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room for further eating.^^

Poisoning was practiced among the local Indians notwith-
standing a penalty of death by the cruelest torture to anyone so
convicted. Lawson described "a large white spongy Root, that
grows in the Fresh-Marshes, which is one of their Poisons, . . ."
(This description undoubtedly refers to the water hemlock
[cicuta maculata], the North American counterpart of the
European variety used to kill Socrates) .^"^ Bezoar stone was known
to the Indian and brought a fair price from foreign traders.

Sexual deviations were unknown to the American Indian.
Lawson states emphatically that sodomy was never heard of
among the Indians in this area. Consanguinity was prohibited,
and the strictest punishment enacted if it was discovered. "They
never marry so near as a first Cousin, and although there is
nothing more coveted amongst them than to marry a Woman
of their own Nation, yet when the Nation consists of a very few


People, ... so that they are all of them related to one another,
then they look out for Husbands and Wives amongst Strangers.
For if an Indian lies with his Sister, or any very near Relation, his
Body is burnt, and his Ashes thrown into the River, as unworthy
to remain on Earth, . . ."^^

Contraception was known because "The Trading Girls (Tus-
carora) , after they have led that Course of Life for several Years,
in which time they scarce ever have a Child; (for they have an
Art to destroy the Conception, and she that brings a Child in
this Station, is accounted a Fool, and her Reputation is lessened
thereby) . . ."^^

In case of adultery, the man — not the woman — was
punished, . . . "The Savages well knowing how much Frailty
possesses the Indian Woman, betwixt the Garters and the*


The "Course of Nature" never visited the Indian woman in
such quantity as it did the European woman. "All of them when
ripe have a small String round the Waist, to which another is
tied and comes between their Legs, where always is a Wad of
Moss against the Ospubis, (sic), but never any Hair is there to
be found."^«

"The Women are very Fruitful, most Houses being full of
Little Ones. It has been observed that Women long married and
without Children in other Places, have removed to Carolina and
become joyful Mothers."

Indian women were observed to have an easy travail in their
childbearing and to be up and active the same day they delivered.
Miscarriages were infrequent. "And though they never want
Plenty of Milk, yet I never saw an Indian Woman with very large
Breasts; neither does the youngest wife ever fail of proving so
good a Nurse as to bring her Child up free from the Rickets and
Disasters that proceed from the Teeth, with many other Dis-
tempers which attack our Infants in England, and other Parts
of Europe. . . . After Delivery, they absent the Company of a
Man for forty days."^^

As stated, babies were nursed by their mothers, and until
well-grown, unless the mothers became pregnant sooner. After
birth, babies were bathed in cold water and attached to a board
approximately 2 by 1 feet in dimension. A wad of moss was placed
against the perineum to catch excrement, so all could be kept
"clean and sweet." The wooden frame with baby could be
strapped to the mother's back.^°


The American Indian in North CaroHna was free from
many of the psychic taints we know. "They never walk back-
ward and forward as we do, nor contemplate on the Affairs of
Loss and Gain, the things which daily perplex us. . . . they are not
possessed with that Care and Thoughtfulness, how to provide for
the Necessities of Life as the Europeans are. . . . they never work
as the English do, taking care for no farther than what is absol-
utely necessary to support Life."

The village of Secota, on the north shore of the PaniUco Riicr in what is
now Beaufort County, N. C. After Hariot.

They were: "a very wary People, never hasty or impatient,
(and) endure a great many Misfortunes, Losses, and Disappoint-
ments without showing themselves, in the least, vexed or uneasy."
Nor were they envious of another man's happiness or goods.

Late rising I count one of the Indian's chief virtues. "In the
Morning we arose before Day," recounts the indefatigable Law-
son, "having hired a Guide over Night to conduct us on our Way;
but it was too soon for him to stir out, the Indians never setting
forward till the Sun is an Hour or two jtiigh and hath exhaled the
Dew from the Earth. "^^

The greatest hurt to the American Indian, abundantly
obvious in North Carolina, was the inability or the unwillingness
of the white settlers in America to appreciate that the Indians
had any right to their land or their property. This attitude or,
indeed, social disease led to the virtual extermination of the
American Indian. President Van Buren, in 1837, sent General
Winfield Scott to the mountains of North Carolina with a regi-
ment of artillery, a regiment of infantry, six companies of
dragoons, and further authorized that militiamen and volunteers
not exceeding four thousand in number be called from the states
if necessary, to effect the removal of the Cherokees from their
homes. "The President of the United States," proclaimed General
Scott, "has sent me with a powerful army to cause you, in obedi-
ence to the treaty of 1836, to join that part of your people who
are already established in prosperity on the other side of the

