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The American exchange and review, Volume 24 online

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are held in different localities, Recording as the community is a debtor or a creditor one, and in the
local opinions the representatives generally share.

The house committee of ways and means gives no countenance whatever to the project of 3.65
convertible bonds — they probably being deemed worse than useless to the treasury, with too much
of "contraction" to suit the views of "inflationists," and too much "inflation" to suit the views
of " contractionists."

Sales of Stocks, etc, at New York,

Nov. 94.

U. S. 6's, coupon, 1881 x>5>i

5-20's, coupon, 1862...^ 109^

5-20's, coupon, 1864^ iioX

5-20's, coupon, 1865, m & n 11 1

5-20's, coupon, 1865, j & jy 114

5-20's, coupon, 1867 II4H

5-20's, coupon, 1868 114X

io-40's, coupon 108^

Pacific 6's, currency iio^

Tennessee 6's 80^

" 6's, new 80^

North Carolina 6's

" 6's, new.^

Missouri 6's 95

N. Y. Central and Hudson R. con 89^

Harlem 112;^

Eric 43^

Lake Shore and Michigan Southern yiji^

Wabash 43^

Cleveland and Pittsburgh 79^

Northwestern 47

<* preferred

Rock Island ^i)^

Fort Wayne 86

Milwaukee and St. Paul 32^

" " preferred

Ohio and Mississippi 25^^



Dec I.


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330



Prices of Stocks.



Nov. 34. Dec. I. Dec. 8. Dec 15.

New Jersey Central 93 95 gy}^ loo><

Western Union Telegraph 64^ 67^ # 72^ 73fi

Pacific Mail. 3oX^ ....... 39>< 39^

Union Pacific 2131^ 26 29^ 30jj{

Adams Express.. 81 84^ ^87 92

Wells, Fargo & Co. Express 63 64 71 72j|^

American Merchants Union Express..... 57 59 58 58

United States Express... 57 60^ 65 68

Rate for Money 7 7 [email protected] 7



[Jan.



Decn-
loojl^

91
72

57
67
[email protected]



&iZm of Stocks, etc., at

Gold 109^

Sterling Exchange 118

Paris Exchange 4.76

Lehigh Valley Railroad 58

" " 6's.. 96

7%reg 91%

Lehigh Navigation 28^

" 6% 1884 88

" " 6's, gin 87

6»s,reg.. 88

City 6's, no tax ^^^)i

" tax 97)^

Pennsylvania Railroad 45 >^

" " 6's, im 98)^

" " 6's, 2m

Pennsylvania 6's, first series.... too

" 6's, second series 104^

" 6's, third series 107^

Reading Railroad.. 53

" " 6's, mt 90

" " 7*s, reg 100

Catawissa Railroad 15^

" ** preferred 40

North Pennsylvania Railroad..

" 6's,mt 96

" 7's.mt 97>^

" " " lo's, chat... 103

United N.J. Companies... 114

Camden and Amboy 6's, mt 92

" 6's, 1883

" 6's, 1889

West Jersey Railroad 6's.

" 7's 97>i

Philadelphia and Erie 17

" " 6's

Allegheny County 5's, coupon

Schuylkill Navigation 5^

" « preferred iij^

" " 6's, 1882. 71

Morris Canal .,

" preferred..

" 6's, 1882

Little Schuylkill Railroad 44

Oil Creek and Allegheny Railroad 14

" " " 7's— • 59X

Philada., Germ, and Nor. Railroad 82

MinehiU Railroad 51

Elmira and Williamsport, preferred

" " 7's 95

" " 5's

Northern Central... 24

Rate for Money 6



Philadelphia,

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120

4.75 ,
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1874.1



General Intelligeuce.



33 »



Noting and Commenting.



