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made but with indifferent economic success since the plant is slow
growing (six years from seed) and subject to disease." The present
price for cultivated ginseng is $4.00 to $5.00 but the price for the
fully mature and older wild roots is $12.00 to $15.00 a lb.

Centella (Centella asiatica). This small herb (see cover)
growing along the sound shores of North Carolina and southward
has a world wide distribution. The Dispensatory states: "It con-
tains a peculiar oleaginous substance, vallarine, having a strong
odor recalling that of the plant, and a bitter pungent persistent
taste. It has long been a popular remedy in India for leprosy and
syphilis. In small doses it is an energetic stimulant and in large
doses it is narcotic."

The plant is added here to prove the ease and rapidity with
which an uproved claim will be believed by many people in this
supposedly scientific age.

In 1945 the writer was sent an inquiry from a woman in
California who asked if Centella asiatica grew in North Carolina.
Upon receipt of the information that it did grow here in abund-
ance, a longer letter came stating that she was a novelist who had
come recently from India where she had become accustomed to
drinking Centella tea as a brain stimulant. She had exhausted her
supply and "could not possibly complete her novel without
replenishment." "Just where could she find it if she came east?"
She was told where it grew in quantity and I later learned that she
did come across the continent for the Centella leaves.

In the writer's book, "The Natural Gardens of North Caro-
lina," I included this plant among our wild flowers, dubbing it the
"Intelligence Plant" but stating, "In India there is a superstition
that tea made from the leaves of this plant acts as a brain stimu-
lant, hence the common name."

Some years later some publicity people got out a news item
based upon a brief report in my book in which the word "super-
stition" was omitted, but the writer's name mentioned with an
implication that he was responsible for claiming a Phi Beta Kappa
quality for the tea. The item was published widely throughout the
country ajid Lowell Thomas used it on a Sunday evening weekly
broadcast.

15



Suddenly I was deluged with inquiries: Where could Centella
leaves be purchased? How much a pound? Does it work on retard-
ed children? In a few months, well over six hundred letters were
received, many of them containing checks and money orders. All
letters were answered and all advanced payments returned with a
brief note stating that "we were both victims of publicity people"
who failed to adequately quote the author by omitting the word
"superstition."

The following is from a letter of a young Lieutenant, a grad-
uate of N. C. State College, studying at Massachusetts Institute of
Technology: "Please send me some (Centella) leaves and I'll send
you a check to cover procurement and shipping. If you question
my need of knowledge for exams call the head of the Mechanical
Engineering Department and he can assure you I'm no genius and
can well stand an extra push. I hope this is not too much of a favor
to ask of you but that you will help me prove to my fellow
officers that North Carolina has something extra special. Our
exams start Feb. 1 5 th, so // possible, I would like to have the Cen-
tella asiatica leaves by then. If you can't get the leaves by then
send them on anyway for there is another term coming up."



Photographs through the courtesy of Dr. Albert E. Radford, Department
of Botany, University of North Carolina.



Dr. Spitznagel Receives Grant

Announcement has been made of a Senior Research Fellow-
ship grant from the National Institutes of Health of the U.S.
Public Health Service to Dr. John K. Spitznagel of the Depart-
ment of Bacteriology and Immunology of the Schools of Dentistry
and Medicine. Dr. Spitznagel has been granted $61,560 for a
five-year study of Metabolic Aspects of Bacterial Ecology in
Host Tissues. This is the fourth senior research fellowship to be
awarded by the Public Health Service to local faculty members.
In January of this year, the School of Medicine received three
of the 44 fellowships awarded nationally. These totaled $164,000
and went to Dr. R. D. Langdell, Assistant Professor of Pathology;
Dr. Billy Baggett, Assistant Professor of Pharmacology; and Dr.
Ira Fowler, Assistant Professor of Anatomy.

16



A Closer Look at The
Foreign-Trained Physician

M. M. ViTOLs, M. D.''"

At the end of World War II many persons who had fled from
their own countries found themselves faced with the problem of
emigration. Since they could not return to their native lands, they
were searching hopefully of establishing themselves as persons and
citizens in another country. Among this group of displaced per-
sons were many physicians. As early as 1945 and 1946 emigration
of physicians to America, England, Canada, and later Australia
began.