"The history of this Cherokee removal of 1838," commented
Mr. James Mooney, "may well exceed in weight of grief and
pathos any other passage in American History." A Georgia vol-
unteer, afterwards a colonel in the Confederate service, said: "I
fought through the Civil War and have seen men shot to pieces
and slaughtered by thousands, but the Cherokee removal was the
crudest work I ever knew."

Nearly seventeen thousand Indians — children, women, men,
were assembled into stockades, a number approximating the sur-
vivors from smallpox a hundred years earlier. Driven on foot,
in the dead of winter, an estimated 10 to 2 5 percent perished
before the end of their journey from their ancestral mountain
homes in North Carolina to Oklahoma.

(I wish to express my appreciation to Professor B. W. Wells
for his additions and corrections to the Indian Pharmacopoeia.)



1. Lorant, Stefan. The New World. N. Y., Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, 1946,

p. 131.

2. Indians of North Carolina, Document No. 677, 63D Congress (3d session)

U.S.A. Gov't. Printing Office. 1915, pp. 7-24.

3. Lefler, H. T. and Newsome, A. R., History of North Carolina, Chapel

Hill, U.N.C. Press, 1954, p. 24.

4. Atkin, Edmond (W. R. Jacobs, editor) : Indians of the Southern Colonial

Frontier, Columbia, S. C, U.S.C. Press, 1954, p. 30.

5. Lawson, John, History of North Carolina. Richmond, Va., Garrett and

Massie, 1951, p. 84.

6. Op. Cit. p. 239.

7. Lorant, Stefan. The New World. N. Y. Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, 1946,

p. 126.

8. Lawson, p. 181-83.

9. Op. Cit. p. 223.

10. Cotterill, R. S. The Southern Indians, Norman Okla., U. Okla. Press,

1954, p. 9-11.

11. Lefler, H. T. and Newsome, A. R. p. 24.

12. Lawson, p. 5.

13. Adair, James: American Indians, London, 1775. p. 227, 232-34.

14. Indians of North Carolina, Document No. 677. p. 151-52.

15. Lawson, p. 238.

16. Lefler and Newsome. p. 24.

17. Lawson, p. 14.

18. Op. Cit., pp. 14-15.

19. Op. Cit., pp. 5-6, 13-14, 226-28, 233.

20. Jones, Charles, C, Jr.: Antiquities of the Southern Indians. N.Y.C.,

D. Appleton and Co., pp. 29, 33.

21. Lawson, p. 237.

22. Op. Cit., p. 236.

23. Op. Cit., pp. 40, 47, 84, 121, 132, 234, 236.

24. Op. Cit., pp. 79, 133, 134.

25. Op. Cit., 6, 26, 231.

26. Op. Cit., pp. 26, 238.

27. Opt. Cit., pp. 51-52, 210.

28. Toner, Joseph M.: Some Points in the Practice of Medicine Among the

North American Indians, with Incidental Reference to the Antiqu-
ity of the Office of the Physician, Va. Med. Monthly, 4:334-350,

29. Stone, Eric: Surgery Among the North American Indians, Am. J. Surg.

13:579-84, 1931.

30. Lawson, p. 234.

31. Op. Cit., pp. 13. 16, 46, 91, 95, 96, 97, 99, 102, 103, 105, 112, 121, 132, 134,

136, 182, 234.

32. Op. Cit., 79, 231-32.

33. Op. Cit., pp. 234-35.

34. Op. Cit., pp. 207, 239.

35. Op. Cit., p. 197.

36. Op. Cit., p. 198.

37. Op Cit., p. 47.

38. Op. Cit., pp. 201, 202.

39. Op. Cit., pp. 85-86, 200, 201.

40. Op. Cit., pp. 26, 200, 201.

41. Op. Cit., p. 26, 183, 184, 208.


Dandelions and Mushrooms

A Tribute to Dr. James C. Andrews
By Granvil C. Kyker""