PRESIDENT MACMAHON. November xtUi, sent a
message to the assembly of France, saying that it had
been decided by himself, and friends of course, that the
substantial good of the country imperatively demanded a
prolongation of the powers of the executive for at least
seven years, and that he deemed it best to indicate guar-
antees to be received, without which it would be imprudent
for him to accept the office. This proposition of the
president was submitted to the committee on prolongation,
and it was finally agreed by the committee to prolong the
president's poweis, but to refuse the extraordinary powers
demanded. The next day, General Changamier pre-
sented the motion, previously agreed upon by the right,
to the assembly, twcondltionally prolonging the president's
powen. A long and stormy debate followed, and M.
LAboulaye, reporter of the prolongation committee, stated
that it was impossible for the government and committee
to agree upon any terms. The debate was a4Joumed
without division. Upon the debate being resumed, M.
Rouher moved that the whole question be referred to a
plebiscite^ and created a new excitement by hinting that it
was not impossible that the Bonapartists might be restored
to power. This motion was lost by a majority of 41 x . M.
Depyre, a member of the right, finally moved that the
powers of the president be prolonged seven years, inde-
pendently of the adoption of the constitutional bills, which,
althou^ opposed by Laboulaye, Grevy, and others, was
adopted by a majority of 66. Another motion was then
introduced by the right for the appointment of a committee
of 30 on constitutional bills, which was also adopted by a
majority of 68, and the vexed question settled. The entire
cabinet tendered their resignations to President MacMahon,
which, after some hesitation, were accepted, and, Novem-
bet a 7th, a new cabinet was announced, headed by De
Broglie, interior; De Cases, foreign afiairs; General Du
Barail, war; and Pierre Magne, finance.— The trial of
Marshal Bazaine was brought to a dose December xoth;
the court, after long deliberation, finding him guilty of the
chaige of the capitulation of Metz and his army in the field
without doing all that honor and duty required, and unani-
mously condemned France's best soldier to be degraded
firom his rank and to suffer death. After this decision, the
CQun, with like unanimity, signed an appeal for mercy,
which was immediately conveyed by the Due d'Aumale to
Presiden MacMahon, who, December xa, announced that
the sentence of death was commuted to ao years' " seclu-
sion," and that the prisoner would be spared the humiliation
of a public degradation, thou|^, of coune, he would cease
to be an officer in the army. The place selected for the
' of the prisoner b announced to be the island



of Ste. Maiguerite, in the Mediterranean sea, off Cannes —
famous as the place where the Man <^ the Iron Mask was
imprisoned. Bazaine may be regarded as a vicarious im-
molation, the country imputing to him its own deficiencies.
MacMahon has met half-way the probable reversal of the
verdict of history.

The troubles between Spain and the United States,
growing out of the seizure of the Virginius and execution
of a portion of the officers and passengers, is in a fair way
of being settled without bloodshed, if nothing new occurs
to disturb existing relations. November joth, a protocol
was agreed upon and signed by Admiral Polo and Secretary
Fish, by which it was agreed : x. That the Virginius and
the surviving passengers and crew should be immediately
given up to the United States, a. That the flag of the
United States should be saluted December 35ih, unless
Spain should, before that time, satisfy the United States
that the Virginius had no right to carry the American flag.
3. If It shall be shown that the Virginius had no right to
carry the flag, the United States government is to institute
proceedings against the vessel and owners, and Spain
guarantees to institute proceedings against any of her
authorities who may have violated either law or treaty
stipulations. 4. The matter of reclamations for damages
is referred for future consideration. Spain has since shown
a disposition to carry out the provisions of the protocol in
good fiuth, though it is evidently very distasteful to the
Cuban volunteers. The Virginius left Havana December
za, escorted by a Spanish war vessel, tn rout* for Bahia
Honda, there to be delivered to the United States; and
orders have been given to transfer all the remainder of the
crew and passengerss to a United Sutes vessel at Santiago
de Cuba on the xsth, with strong probabilities of the orders
being carried out, in spite of local opposition.— The insur-
gents in Cartagena, Spain, continue to make a stubborn
defence of the city, although apparently working under
the most adverse circumstances. A plot was discovered,
November aad, among the prominent insurgent officers to
deliver the city up to the government, but was foiled, all
the leaders, except Galves, being arrested and placed in
confinement. November asth, the North German squad-
ron formed a line of battle, and demanded the restoration
of a,5oo pesetas, which had been extorted by the insur-
genu from the German residents of the city. The money
was paid, and having thus got rid of two sources of annoy-
ance, the insurgenu again turned their attention to the
government forces, which seem to have kept up a steady
bombardment meanwhile, and so far have succeeded in
keeping them at bay. Don Alfonso has been appointed
generalissimo of the Carlist forces, but his command appears



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33^



General Intelligence.



rather inactive.— The ministerial crisis which at one time
threatened to unseat Castelar is reported past— that sutes-
man having succeeded in effiKting a reconciliation with
Seiior Salmeron.