A large number of these foreign trained physicians came to
this country to establish permanent residence. In addition in later
years foreign trained physicians came seeking advanced training.
In 195 6-57 a survey of 1,442 hospitals in the United States showed
a total of 6,741 foreign trained physicians from 88 countries serv-
ing as interns or residents. This number represented only foreign
trained physicians who had foreign citizenship and permanent
residence in a foreign country, not the displaced persons resettled
permanently in the United States, or foreign citizens who had
immigrated to the United States for permanent residence. The
number of such foreign trained physicians in 195 3 and 1954 was
2,920, an increase of over 3,000 in three years.

It is the aim of this paper to discuss primarily the foreign
trained physician desiring permanent residence in this country.

During the dispute between the North Carolina State Board
of Medical Examiners and the North Carolina Hospitals Board of
Control, it was disclosed that here in North Carolina there are
approximately thirty foreign trained physicians who are employed

'Dr. Vifols is one of many foreign-trained physicians of whom North
Carolina can be proud. After attending for four years the Latvian Medical
School at his home in Riga, Dr. Vitols, as is the custom in Europe, took two
more years at the University of Hamburg, Germany, where he received his M.D.
degree. In 1949 he came to this country and was employed at Butner State
Hospital. He completed his work for an M.D. from this institution in 195 5.
At present Dr. Vitols is Superintendent of the State Hospital, Goldsboro, North
Carolina.

17



either in State mental hospitals or tuberculosis sanatoriums. These
foreign trained physicians were granted a limited license, which
permitted them to practice during this time of emergency, even
though not qualified for full license. Some nineteen foreign trained
physicians were practicing under such a license in the State mental
institutions, where a great shortage of physicians has always been
experienced. In the recent controversy opinions about foreign
doctors varied from statements of highest praise to statements
indicating complete lack of confidence in them.

A closer survey of the foreign trained physician reveals that
a great number came from countries now behind the Iron Curtain.
They graduated from medical schools which are not on the list of
approved schools investigated by the American Medical Associa-
tion. These doctors therefore experience difficulty in getting their
training recognized which, in most cases, means they are ineligible
to take the state board examination to obtain a license. Thus
physicians who emigrated to this country are faced with two
problem — being an immigrant and coming from an un-recognized
medical school.

Every emigrant who comes to the country of his choice has
psycho-social difficulties to a greater or lesser degree due to the
immigration and displacement. A person can adjust fairly well
when he moves from one place to another within the same
country. The adjustment is more difficult when the individual
moves from one culture to another or from one social class to
another. Usually when the emigrant arrives in the new country he
has a sense of well-being, which is sometimes perceived by him and
others as euphoria. He has a tendency for increased psychomotor
activity in order to cover up his tension and anxiety. The interest
in the new environment is limited only to his immediate surround-
ings and at times can be looked upon as withdrawal, in the face of
such difficulties as inability to lose attitudes learned and carried
over from previous years. It should be emphasized, however, that
much of this is on the basis of personal disposition.

The immigrant later becomes conscious of the new social
situation and, if he does not come from an English speaking
country, becomes increasingly aware of his language difficulties
and especially of the differences in customs and values. At times
it appears that he is not immediately aware of the future which
often is rejected along with the present. There is constant preoc-
cupation with the distant past and childhood, which is respectfully



idealized. This situation might create an anxiety reaction or
depression in varying degrees, especially in the older group of
immigrants.

It should be understood that the individual who moves from
culture to culture or from class to class is faced not only with the
differences there but also with the matter of change. There is the
necessity for reorientation of values together with increased aware-
ness of the relativity of values previously considered to be stable,
which leads to diminished communication and insecurity and
anxiety. Varying with personal disposition, the immigrant begins
later to explore the ways and possibilities of establishing himself in
the community. His successful adjustment depends partly on his
basic personality but also on the attitude and behavior of his
environment.

These are the psycho-sociological adjustments experienced by
any immigrant but the foreign trained physician is faced also with
the problem of being recognized in his own profession, for many
aspects of the medical practice and thinking are also different
from country to country. This presents to the foreign trained
physician a problem, the solution of which depends again on his
personal disposition. There is the greater chance that the foreign
trained physician in advanced years may try to adhere to the
knowledge and values learned before in order to feel secure in the
face of new aspects and values. The younger foreign trained
physician may adjust somewhat more easily to the new aspects and
values.

