the tastes, and the feelings of those elements of the population of the
South which are largely untouched by books and education. With
the wider diffusion of education in recent years among the masses of
the people, this folk-poetry has begun to pass rapidly away, and it there
fore behooves the Southern people to find and preserve this valuable
material before it is too late to do so. The folklore and ballad societies
existing in almost every state as centers for carrying on this work of
collection should have the interest and active support of everyone.



NOTES 527

The distinctive features of these ballads and songs arise largely from
the circumstances of their origin. They were originally extemporized
in the presence of an audience ; on subsequent occasions reproduced
partly from memory, partly under the inspiration of new listeners and
new conditions ; then transmitted from singer to singer, and reshaped
by each. Thus there was evolved a composite product defying ascrip
tion to a single author which, though crude and homely as poetry, was
admirably fitted for immediate effect upon hearers who were neither
subtle nor critical.

One of the most widely discussed phases of this folk-poetry has been
the survivals of old British ballads. Many of these old ballads were
brought by the early settlers to the American colonies and have con
tinued alive by oral transmission in their transplanted home, even after
they had ceased to exist in this way in England. Of the three hun
dred and five English and Scotch ballads known to scholars, forty-two
have been found existing down to recent times in the Southern states.
Many of them are remarkably close to original versions collected in
England and Scotland ; others have so degenerated as to be hardly
recognizable. According to information available in 1916, the five most
commonly found survivals of old British ballads in the South are the
following : " Bonnie Barbara Allen," " Lady Isabel and the Elf Knight,"
" Lord Thomas and Fair Annet," " Lord Lovel," and " The Maid Freed
from the Gallows." The version of " Barbara Allen" (Child, 84*) here
reproduced was found among the country whites of Mississippi in 1909
by Professor E. C. Perrow. That of " Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor"
(Child, 73) was reported from South Carolina in 1914. Those of " The
Hangman s Tree" (Child, 95) and of "The Wife of Usher s Well"
(Child, 79) were discovered by Miss Backus in the mountains of North
Carolina. The version of " George Collins " (Child, 85) comes also
from the mountains of North Carolina.

Other Traditional Songs. Of much interest are the traditional songs native
to the South which have developed where under suitable conditions the ballad-
making impulse has asserted itself and created a song around an unfortunate
love affair, the capture of an outlaw, a battle of the Civil War, or other suitable
material. Of much interest also are the negro songs. In the life of this race
music plays a large part, especially in religious exercises and in collective labor.
Many of the negro s songs are taken from the whites, but more are of his own
devising and show all the characteristic features of popular composition.

1 This and the following references are to the authoritative collection
Professor F. J. Child s "English and Scottish Popular Ballads."



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF
SOUTHERN LITERATURE

This list aims at giving the more important books useful in the fur
ther study of Southern literature. References to histories of American
literature and to collections of selections from American writers have
been omitted, though nearly all the standard works in these fields treat
to some extent Southern writers. Neither have editions and biographies
of individual authors been included except for some very special reason.
Fuller bibliographies may be found in Moses " The Literature of the
South " and in Alderman and Kent s " Library of Southern Literature."

HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL

BROWN, W. G. The Lower South in American History.

CHANDLER, J. A. C, and others. The South in the Building of the
Nation, 1 2 vols.

CURRY, J. L. M. The Southern States their Relation to the Con
stitution and to the Union.

DODD, W. E. Statesmen of the Old South.

HART, A. B. The Southern South.

MURPHY, E. G. The Present South.

MURPHY, E. G. The Basis for Ascendency.

PAGE, T. N. The Old South.

PAGE, T. N. Social Life in Virginia.

PAGE, T. N. The Old Dominion : her Making and her Manners.

PAGE, W. H. The Rebuilding of Old Commonwealths.

RHODES, J. F. History of the United States (1850-1877), 8 vols.

TRENT, W. P. Southern Statesmen of the Old Regime.

WILSON, W. History of the American People.

WILSON, W. Division and Reunion (1829-1889).

528



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN LITERATURE 529

LITERARY
SELECTIONS FROM SOUTHERN WRITERS

ABERNATHY, J. W. The Southern Poets (selected poems of Lanier,
Timrod, and Hayne).

ALDERMAN, E. A. (General Editor), and KENT, C. W. (Literary
Editor). Library of Southern Literature, 1 6 vols. (The fullest and
most important collection of the work of Southern writers. The
selections are well chosen, but the critical sketches are by many
different persons and are of varying degrees of value.)

