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companion who had obtained the tickets, must have
been, when they beheld in one of the strangers the
chief personage in the performance.

Besides playing the Rondo, I improvised, for the
sake of the connoisseurs, on a theme from the " Mutes
of Portice." There was an overture, and some
dancing to conclude with. Schnabel wanted to
regale me with a sumptuous supper, but I only
took a cup of broth.

Of course I have made the acquaintance of the
chief organist in Breslau, Herr Kohler; he promised
to show me his organ. I met, also, a certain Baron
Nesse di Neisse, a great violin player and a pupil of
Spohr's.

Another musician resident here, a Herr Hesse,*

^' Adolf Friedrich Hesse, born in Breslau 1809, died there
1863, was one of the most distinguished of organists and organ
composers. He was a pupil of Kohler, whom he afterwards
succeeded. By long artistic tours he acquired a brilliant
reputation. In 1844 he was invited to Paris for the opening
of the great organ in the church of St. Eustache.



156 LIFE OF CHOPIN.

was also very complimentary to me ; but none of the
Germans, except Schnabel, whose face beams with
real delight, and who claps me on the shoulder every
moment, quite know what to make of me.

Titus took delight in watching what went on
around. As I have not yet got a name, people could
not make up their minds whether to praise or to
blame me, and connoisseurs were not quite certain
whether my music was really good, or only seemed
so. A gentleman came up to me and praised the
form, as something quite new. I don't know his
name, but I think of all my listeners he understood
me the best.

Schnabel placed a carriage at my disposal in the
kindest manner ; but when the dancing began, about
ten, we went quietly home. I am truly glad that I
was able to give pleasure to the dear old man.

After the concert, Schnabel introduced me to a
lady who is considered the first pianist in Breslau.
She thanked me very much for the " delightful sur-
prise," as she expressed it, but regretted, exceedingly,
that I would not make up my mind to appear in
public.

The Referendar consoled himself, and sang —
though very indifferently — Figaro's air from the
*' Barbiere di Sevilla."

A great deal was said about Eisner, yesterday, and
his Echo Variations for the orchestra were much
praised. I said that they could only judge what
a composer Eisner was after hearing his Coronation



ARRIVAL IN DRESDEN. I57

Mass. We leave for Dresden to-morrow at two
o'clock. I kiss and embrace you. My kindest
remembrances to Messrs. Eisner, Zywny, Matus-
zynski, Kolberg, Marylski, and Witwicki.

Your FREDERIC.



Dresden, November i^th, 1830.

I have scarcely found a moment yet to write you a
few words. I have just come from a dinner at which
the company were all Poles. I have crept away to
write to you, for the post goes at seven, and I should
much like to see the '* Mutes of Portici," at the
Theatre.

We quitted Breslau unwillingly ; the society of
the gentlemen to whom Scholtz had given us letters
of introduction made our sojourn in the capital of
Silesia very agreeable.

My first visit in Dresden was to Fraulein Pechwell.
She played, on Friday, at a Musical Soiree at
Councillor Kressig's, and procured an entree for
me. The " Mutes " was to be performed the same
evening at the theatre. The choice was difficult ;
but one must always be polite to ladies, so I decided
for the Soiree. Another important reason with m^e
was, that Signora Palazzesi,* the prima donna of the
Italian opera, was expected to be there.

* Mathilde Palazzesi, an excellent Italian singer, was engaged
by Morlacchi, at Dresden, in 1828, where she remained till the
closing of the Italian Opera, in 1832.



158 LIFE OF CHOPIN.

After making a very careful toilet, I had a Sedan
chair fetched, got into the queer, comfortable box,
and was carried to the house where the musical
entertainment was to take place. The spirit of
mischief seized me, and I felt a desire to stamp
through the bottom of the chair ; however, I
forebore.

Arrived at Kressig's abode, I sent up my name to
Fraulein Pechwell, whereupon the master of the
house appeared, received me with many compli-
ments, and led me into a room where a number
of ladies were sitting at eight large tables. No
flashing of diamonds met my gaze, but the more
modest glitter of a host of steel knitting needles,
which moved ceaselessly in the hands of these
industrious ladies.

The number of ladies and of needles was so large
that if the ladies had purposed an attack upon the
gentlemen, the latter would have been in a
sorry plight. The only resource left them would
have been to have made weapons of their spectacles,
of which there were as many as there were bald
heads.