It would seem to be difficult to evaluate the foreign trained
physician fairly on the basis of his medical school alone. As we have
seen, much depends on the basic personality of this individual who
has come to the country of his own choice in search of a place
where he can belong, work and be a useful citizen. The foreign
trained physician should be given a chance to write his own recom-
mendation through the work he is performing. As with all men he
asks for recognition and acceptance, for these are the basic
characteristics of each person. On many occasions the deeper
dynamics are undisclosed and not understood but when a threat
arises to one's basic personality, then the foreign trained physician
is no more considered as a person but just as a person from an
unrecognized school.

This country is great because everyone is given the opportu-
nity of self-expression. At the same time we know that since man

19



lives in society, he has to sacrifice some for his own and for the
interest of others. If we could accept each person at his actual
value and recognize his proven abilities, without the prejudices
which sometimes enter and prohibit interpersonal relationships,
our society would be more congenial and at the same time adhere
more closely to the principles which made this Country and State
great.



Over 50 Percent Trained at U.N.C.

The following statistics from the 57th annual report of
the Council on Medical Education and Hospitals of the Ameri-
can Medical Association for the year 1956-57 are of interest
as an indication of the important role the University of North
Carolina School of Medicine is playing in medical education in
North Carolina.

In September of 1956, 147 residents of North Carolina
began medical studies. One hundred and sixteen of these entered
the three medical schools in North Carolina. Of these 116, sixty-
three or 54 percent were freshmen at the University of North
Carolina. This group entering the UNC School of Medicine
represents 42.8 percent of the total state residents who entered
medical schools in 1956.

Of those entering schools outside the state, 10 went to
Meharry and Howard Medical Schools while the remaining 21
were distributed among 12 medical schools throughout the East
and South.



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Reasonable Prices
Regular Meal a la carfe

Serving Hours
Lunch: 12:00-2:00 — Dinner: 5:30-7:30

— Air -Conditioned —



20



Presenting the Faculty

DR. WILLIAM LEROY FLEMING

Dr. Fleming joined the faculty of the UNC School of Medicine in 195 2,
bur even at that time he was no stranger in the University community. He had
been a Research Professor in the UNC School of Public
Health from 1939 to 1945.

Dr. Fleming was appointed Professor and Head of
the Department of Preventive Medicine, the same
position he had held at the Boston University School
of Medicine since 1948. He was recently named
Assistant Dean in charge of Education and Research
Activities in the School of Medicine.

He is a native of Morgantown, West Virginia,
received his M.D. degree from Vanderbilt University
in 1932 and his Specialty Board Certification in Pre-
ventive Medicine in 1949.

Dr. Fleming interned at Bellevue Hospital and
has been associated with Vanderbilt University Hos-
pital, Johns Hopkins Hospital, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Massa-
chusetts Memorial Hospital of Boston.

He is a member of the American Medical Association, American Public
Health Association, American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Ameri-
can Venereal Disease Association.




DR. CARL ELMORE ANDERSON

In addition to his regular teaching and research work, Dr. Anderson, Asso-
ciate Professor of Biochemistry and Nutrition, has become Assistant Dean in

charge of all student activities. He will handle all stu- h, ^ ■, ^ , ...^i,

dent counseUing and guidance and also act as chairman
of the Faculty Committee on Promotions.

He is a native of South Manchester, Connecticut
and received his B.S. degree from the University of
Connecticut in 1935. His Ph.D. was awarded here in
1943.

Dr. Anderson was a graduate student and reseach
fellow here during 1940-42. He served in the Army
during World War II. Following his Army service he
taught at the School of Medicine of Vanderbilt Uni-
versity before returning to UNC in 195 0. He is
married and the father of three children.

Dr. Anderson is the author of many scientific
articles that have been published in professional journals. His research is con-
cerned with the isolation, synthesis and function of phospholipids. In the sum-
mer of 1951 he spent three months in the Biology Division of the Oak Ridge
National Laboratories. In 195 5 he was awarded a grant from the Life Insurance
Medical Research Fund for a study of the structure and function of plasmalo-
gens in heart and brain tissue.




21




ALUMNI
NOTES



Dr. Benjamin Whitehead McKenzie
'14, surgeon, died at Salisbury, N. C,
October 25, 19 56. Dr. McKenzie, a
former president of the Medical
Alumni Association, finished Jeffer-
son Medical College in 1916.

Dr. Claude Gilbert Milham, '2 5,
radiologist, died at Hamlet in October.

E. Noel Walker Robbins '30 is now
living at 160 Marine Way, Delray
Beach, Florida.

Carlos J. Ross '43 has recently
moved to Birmingham; his address is
5 30 Lake Shore Drive.