The parliament of Great Britain meets January 5. The
elections which have been held resulted almost uniformly
in favor of the conservatives, and evidences are not want-
ing that Mr. Gladstone is losing his popularity, and may
be compelled to resign at no distant day. Meanwhile,
those in favor of home rule in Ireland are making demon-
strations of considerable magnitude. — ^Advices from the
Cape coast say that General Wolseley had attacked the
Ashantees, who were retiring from the vicinity of Malhpon.
and, after an engagement lasting several hours, the Ashan-
tees continued their retreat, and the British forces returned
to Dunquah. General Wolseley Is reported to complain of
the utter ineflSdency of the native auxilaries, and says that
their tardiness and cowardice have placed him in a very
humiliating position. Two hundred British troops have
been sent to his assistance.— London has been enjoying
the nauonal luxury of fog, to that extent that, for three
days, navigation of the Thames was almost entirely sus-
pended, and traversing the streets was extremely danger-
ous. Even in that foggy city nothing equal to It has
occurred for many years.

The German government continues to watch France
very closely, and lately thought proper to remonstrau
against a pastoral letter of the bishop of Nancy ordering
prayers for the restoration of Mett usd Strasboiug. —
Archbishop Lederochowski, for continuing, unlawfully, to
institute priests, has received a fresh sentence of 5,400
Chalers fine and two years' imprisonment, and <frdered to
resign his office at a week's notice. The pope has exhorted
him to firmness.— Represenutions have been made by the
government to Spain concerning the two vessels captured
near Manilla, and it is expected that the dedsion of the
prize court at that place, which has condemned the vessels,
will be reversed on appeal to the Madrid court. — ^The
landtag has refused to censure the government for the
legislation against the ultramontaine Catholics.

Russia is preparing a fresh expedition against the Tur-
comans, and also, report says, engaged in investigating the
administration of Goieral Kaulinann in TurklsUn, and his
campaign against Khiva, and finds it very wasteful and
corrupt. — ^An imperial ukase has been issued, drafUng 6
men out of each z,ooo in Russia and the Polish provinces
into the army ; and n^ptiatlons, through the Rothschilds,
for a new loan of |75,ooo/xx>, 5 per cent., in progress.

A Dutch expedition has left Batavia for Acheen, and it
is reported that 9,000 troops have succeeded in effecting a
landing without molestation.

A consistory is reported as soon to be held at Rome, at
which deven cardinals will be created, and nuncios to
Madrid, Lisbon, Vienna, and Paris, will be appointed;
a^ro^oi of which, comes the announcement that the Swiss
government has decided to hand the papal nundo his pass-
ports, on account of the pope's last encyclical letter.

-^Thb first session of the forty-third congress com-
menced on the first Monday of December. The house
prompdy organised by the rejection of Mr. Biaiae as
speaker, and Mr. McPheison as derk, they meeting no
opposition of weight. The senate consisu of ^ republi-
cans, x8 dcmocrau, and 6 liberal republicans. The house,
which meets for the first time since the enlarged represen-
tation, based upon then census of X870, ccmsists of 386