The clatter of knitting needles and tea cups was
suddenly interrupted by music from the adjoining
room. The overture to '' Fra Diavolo " was played
first ; then Signora Palazzesi sang, in a magnificent
voice, clear as a bell, and with plenty of bravura. I
presented myself to the songstress, which gave me
an opportunity of speaking also to the Musical



KIND RECEPTION FROM THE ARTISTS. I59

Director, Rastrelli,* who had accompanied her.
With true artistic politeness Rastrelli introduced
me to Signor Rubini, who, with much affability,
promised me a letter to his brother, the famous
tenor. I do not need anything more for Milan.
Yesterday, Rubini kindly took me to the Catholic
Church, where a mass was being performed of
Morlacchi's (band-master here.) This refined and
agreeable man remembered me at once, and, giving
me a place beside him, talked to me a long time.
At these Vespers I heard the two celebrated Nea-
politan soprani, Sassaroli and Tarquinio ; the violin
obligato was played by the bandmaster, the incom-
parable Rolla, to whom Soliva had given me a
recommendation. Rolla received me very pleasantly,
and said he would give me a letter to his father, the
opera director in Milan.

After hearing Fraulein Pechwell play at the
musical soiree, I quietly slipped away to the opera ;
but only arrived at the commencement of the fifth
act, so refrain from any criticism. I shall hear it all
this evening.

As I was going at the Dresden visiting hour, to
call on Klengel, I met him in front of his house.
He knew me directly, and welcomed me with



* Joseph Rastrelli was musical director of the Royal Opera
in Dresden from 1823 to 1842. He was an excellent con-
ductor, and a good composer. His operas, " Salvator Rosa,"
and " Bertha of Bretagne," both achieved success.



l60 LIFE OF CHOPIN.

heart-felt politeness. I have a great respect for him.
Klengel asked me where I lived, and begged me to
come and see him early the next day, as he could
not go back with me then. He advised me to play
in public, but I told him, in as friendly a way as I
could, that I should not be here long enough for
that. I don't think Dresden would bring me either
much fame, or much money, and I have no time
to spare.

General Kniaziewicz, whom I saw at Frau Pru-
szak's, talked about a concert, but thought with me
that I should make little by it.

Yesterday I heard "Tancred," but could not, on the
whole, praise the performance. Rolla's marvellous
solo, and the song by Fraulein von Hahnel, of the
Vienna Royal Opera Theatre, had to make up for
the shortcomings of the rest. The King, with his
court, were present ; they were, the same morning,
at the service in the church, where a mass, by Baron
Miltitz, was performed, under the direction of Mor-
lacchi. The voices of Messrs. Sassarole, Muschetti,
Babnigg, and Zezi sounded magnificent. I cannot
call the composition original, but well worked out ;
the royal chamber musicians, Dotzaceer and Rum-
mer, celebrated violiricellists, played their solos very
finely.

I know none of the chief artists intimately, except
dear Klengel, to whom I am sure to play to-morrow.
I like to talk to Klengel, for one always learns
something from him.



THE WEEK AT DRESDEN. l6l

I saw the Green Arch when I was here before,
and once is enough for me ; but I have visited the
Picture Gallery again with the greatest interest ; if
I lived here I should go every week ; there are
pictures in it, the sight of which makes me fancy
I hear music. Good bye for to-day.

Your FREDERIC.



Prague, November 21st, 1830.

The week at Dresden slipped away so quickly that
I hardly noticed how it went. I used to leave my
hotel in the best of spirits in the morning, and did
not return till night. When Klengel came to know
me better as a musician, that is, when I had played
my Concerto to him, he said that my playing
strongly reminded him of Field, that my touch was
quite unique, and that, although he had already
heard much about me, he had not thought that I
was such a virtuoso.

I saw — and why should I be ashamed of it ? — with
pleasure, that these were sincere compliments ; and
he gave me a practical proof of their being so, for
scarcely had I left him when he went to Malacchi,
and to Councillor von Liittichau, who is director
general of the Royal drama, to find out whether, if I
stayed four days longer in Dresden, I could give a
concert without any very burdensome preparations.
Klengel assured me afterwards that he did not do

L



l6'Z LIFE OF CHOPIN.

this for me, but for Dresden, and that he should hke
to force me into giving a concert. He came to me
the next morning and said, that he had taken all the
necessary steps, but that there was no evening dis-
engaged till next Sunday (this v^as Wednesday.)
The first performance of ^' Fra Diavolo " was fixed
for Friday, and Rossini's " La Donna del Lago," in
Italian, for Saturday.