William H. Meroney '43, for several
years at the Walter Reed Army Insti-
tute of Research, has been transferred
to Puerto Rico; he is with the U. S.
Army Tropical Research Medical
Laboratory (APO 8 51, New York
City).

Homer C. Wick '43 is now at
Cornell University Medical College,
1300 York Avenue, New York City.

Joseph Reese Blair '43 is now Head
of the Department of Medical Research
at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

Irene McCain McFarland '46 lives
on Trement Road, Route 2, Wilson,
North Carolina.

John E. Weyher '46 is practicing
Urology in Goldsboro, N. C.

Mary Alice Vann Fox '46 is now
back home after an interesting experi-
ence in the Far East; she is living in
Bethesda, Maryland, and has opened
an office at 7400 Fairfax Road for
the practice of pediatrics.



James E. Williams, Jr., '48 is now
living at 1721 Dixie Drive, Porter-
ville, California; he formerly lived in
Avenal, California.

Shirley Rivers '48, now a hematolo-
gist with the Veterans Administration,
lives in Atlanta, Georgia, at 1136
Lullwater Road, N.E.

Hoke V. BuUard '49 has joined the
Wilson Clinic, Wilson, North Caro-
lina, for the practice of internal medi-
cine and diseases of the chest.

Edwin W. Monroe '49, internist in
Greenville, North Carolina, has moved
into a new office: The Tetterton
Building, 414 S. Washington Street.

Spinks H. Marsh '49 joined the
staff of The Presbyterian Hospital in
New York as Instructor in Radiology
in August.

Edward H. Currie '49, now a Major
in the Air Force, is living at 62 5 Lar-
son Street, Lackland Air Force Base,
Texas.

Odell Gulp Kimbrell, Jr., '49, has
recently moved to Portsmouth Road,
GallipoUo, Ohio.

W. Grimes Byerly, Jr., '5 has
joined the surgical staff of the Richard
Baker Hospital in Hickory, N. C.

Donald W. Glascock '50, until
recently doing general practice in
Faison, N. C, has moved to Palmyra,
Missouri.

Clifford H. Hooper '5 0, ear, nose
and throat specialist, is living in Ashe-
ville, N. C.



22



James F. Morris '5 Is practicing
pediatrics in Goldsboro, N. C.

John S. Barlow 'H is still in the
Boston area in training in neurology;
his home address is: 294 Central Street,
West Acton, Massachusetts.

Arthur G. Sherman '51 is now
living in Winter Haven, Florida.

William C. Sugg '51 is practicing
internal medicine and gastroenterology
in Winston-Salem, N. C; his office
address is: 62 5 Reynolds Building.

Charles C. Stamey '51 has joined
William H. Davis, Jr., in the practice
cf pediatrics and pediatric hematology
r.t 720 West Fifth Street, Winston-
Sahm, N. C.

Walter E. Leonard '51 is doing
general practice in Longview, N. C.

Moke W. WilHams, Jr., '51 has
op2ned his office for the practice of
psychiatry at 1215 E. Broward Boule-
vard, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

G. Don Presley '54 is doing general
practice in Canton, N. C.

Hugh Hemmings '54 is practicing
pediatrics in Morganton, N. C; his
address, 102 Lurawood Drive.

Rodney L. McKnight '5 5, Stewart
Mooring '5 5, and Charles L. Herring
'5 5 are all at Fort Bragg, N. C, for
Army duty; they all live on Austin
Place.

Griggs C. Dickson '5 5 is serving a
tour of duty in the Navy; he is sta-
tioned at Portsmouth Naval Hospital,
Portsmouth, Virginia.

Sara Lippard Hoyt '54 is now living
in Mount Berry, Georgia.



SOME JOTTINGS BY A TIRED
BUT HAPPY WOMAN IN WHITE

As I dust off some of rny old dreams
and scan in memory the scenes of the
past, while trying with all my might
to peer into the future and make plans
for the days ahead, I feel humble and



grateful for having so many of the
things which make for a rich, full Ufe.
Amongst these are a husband, two
adorable little girls, a home we all love
and the ever adventurous, rarely dull,
hum of a medical practice. It is at
these moments of tranquility, when I
pause to count my blessings, that I
want all to hear how "my cup runneth
over."