One must admit that Dr. Andrews brings to retirement most
of the vim and zip for hfe, and most of the hair that he brought
to Chapel Hill twenty years ago. He approached departure with
a host of indelible tracks left all over the skin of the village and
inside the hearts and minds of the villagers; and he bears no dis-
memberment even though I would not claim that attempts to
dissect him were never given thought. Such considerations served,
only as spice to a temptingly seasoned relationship of service and

In my early contacts with Dr. Andrews the close quarters
in Caldwell Hall removed the difficulty that I usually encounter
at the inception of a new personal relationship. His predecessor
had hired me and resigned before I arrived on the job. The space
he left was a cupboard for one and a straight jacket for two.
Shift-work would have been the only way to have side stepped
intimate acquaintance at that office. The trouble with this was
that Dr. Andrews thoughtlessly arrived at work as early as I had
been "raised" to do. His combined office and laboratory would
have answered moderately well for a closet in an antebellum
dwelling; and the vestibule to this closet was both office for me
and "prep" room for the student laboratory. On the rare occa-
sion that I beat him to work, I was careful when hearing the
approach of his positive footsteps to pull up as close to my desk
as possible so that he could pass unobstructed by the back of
my chair.

My old solid oak chair had a crack that would have made a
good mechanical model for the study of pincers movements. A
startling move would have produced a serious distraction at the
desk of my chief who was separated from me only by the sound
barrier of a heavy screen door. But more painful was the business
of consulting with students during cramming season just before

■'Chief Scientist, Medical Division, Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear
Studies; Former Associate Professor of Biochemistry, University of North
Carolina School of Medicine.




our quizzes. Water
tends to seek its own
level and the some-
what watery frac-
tion of the class fre-
quently stopped in
the "vestibule." Ev-
ery professor has a
right to his favorite
topics; and the "P's"
and "Q's" that Dr.
Andrews stressed
most were not my
strongest points of
knowledge before
our first voyage
through his course
in Biochemistry. So/
there was double
cause for frustra-
tion in these early
days; the inevitable disturbance from the chatter of consultation
and the unwitting propensity of the students to pick damaging


questions. These experiences were, however, ingredients more
valuable, than this description, for the future growing-up to the
presently well-muscled department from its humble beginning.

No single material factor in this growth stands ahead of
Fels Naphtha, tattle-tale-gray soap from Philadelphia. Its
research grants transfused the budget and facilities of a depart-
ment that otherwise appeared to suffer from aplastic anemia.
This product excelled all other commodities for scrubbing floors,
washing dishes, cleaning cars, and shampooing children.

The front door that the Andrews kept open at home to
faculty and students stands among the most vivid memories.
Gustatory indulgence was certainly a source of as much delight
to Dr. Andrews as to anyone but his indulgence also included^
preparation of exotic dishes and "dishing it out" to others. The
faculty dinners, served in his dual roles of host and chef, and the
short orders of Chinese dishes had no parallel. Year by year the
students also enjoyed similar festive occasions at the annual Sun-
day night suppers of ham and potato salad and all of the trim-

My already-exceeded space permits me to relate only a
sprinkling of the scores of miscellaneous incidents depicting the
nature of Dr. Andrews. How revealing was the unmeasured
influence and inspiration on the annual chain of lads that had
the privilege of his tutelage and private laboratory on Saturdays
and holidays; the free courses in elementary nutrition sponsored
for the housewives of the university village — and the unknown
number of husbands who accordingly had to eat their spinach;
the letter that was always answered promptly; the desk that was
always cleared before the day ended; the daily temperature chart
that was kept of the lake at summer camp; the history of Chapel
Hill winters recorded in units of fuel oil consumed; the conversion
factor for honey and mead; the unbelievable restraint when z
clumsy student asked, under the tension of an examination, to
fill his pen and then upset a full bottle of ink among the neat
array of papers on Dr. Andrews' new office desk.

This tribute is in honor of the professional man — clear
lecturer, lucid writer, able administrator, exacting teacher, crea-
tive builder — whose life is abundantly flavored with music, books,
gardening, travel, languages, people, and pineapple. An obituary?
A retirement? Not in the least! Instead, a diploma to the zestful
pursuit of new interests.


The New Biophysics Laboratory

By Robert H. Bartholomew"'

Dr. David Gordon Sharp joined the staff of the Department
of Bacteriology of the University of North CaroUna School of
Medicine last month as research professor in biophysics. His work
will be financed by a $140,000 grant from the National Institutes
of Health of the U. S. Public Health Service. This sum will
cover a five-year period of biophysical studies of macromolecules
and viruses in the Department of Bacteriology under Dr. D. A.
MacPherson, professor and head of the department.