members, of whom 193 are republicans, and 93 are (
crats. Among the large number of bills intnxlaoedy are
five or six designed to amend or annul the Bankrupt law. —
A biU, appropriatdy introduced by Mr. Maynard, of Ten-
nessee, passed the house, abolishing the ironclad test oath,
and conferring general amnesty for acts committed duxiag
the late rebdlion.— The secretary of the navy appeared
before a committee of congress and explained what had
been accomplished in the way of putting the navy npon a .
more effident footing. He has expended all the money
which had been appropriated for the ordinary expenses,
and assumed the responsibility of ordering a larse amount
of needful work, trustiog to congress to ratify his acts.
Upon his representations of the absolute necessity of the
measure, a bill was passed, authorizing the increase of the
naval force from 8,500 to zo/x» men, with a proviso that
the increase shall not continue beyond January x, X875, and
appropriating $4,000 fioo for extnordinsuy expenses of that
department. — A livdy discussion, which displayed a strong
disposition to descend to personalities, took place over Bfr.
Hale's bill to repeal the salary Jaw of last session, aixl, as
usual, the original bill was so loaded with amendments as
to be unrecognizable. The whole matter is at present in
an uncertain state, and the final action of co o gi ea s is en-
tirely a matter of speculation. A noticeable feature was
the partidpation in the debate of the vice-president of the
late confederacy, who ^>oke in opposition to the repeal of
the bw as unwise and impolitic, rather advocating a fur-
ther increase.— The postmaster-genenrs scheme for pos-
tal telegraphs does not seem to meet with much fovor, and
the same may be said of the attempts which have been
made to cause a recognition of the Cuban insurgents at
belligerents.

Boston, alter having imitated some of the other

latge cities of the country in absorbing all the a<i[joiniiv
villages, proposes to follow their example otherwise, and
have a public park. The tradUtional Boston common and
pond no longer satisfy the Hub. It is urged that the site
should be purdiased immediately, on the score of eounony,
the rapid increase in the value crfTreal estate in the suburbs
warranting that conclusion. The project has •— »twi^^ so
ungiUe a shape that a plan has been prepared which con-
tempbites a park of about three square miles' area, and
located in Brookline, which, it will be remembered, re>
cently, alone among the suburban towns, reftisoi to be
aimexed, and is now an independent township, entirely
surrounded by the dty. Perhaps the Bostonians, despair*
irtg of getting the territory in any other manner, have taken
this mode of surmounting the difficulty.

— — Thb president judiciously makes a recommendation
to congress to appropriate a small sum for the purpose of
exploring the Amazon river and its tribuuries, with a view
of ascertaining the practicability of increasing trade fsdli-
ties with Bolivia. The present route of trade is through
the Peruvian port of Arica, involving a voyage of about
X90 days. The new route, if it should prove practicable, is
expected to reduce this one-half. It is stated, also, that by
the construction of a railway x8o miles in length, the com-
merdal centre of Bolivia, La Paz, can be brou^t within
30 days of New York.

— Thb report of the postmaster-general shows the
ordinary revenues of his department for the last fiscal year
to have been 133,996,741.57, an increase over the previous
year of neariy 5 per cent. ; expenditures, ^09,084,945.67,
an increase of about 9 per cent.



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THE



AMERICAN

Exchange and Review.

Vol. XXIV. FEBRUARY, 1874. No. 6.

THE ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF COLD.

THAT affection of matter styled heat, which was formerly believed to be due to
a peculiar fluid existing in the pores or spaces between* the atoms of matter,
is now, in accordance with a more advanced stage of scientific thought, known to
be caused by the motions of the atoms themselves. The possibility of this motion
must be admitted, when it is shown that the atoms or molecules are not in actual
contact, for then any disturbance of the forces that kee^ them apart must be
attended by a movement about their position of equilibrium.

If we would obtain a clear conception of the atomic structure of bodies, we
must picture to ourselves the atoms bathed in an atmosphere of highly attenuated
matter, termed ether. Nowhere are these atoms in contact, the distance between
them being great in comparison with their size. Moreover, this distance is by no
means constant, since they are continually advancing towards and receding from
each other in regularly recurring motions; sometimes each atom moving inde-
pendently of the others, and sometimes in groups of two or three separate atoms,
termed molecules.

When any motion is imparted to either the atoms or the molecules, they must,
in virtue of their inertia, continue in motion until stopped by some opposing
force. Since we may ordinarily consider the molecular forces of attraction and
repulsion as in equilibrium, the force to oppose the momentum of the atoms is to
be sought in the resistance offered to their movement by the surrounding ether.
Heat in the body is caused by the motion of its particles ; outside the body by
the motion of the surrounding ether, and the motion can only be given to this
ether by a partial loss of the motion of the body.