I gave Klengel a hearty welcome, for, indeed, I
feel as if I had known him for years, -and he seems
to feel the same towards me ; he asked for the score
of my Concerto, and took me with him to the soiree
at Frau Niesiolowska's. I also called on Frau
Szczerbinin, but I had stayed so long at Frau
Niesiolowska's th^t by the time I arrived the com-
pany had gone. I was, therefore, asked to dinner
the next day. In the afternoon I went, by invita-
tion, to see Countess Dobrzycka, who is head
governess to Princess Augusta.

The countess was celebrating her birthday, and I
had scarcely offered my congratulations, when two
Saxon Princesses entered : Princess Augusta, only
daughter of the late King Frederic Augustus, sur-
named " the Just," and Princess Maximilian, nee
Princess of Lucca, daughter-in-law of the present
King, a pleasant young lady,

I played before these ladies, whereupon letters
were promised me for Italy, which showed that my
playing must have pleased them. Two letters were
in fact sent to my hotel the next day ; the Countess



LETTERS FOR ITALY. 1 63

Dobrzycka will send the others after me to Vienna.
I gave her my address there. The letters were
addressed to the Queen of the Sicilies, at Naples,
and Princess Ellasino, at Rome, Letters of recom-
mendation were also promised me to the reigning
Duchess of Lucca, and the Viceroy of Milan, which
I was to receive through the kin^ care of Kraszewski.

Klengel has just given me a letter to Vienna,
where he thinks of going himself bye and bye. At
Frau Niesiolowska's he drank my health in cham-
pagne. The lady of the house teased me a good
deal, and insisted on always calling me " Szopski."

Rolla is a first-rate violinist, as anyone who knows
anything about violin playing must admit.

Goodbye till you hear from Vienna, which we
hope to reach by nine on Thursday morning.

I pleased General Kniaziewicz very much ; he told
me that no other pianist had made such an agree-
able impression on him ; I tell you this because I
know you will like to hear it.

Your FREDERIC.



Vienna, December ist, 1830.

I was greatly delighted with your letter, my
dearests, the first I have received for a month,
that is since I parted from you. My appetite in-
creased a hundred per cent, at once.

*' The Wild Man " — as the capital Restaurant



164 LIFE OF CHOPIN.

where I dine is called — charged a gulden and some
kreuzers for an excellently prepared fritter; what
more would you wish ?

Titus was full of joy too, for he received letters
from his family. I thank Celinski for the accom-
panying note ; it vividly recalled the time when I
was still among you ; it seemed to me as if I were
sitting at the piano, and Celinski standing opposite
to me, looking at M. Zwyny, who had just offered
Linowski a pinch of snuff. Only Materszynski was
wanting to complete the group. Has he recovered
from the fever yet ?

I must say that there are many charming girls in
Vienna.

Haslinger received me very kindty, although he
would print neither the Sonata, nor the second
Variations, but he shall repent this.

I learned, also, from Haslinger that Fraulein
Blahetka is in Stuttgart with her parents, and that,
perhaps, she will not come back at all this winter.

I have taken lodgings with Titus in one of the
principal streets, close to the vegetable market.
For three elegant rooms on the third floor, we pay
fifty gulden a month, which is considered cheap here.
An English Admiral is occupying them at present,
but he leaves to-day. Admiral ! And I am admired.*
So the house is a desirable one, especially as the



* N.B. — Do not show this letter lest I may be thought vain.

(Chopin's own observation.)



PLEASANT LODGINGS IN VIENNA. ' 165

mistress, a handsome, widowed baroness, still young,
has been — as she says — for some time in Poland,
and heard of me in Warsaw. She knew the family
Skarzynski had moved in good society, and asked
Titus if he did not know a beautiful young lady of
the name of Rembielinska.

The presence of this charming and intelligent lady
makes the apartments all the more agreeable, for she
likes Poles, and being a Prussian she regards the
Austrians with no great favour.

As soon as we go in Graff, the pianoforte-maker,
will send us an instrument. When I went to see
my friend Wiirfel, he began to talk immediately
about arrangements for a concert. He is a remark-
able man ; although too ill to go out he gives lessons
at his house. He spits blood, which has weakened
him very much, and yet he talks of a concert. The
poor sufferer told me that the newspapers here wrote
enthusiastically about my F minor Concerto, which
I had not the remotest expectation of. So I shall give
a concert, but when, where, how and what, I do not
in the least know.

The change of air has given me a swollen nose,
which hindered me from presenting myself at the
Prussian Ambassador's hotel, or at Countess Rzei-
ouska's, the rendezvous of all the " haute volee."
This lady lives next to Hussarzewski's, where, in
spite of my nose, I have already been two or three
times. He is of the same opinion as Wiirfel,
who advised me to play without honorarium. Dr.



l65 LIFE OF CHOPIN.