BREVARD, CAROLINE M. Literature of the South.

BROCK, SALLIE A. The Southern Amaranth.

CLARKE, JENNIE T. Songs of the South : Choice Selections from
Southern Poets.

DAVIDSON. J. W. The Living Writers of the South. (A valuable
book for writers living at the date of its publication, 1 869 ; con
tains many uncollected poems.)

FAGAN, W. L. Southern War Songs.

FORREST, MARY. Women of the South Distinguished in Literature
(1861).

HOLLIDAY, C. Three Centuries of Southern Poetry (1607-1907).

HUBNER, C. Representative Southern Poets.

HUBNER, C. War poets of the South and Confederate Campfire
Songs.

KENT, C. W. Southern Poems.

MANLY, LOUISE. Southern Literature from 1579 to 1895.

MASON, EMILY V. The Southern Poems of the War.

MIMS, EDWIN (Editor). The South in the Building of the Nation,
Vol. VIII. (Contains a history of Southern fiction, with illustra
tive extracts.)

MIMS, E., and PAYNE, B. R. Southern Prose and Poetry.

MOORE, F. Songs and Ballads of the Southern People, 1861-1865.

ORGAIN, KATE. Southern Authors in Poetry and Prose.

PAINTER, F. V. Poets of the South.

PAINTER, F. V. Poets of Virginia.

SIMMS. W. G. \Var Poetry of the South.

STOCKARD, J. E. A Study in Southern Poetry.



530 SOUTHERN LIFE IN SOUTHERN LITERATURE

TARDY, MARY. Living Female Writers of the South (contains
selections from those living in 1872).

TRENT, W. P. Southern Writers.

WATTERSON, H. W. Oddities in Southern Life and Character
(valuable for its selections from the humorists).

WAUCHOPE, G. A. The Writers of South Carolina.

WEBER, W. L. Selections from Southern Poets.

WHARTON, H. M. War Songs and Poems of the Southern Con
federacy.

, War Lyrics and Songs of the South. (This book, edited by a

group of Southern women and published in England in 1 866, is one
of the best as well as one of the earliest collections of its kind.)

BIOGRAPHY AND CRITICISM

BASKERVILL, W. M. Southern Writers, 2 vols. (Valuable for bio
graphical and critical studies of writers since 1870. Volume I is
altogether by the late Professor Baskervill ; Volume II contains
contributions by his friends and former pupils who desired to
complete his projected work.)

HENNEMAN, J. B. (Editor). The South in the Building of the
Nation, Vol. VIII. (Contains valuable articles on the literary
and intellectual life of the South.)

HOLLIDAY, C. A. History of Southern Literature.

LINK, S. A. Pioneers of Southern Literature, 2 vols.

MIMS, E., Life of Lanier.

PICKETT, MRS. J. C. Literary Hearthstones of Dixie.

RAYMOND, IDA. Southland Writers, 2 vols.

RUTHERFORD, MILDRED L. The South in History and Literature.

SHEPHERD, H. E. Authors of Maryland.

TRENT, W. P. Life of William Gilmore Simms.

Several of the books listed on the preceding page under the heading
" Selections from Southern Writers " are useful for biographies and
criticisms. In this connection Trent s " Southern Writers " and Alder
man and Kent s " Library of Southern Literature " are to be especially
mentioned. Much important biographical and critical matter will be
found in magazines, particularly the Sewanee Review and the South
Atlantic Quarterly.



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE
STAMPED BELOW



AN INITIAL FINE OF 25 CENTS

WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETURN
THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY
WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE FOURTH
DAY AND TO $1.OO ON THE SEVENTH DAY
OVERDUE.



f. B 11 1936


5Jan f 56RFY








Ai94 loiiK B i




loOO Lff


% ,


r ic"


J /*




Hj a


REC * i . C-


WM $ j^








APR 23 104


7 a%c 6^ w


***-* IJrt




Ap$ ;>


REC D LD


wrw j|_


M 28^66 -4PM








MAR i. R 1S6C S S






^3J5.n5rJp


IN &4.-4CKS




; r : BBS








LD 21-100*. /



YB 74986





v



F 3C0494

#




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY,






Online LibraryMaurice G. (Maurice Garland) FultonSouthern life in southern literature; selections of representative prose and poetry → online text (page 35 of 35)