Digitized by VjOOQ IC



334 Radiation into Space. [Feb.,

So far, then, as the swing of the particles produced by a given amount of force
is concerned, the motion must soon cease entirely from being transferred either
to the surrounding bodies or the ether that pervades space. The atoms would
then come into absolute rest, and so continue until they received fresh accessions
of force. A condition of absolute molecular rest is not, however, a physical
possibility. The immense radiation from the sun and the fixed stars, together
with the feeble sources found in varieties of mechanical or chemical force, are
continually preventing the molecular motion from dying out. If, now, heat be
motion, then will this comparative absence of motion be cold. It is purposed in
the present article to explain how this reduction of molecular motion can be
effected, to point out the causes that tend to produce a reduction of temperature,
and to show how this reduction may be utilized.

At the outset, it is well to disabuse the mind of any belief in heat or cold as
separate entities: they are relative terms, and differ only in quantity. A body is
warm when compared with one cooler than itself, but cool when compared with a
warmer one. Heat is motion; intense heat, rapid motion; moderate heat,
moderate motion; cold, very slow motion; absolute cold — that is, the greatest
cold possible — ^absolute freedom from motion. Both heat and cold, then, are
terms expressive of the condition produced in matter by differences in the rapidity
of the motion of its ultimate atoms. When a body becomes heated, we must
regard it as having gained much additional motion; when it becomes cooled, we
must suppose so much motion lost. To cause a body to become cold, we ,must
cause it to lose part of its motion. Let us, then, inquire as to the different ways
in which the motion may be lost, or the temperature lowered.

The reduction of temperature may be effected in three ways: i. The body may
radiate its heat into space, and so become cold ; that is, it may impart its motion
to the ether that pervades all space. 2. It may share its njotion with a neighbor-
ing body that moves less rapidly than it does; or, (3), it may oppose its motion
to the molecular force of attraction, and thus come into equilibrium.

The reduction of temperature produced by radiation into space is most observ-
able at night, when the sky is free from clouds, since the imparted motion to the
ether is* greater than that which the body obtains from the fixed stars, or neigh-
boring terrestrial objects. In many parts of the East Indies, water exposed in
shallow pans, on clear nights, is frozen by the cold developed by the heat lost by
radiation, together with that expended in producing evaporation.

' No matter what the temperature of a body is, it is continually losing its heat
by radiation into space. The rapidity with which this loss is accomplished
depends on the temperature. The hotter the body, the greater is the intensity of
the heat it radiates; hence, the greater the rapidity with which it cools. If,
then, a hot body be placed in the neighborhood of others cooler than itself, it
gives them more heat than it receives, and by thus sharing its motion with them,
becomes at last of the same temperature. The transferrence of motion does not,
however, cease when this is attained. Each continues giving its motion to the
other, the temperature becoming less and less, from the motion expended in
moving the intervening ether.



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1 8 -4.] Latent Heat. 335

An experiment, first tried in the sixteenth century by a member of the Floren-
tine academy, appears, as it was then believed to do, to prove the existence of
cold as a thing separate from heat. A parabolic mirror was placed so that the
sun's rays were collected at its focus, and their heat measured by a thermometer
placed at the same point. The mirror was next turned towards the clear sky, and
instantly the mercury in the thermometer fell, as if it were placed in a focus of
cold, as indeed it was, though hot in the sense then supposed; for the heat from
the thermometer was thrown off into space, while the very low heat-rays from the
clear sky formed in reality at the bulb of the thermometer a focus of heat of such
low intensity as to be, by contrast, a real focus of cold. The same thing is
noticed in the neighborhood of an iceberg; the air gives its heat to the ice, and
the 'ice its heat to the air — the difference in the temperature of the two making
the heat of the ice cold by contrast, and thus making it practically radiate cold.
In such case, however, we must regard the principal cause of the reduction of
temperature not so much what is given off frbm the cold body, but the excess of
motion lost by the heated one.

It is not actually necessary to take away the molecular motion in order to pro-
duce a reduction of the temperature. We may oppose the force that produces the
motion to some other force, and thus reduce very considerably its amount. Such
a reduction of the amount of molecular motion is attended with the disappearance
of a definite quantity of heat, which will again appear as soon as the opposing
force is removed. The heat which thus disappears is called latent, to distinguish
it from that which produces an increase in the temperature, and which, being



Online LibraryMedical society of the County of AlbanyThe American exchange and review, Volume 24 → online text (page 55 of 65)