Malfatti * welcomed me as warmly as if I had been
a relation. When he read my name on my visiting
card, he hastened to me, embraced me, and said,
that Herr Wladislaw Ostrowski had written to him
about me, and that if he could be of any service he
was ready to do anything for me. He said, besides,
that i:e would present me to Madame Tatzszczew,
the Russian Ambassador's wife, and would manage
the necessary introductions ; the Court was un-
fortunately in mourning fo. the King of Naples,
but he would do what was possible. He also
promised to introduce me to Baron Dunoi, director
of the Musical Society here, who would probably be
most useful to me.

Eisner's letter of recommendation to Herr Mittag
procured me another equally agreeable acquaintance,
who took a lively interest in me, and seems to be a
person of influence.

I have been to see Czerny, who was as polite as
ever, and asked, " Have you been studying dili-
gently ? " He has arranged another Overture for
eight pianos and sixteen players, and seems very
happy about it.

Except Czerny, I have seen none of the pianists
this time. I have been twice to Frau Weyberheim,
Frau Wolf's sister. I am invited to the soiree there
to-morrow, " en petit cercle des amateurs." I shall



'"' Malfatti, royal physician in ordinary, and a very famous
doctor in his time..



ADVISED NOT TO GIVE A CONCERT. 167

pay a visit afterwards to Countess Rosalie Rzewuska,
who receives between nine and ten. Hussarzewski
has informed her that I am coming; I shall meet
the celebrated Frau Cibini,* for whom Moscheles
wrote a duet sonata.

Yesterday I went with my letters to Stametz's
counting-house, and was received just as if I had
come for money. He handed me a paper, which
notified that I .was to go to the police with my card
of permission to stay, and — basta. But perhaps it
will be different bye and bye.

I was also at Banker Geymiiller's yesterday,
where Titus has to receive his 6,000 Polish gulden.
When he had read my name Herr Geymiiller, with-
out taking any further notice of the letter, said, it
was very agreeable to him to become acquainted
with an artist of such distinction as myself; but he
could not advise me to give a concert here, as there
were very many good pianists in the city, and a
great reputation was requisite to make money.
Finally, he remarked, " I cannot help you in any
way, the times are too bad."

I listened with big eyes to this edifying discourse,



* Fraulein Cibini was a daughter of Leopold Kozeluck, who,
after Mozart's death, hecame Royal Court Composer. She
herself was an accomplished pianist, afterwards lady-in-wait-
ing to the Empress Anna Maria. She nursed the Emperor
Ferdinand in his severe illness, and died at the Hradschin, in
i860, highly esteemed as a faithful servant by the Imperial
pair.



l68 LIFE OF CHOPIN.

and when it was over I replied, that I was not at
all sure whether it would pay to make a public
appearance, for I had not yet called upon any
influential people, not even on the Russian Ambas-
sador, to whom I had a letter from the Grand
Prince Constantine.

At that, Herr Geymiiller suddenly changed his
tactics ; but I took my leave, regretting that I had
robbed him of his precious time, and thought to
myself, *' Wait you .... Jew."

I have not been to the band-master, Lachner, yet,
as I have not room enough to receive return visits.

We went from the " City of London," where we
had a long bill to pay, to the "Golden Lamb," in
Leopold Street, where we are still, hoping that the
Englishman will quit the Baroness's rooms to-day.
" As soon as we are in our own house," says Titus,
who always tries to make me assume the position
of the haughty patron, "we will introduce an
aristocratic ton. Then," he continued, " we will
receive, have music, and arrange for concerts — but
not gratuitous ones."

I have not yet visited Madame Raayek, Frau von
Elkau, Rothschild, the Vogts, and various other
interesting people. , To-day I am going to the
Embassy, where I hope to see Baron Meindorf,
whom I shall ask for first, on Hussarzewski's
advice, for Baron Meindorf will tell me when I
can best present myself to Herr Tatyszezew.

I have not touched the money which I had from



OPERA IN VIENNA. 169

the banker the day before yesterday. I mean to
be very careful of it. I am sorry, my dear parents,
but I must ask you to send me something more
at the end of the month for the journey to Italy,
in case my concerts turn out badly. The theatre
is my heaviest expense ; but this I regret the less
as Fraulein Heinefetter * and Herr Wildt t sing
nearly every evening, and are excellent beyond all
description. This week I have heard three entirely
new operas : " Fra Diavolo " yesterday, three days
ago " Titus," and to-day " William Tell." I cer-
tainly prefer "The Mutes of Portici" to "Fra
Diavolo."