For his studies one of the new R.C.A. electron microscopes,
costing $28,798, has already been purchased and is now in opera-
tion. This type of instrument is the most powerful microscope
in the world and one of 57 in existence. This microscope has 100
to 200 times the "seeing power" of the best optical microscopes.
This means that viruses can not only be seen, but also their
internal structure can be studied.

This microscope, and related instruments such as the analyti-
cal ultra-centrifuge, will be used in the new biophysics laboratory
of the Department of Bacteriology to study viruses and macro-
molecules of which much of the human body is made. In this
category are the fibrils of nerve and muscle and the giant mole-
cules of nucleic acid which are intimately involved in the mechan-
isms of inheritance. Many other macromolecules have been seen
but their functions are unknown.

The purpose of this new laboratory is to conduct research in
these areas with the hope that the knowledge so gained will help
achieve an understanding of this borderland region which lies
between the molecules of the biochemist and the cells of the
biologist. Close cooperation will be maintained between this
laboratory and the UNC Department of Physics.

Dr. Sharp was born at Annandale, N. J., the son of Mr. and
Mrs. W. L. Sharp. His mother now resides at Quakertown, N. J.
After graduating from high school at Clinton, N. J. in 1926, he
entered the apprentice training school at Westinghouse Electric
and Manufacturing Company at Bloomfield, N. J. Two years
later he won the War Memorial Scholarship offered by that com-

'■'Mr. Bartholomew is Public b7 formation Officer for the Division of
Health Affairs.


pany for study in the field of engineering which he began at
Rutgers University in the fall of 1928. After two and a half
years, and after working during the summers in the research
laboratories of the Westinghouse Company, Dr. Sharp decided
to become a physicist.

In 1932 he graduated from Rutgers with a B.S. degree in
physics and found himself in the center of a worldwide economic
depression. The next four years were spent as junior physicist
in the Westinghouse Laboratories working on X-ray tubes and
on the application of ultraviolet rays to problems of sterilization
in the food industry.

Dr. Sharp's interest in biophysics began in 1936 when he
was called to Duke University as a consultant engineer on the
use of ultraviolet rays in operating rooms. While engaged in this*
work he pursued graduate studies in physics and microbiology
and became Duke's first graduate student in biophysics. In 1939
he received the Ph.D. degree in physics.

At that time intensive efforts were being made to apply
physical methods to the study of the, then newly recognized,
virus particles. Dr. Sharp became a member of a group at Duke
interested in this field of research. It was during this period that
the electron microscope was developed and Dr. Sharp became
one of the first electron microscopists in the United States.

During his 18 years at the Durham school he published a
series of papers on the physical properties of viruses and served
on the editorial staff of "Virology." He was, also, special con-
sultant to the U.S. Public Health Service Communicable Disease

Dr. Sharp is married to the former Marietta Jane Stiles and
they are the parents of four children ranging in ages from 6 to
16 years.

Chapel Hill's




Remarks to The Graduating Class ^

Robert A. Ross, M.D.*"'

It is related that the English surgeon, John Abernethy, who
was a student of Hunter and who followed Hunter to the chair,
yearly would enter the large amphitheater, glare at the first year
medical students and bellow the simple statement, "In the name
of Heaven! What is going to become of all of you?" Also, it is
recorded that this great teacher was a kind man who believed
that a show of authority proved to patient and student alike that
he was in control. You have encountered no such counterpart;
all of your teachers have shown genuine concern for your future
and have approached you with timidity and some degree of awe;
have noted your wan appearance, your feeble outcry and your
somnolence; they also wonder what is going to become of you.

One of your considerations in the early future will be that
of beginning your medical practice. You will recall that the
fine Southern gynecologist, who was honored by European royalty
and operated upon a Princess in Paris, began a humble practice
in Lancaster, South Carolina, and left discouraged when his first-
three patients died of cholera infantum, and that the remarkable
J. Chalmers DaCosta mentioned in his memoirs that his first
private patient walked out with his umbrella and his second pati-
ent with his only hat. During the lean months of his early prac-
tice he asked his one loyal patient why sick Philadelphians were
reluctant to enter his office and was told, "Your office plate gives
your name and adds, 2 to 5 ; the patients think that is the odds
against them."