But since all the moments of our
existence can't be lived in a mood of
placidity or exhuberance, I shall have
to confess that being a "hen medic"
has besides its many compensations an
equal number of "decompensations."

There are the Manic moods when I
would feel great relief if I could thi'ow
my books, kick the walls, slam the
doors, spank my kids, and disconnect
the telephone all in one swoop. How-
ever, since this would be considered
immature behavior I drown my female
temperament in some gelusil and pro-
banthine and go about my business as
amiably as I can.

For example, a typical day for me
might begin with the maid not show-
ing up, the oil burner going on the
fritz, the dish washer leaking on the
floor, and the children awakening
uncomfortable with brand new colds.
The house becom.es hectically alive
with the milk man pounding the
back door, the mail man waiting at
the front door and a patient ringing
at the side door, while my two little
imps, scantily clad, run about greeting
each in turn. This event is followed
in rapid sequence by a call from the
hospital informing me of the admis-
sion to my service of a diabetic in
coma.

But the day is young and so after
drafting someone to mind my children
I make my hospital rounds, cover a
few calls, and return late in the after-
noon in time to take my offspring for
a walk and a milk shake at a local ice



23



cream parlor, before returning home
to arrange a supper for daddy et al.

Then come evening office hours,
made eventful by the occasional intru-
sion of one or two little girls who hate
bed time and would rather entertain
their parents' patients. (There is
nothing like being wrist deep in a
pelvic examination and suddenly
noting two big eyes peeking from
behind a door and then a small voice
asking, "What OO doing Mommie?"),
while the patient jumps three feet off
the table.

Then at last all is quiet. The babes
are tucked into their beds, the office
door is locked for the night, and I



stretch a little, yawn a little and sink
contentedly back in a chair. Suddenly
I am jolted back to a world of stark
reality, when daddy, who has been in
the sheltered peace and quiet of the
operating room all day, suddenly asks,
"What are you so tired from? What
did you do all day?"

Then remembering Osier's "Aequa-
nimitas," I squelch a scream, look my
most affable, and help myself to
another gelusil.

Would I do it again if I had my life
to live over? You bet! 'Cause my
cup still runneth over and each day
is full of new surprises.

Ethel G. Lawner, M.D. ('44)



/%




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Orange County Building and Loan


Association


West FrankHn St. — Chapel Hill, N. C.


A Thrift Institution


SAVINGS— HOME LOANS SINCE 1920


Current Dividends 3^%


Compounded Semi-Annually



24




ANATOMY

Dr. C. D. Van Cleave, Associate
Professor of Anatomy, is on leave of
absence to work with the Atomic
Energy Commission in Washington.



BIOCHEMISTRY AND
NUTRITION

Dr. John E. Wilson, Assistant Pro-
fessor of Biochemistry and Nutrition,
attended the meeting of the South-
eastern Section of the Society for
Experimental Biology and Medicine,
October 11-12, 1957, in Richmond,
Virginia. He presented a paper
entitled "The Effects of Amino Acid
Analogs upon Ascites Tumors."

Dr. Charles H. Burnett has been
appointed a member of the Diabetes
and Metabolic Diseases Training
Grants Committee of the National
Institutes of Health for a four-year
term ending July 1, 1961.

He has also been designated as Vice-
Chairman of the Experimental Medi-
cine and Therapeutics Section of the
American Medical Association for the
year 1957-58.



MEDICINE

"The Medical Problems of Older
People" was discussed by Dr. Kerr L.
White of the UNC School of Medicine
at a recent meeting in Durham of the
North Carolina Society for Crippled
Children and Adults.

Dr. ■ Carl Gottschalk attended the
meetings of the Northeastern Section



WITH THE
FACULTY



of the American Urological Society at
the Whiteface Inn, Lake Placid, N. Y.,
where he gave a paper on Intrarenal
Pressure Relationships.



OBSTETRICS AND
GYNECOLOGY

In October, Dr. Charles Flowers
spoke to The Franklin and Alamance
County Societies and in November he
presented a paper to the Southern
Medical Society at Miami. His sub-
ject was "Patient-Physician Delay in
the Diagnosis of Cancer of the Female
Genitalia."



PATHOLOGY

Dr. K. M. Brinkhous has accepted
the chairmanship of the Pathology
Study Section of the Public Health
Service. The Study Section fosters
research in Pathology.



PEDIATRICS

Dr. Nelson Ordway, Chairman of
the Section on Pediatrics of the South-
ern Medical Association, delivered a


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