I do not envy Orlowski J because he accompanies
Lafont. Will the time come when Lafont shall
accompany me ? Does the question seem pre-
sumptuous ? But if God wills it may come to
pass.

Nidecki thinks of staying here the whole winter.



"^ Sabine Heinefetter, the most famous and distinguished
of the three sisters, who all excelled as great singers ; in
Milan, even among Italians, she shone as a star of the first
magnitude. Circumstances obliged her to leave the stage
while still in full possession of her powers.

f Franz Wildt, the most celebrated, and in truth the best
tenor singer the German opera possessed from 1820 to 1845.
His voice and training were alike first-rate.

I Anton Orlowski, a fellow-student of Chopin's, a talented
musician, afterwards chapel-master at Rouen. Born in War-
saw 1811, died 1861.



170 LIFE OF CHOPIN.

All this week I have done nothing but take care
of my nose, go to the opera and to Graff's. I play
every afternoon to get my stiff fingers into working
order. I do not know how this week has flown. I
have, as yet, taken no definite steps towards a
concert. A propos of that, do you advise me to play
the F minor or E minor concerto ? Wiirfel thinks
my F minor concerto more beautiful than Hummel's
in A flat major, which has just been published by
Haslinger. Herr Haslinger is shrewd, trying in a
cautious, subtle way, to induce me to let him have
my compositions gratis. Klengel was surprised
that he gave me nothing for the variations. Perhaps
Haslinger thinks that if he treats my works as
bagatelles, I shall be only too glad to get them
printed ; but the time for gratuitous work is over
with me ; now it is, pay bestie.

Graff advised me to choose the States Deputies
Hall, where the " Spirituel " concerts are given, as
the nicest and best place for my concert. But I
must first obtain the permission of Count Dietrich-
stein, which, indeed, will not be difficult through
Malfatti.

I am as strong as a lion, and they say I am
stouter. Altogether I am doing well, and I hope,
through God, who sent Malfatti to be a help to
me — oh, splendid Malfatti — that I shall do still
better.



CHAPTER X.



THE INSURRECTION IN WARSAW, AND ITS
DISASTROUS EFFECT ON CHOPIN'S SOJOURN IN

VIENNA.

W HE tyrannical rule and the capricious and despotic
^ temper of the Grand Prince Constantine, which
the nation had borne with indescribable patience and
meekness for fifteen years, at length led to a revolu-
tion. The Constitution framed for Poland at the
Vienna Congress was regarded in St. Petersburg and
Moscow as the work of an encroaching Western
Liberalism, and as a revolutionary form of govern-
ment which threatened to shake the stability of the
Russian monarchy. It was, therefore, the constant
aim of statesmen on the Neva to circumscribe this
hateful Constitution, to make it as far as possible a
dead letter, and, finally, to oppress Poland to the
uttermost. For the accomplishment of these ends,
the advisers of the Czar conceived the idea of
sending his brother, the Grand Prince Constantine
Pawlowicz, to Warsaw, as plenipotentiary and mil*
itary governor.



172 LIFE OF CHOPIN.

In St. Petersburg, the character of this cruel,
coarse man had caused the Emperor numberless
embarassments ; for the higher State functionaries
found him unbearable.

With the title of commander-in-chief of the whole
Polish army, Prince Constantlne received unlimited
power of life and death over the soldiers. He had,
at the same time, full authority over all the officials
of the kingdom ; practically, the Constitution ceased
to exist ; as early as the year i8ig, the freedom of
the press had been withdrawn, and a strict censor-
ship established.

When the appointed time arrived, the Diet was
not convoked, and faithful patriots who dared to
express their opinions were imprisoned. The country
swarmed with spies, whose business was to per-
secute and punish those who showed the least sign
of a desire for freedom. Not only the actions, but
the half-whispered words, and even the thoughts
of the people were betrayed to the Government.
Especial severity was exercised towards the young,
whom for their natural love of liberty and resistance
to despotism the Grand Prince hated with all his
heart.

To enforce obedience, the most harsh and unjust
means were employed, which could not but embitter
the people. The long-cherished wish of Constantine
was that the Polish youth should wear a uriform, be
enlisted in the army, and thus become the obedient
tools of his tyranny. Every young man who devoted



OUTBREAK OF THE REVOLUTION. 173

himself to science, literature, or the fine arts, instead
of entering the army, was, in his eyes, as also in
those of the ever vigilant police, either a foolish
fanatic, or dangerous to the State. From such pro-
ceedings a revolution could not fail, sooner or later,


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