Another consideration concerns the investment of your
parents in you and your education and the investment made on
your behalf in this medical school. What this means in sacrifice,
denial, work, prayer and heartclose intangibles all of us know
and appreciate. This investment in time and money makes you
and your family important and interested stockholders in this

■■'Presented at the Hooding Exercises of the University of North Carolina
School of Medicine on June 3, 1957.

'•■'•'Dr. Ross is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics
and Gynecology of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine.


University School of Medicine. Like any corporation it is judged
entirely by its products. You, as a professional product and now
stockholder, have a share in the responsibility for the future
development of this corporation. If the product is good, is
attractive, is useful and yes, if it is salable, the stock value goes
up and the value of the product likewise goes up. You have it
from this point on. In order to emphasize further this important
item, one of our friends has kindly taken the time to give us
actual figures regarding your financial investment. These figures
are modest and conservative, not speculative.

If the amount of $2,500 had been deposited each year since
195 3 and the income dividend reinvested, the liquidating value
this year would be nearly $20,000. If the total of the four-yea-;
cost had been invested, its liquidating value would be $30,000.
This does not take into consideration that, as a college graduate,
you could have gotten employment in 1953 at a salary probably
twice the amount of your yearly medical school expense and
would have enjoyed promotion as well as appreciation of your

If in 1949 you had decided not to attend college and had
then started your investment program as outlined you would now
have a liquidating value of $5 5,500. If you could have made your
total investment for college and medical school then, you would
now be well within the hundred-thousand-dollar bracket. A yearly
salary with promotion during this period would probably have
you on a hospital board of trustees rather than applying for in-
ternship for a necessarily low remuneration.

A facetious and understandable educational problem is in
evidence in your writings as recorded in patients' records. While
"cigarettes taste good like a cigarette should," doctors should
handle prepositions and conjunctions as an educated doctor should
and, we hope, recognize that an intensifier is not a part of the
modified adjective and that the adjective need not be clothe^'
with an adverb. This "product," who has studied "English," a
language, and who has been exposed to the "humanities," now
takes on a Winchellian staccato: "Patient is 28 yr. para 1-0-0-1,
referred to N.C.M.H. by L.M.D. 5-7-57. Is M.W.F.,
L.M.P. 2-7-56, P.M.?. 1-10-56 and so on." Compare these with
a conglomeration of Navy ship designations — L.S.T., A.V.P.,
L.C.I. , et cetera; radio's LS/MFT — B.O. with a salute to the


emunctories; governmental agencies — N.A.T.O., R.E.A.,
U.N.E.S.C.O. and so on. Certainly the end of the alphabetical line
was reached last week when we saw a patient on the medical
service who was baldly and boldly labelled "S.O.B." Both patient
and doctor breathed freer when this was decoded "Short of

An itinerant revivalist remarked to the man in front of him
in the bread line during the depression years, "Friend, I used to
be a preacher and if times get much harder, I'm not above going
back to it." All of you know that we are not "above" preaching
or anything else that might be of value to you.

A word regarding your patients and practice. The arrogant
and demanding are well known, the peevish and petulant are
recognized, the boring and uninteresting must be accepted and
helped. Certainly none of these characteristics should rub off on
you and be reflected on to others. All are sick, or more difficult,
think they are sick and must be seen with the interesting and
challenging; after all perhaps the doctor himself is not too

In an even more serious vein, the problem of the sick has
been in the hearts and minds of all since the beginning. It should
be heartening to recall that many and varied physical ailments
are recorded in the Bible. Three examples immediately come to
mind; they are present today as personalities, as professional
problems and as patient thinking.

The leper, the unclean, the outcast, the thoroughly dejected
said, "Lord, if you icill you can make me clean."

The father of a child with "seizures" said, "if you can do
anything, have pity on us and help us."

The centurion said, "Lord, but only say the word and my
servant will be healed."

These are familiar and none is demanding; a brushoff would
have satisfied and settled the request.

"If you will," means simply if it is possible to take the time
if this does not intrude, if it is no trouble — not too much trouble —
if the sight of abjection, filth, contamination and possible infec-
tion is not too much — "if you will you can make me clean."

"If you can," indicates that the miserable father of an
unfortunate child has taken the son to all of the specialists, to all

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