Medical Society of the State of North Carolina. An.

Cyclopedia of automobile engineering; a general reference work on the construction, operation, and care of gasoline, steam, and electric automobiles, instruction in driving, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, motor boats aerial vehicles, self-propelled railway cars, etc online

. (page 23 of 27)
Online LibraryMedical Society of the State of North Carolina. AnCyclopedia of automobile engineering; a general reference work on the construction, operation, and care of gasoline, steam, and electric automobiles, instruction in driving, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, motor boats aerial vehicles, self-propelled railway cars, etc → online text (page 23 of 27)
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taken right into the shipping room and packed, ready to be lifted
into the elevator and rolled directly into the waiting truck, its
return to the store and its departure with a new load thus being a
matter of only a few minutes, so that one truck can serve several
distributing stations at outlying points.

Where but one or two vehicles are to be maintain^, as in the
case of the small establishment, it will doubtless be found not alone


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most convenient but most economical to rely upon the services of
the public garage for storage, fuel, supplies, and ordinary repairs; it
is also a wise precaution to refer any repairs of moment directly to
the maker of the vehicle. But where the number of vehicles in the
service of a house exceeds five or six, both greater economy and
greater efficiency of the service will result from placing them under
the care of a competent manager in a garage maintained by the estab-
lishment itself. Supplies of fuel and lubricating oil may then be
purchased on more favorable terms and a closer check kept on the
quantity used by the different cars. Closer check can also be kept
of Ihe drivers and their ability to handle the machines.

WTien a comparatively lai^e number of vehicles is to be main-
tained, the economy and efficiency will be increased bylM#1St^pment
of a garage, and a machine shop which is able to take care of the
ordinary repairs and provide ample facilities for giving the machines
the thorough overhauling to which they should be subjected at least
once a year. Motor wagons are so far in advance of horse deliver}^
even where the latter has been brought to the highest degree of effi-
ciency, as to admit of no comparison whatever. But as the cars are
usually purchased by laymen and operated by unskilled labor, many
disappointments result from expecting entirely too much. No matter
how close an approach to mechanical perfection a machine may
represent, it can never be anything but a machine. Those who
condemn the commercial motor vehicle after a short trial wliich, from
tlie user's point of. view, has been marre<l by petty defections of the
mechanism, seldom stop to think of the constant care and inspection
involved in the up-keep of any machinery^


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The Very Globular Stem is Used for Storage Space.


Commercial Motor Car Company, Plymouth, Ind.


This Car is Said to Hold the Worid's Upkeep Record of Seventy-Seven Cents per
Thousand Mlles.n The Motor is Started by Compressed Air.

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The evolution of the automobile considered as a mechanism,
•and its development as a vehicle of transportation, have been so
closely related that it would be impossible to separate them. The
early conception of the vehicle was as crude as the early notions of
the mechanism required to propel it. Both in France and Ger-
many — ^where the modem automobile originated — and in this country
the first attempts were "horseless carriages." Like the early rail-
way coaches, they were copied after horse vehicles as closely as pos-
sible. The motor, usually of .one, but sometimes of two cylinders,
was stowed away under the body, and transmitted power to the
rear axle through gears and individual clutches, with usually a
sprocket chain as the final drive. To avoid the ihconvenience of
flexible transmission, the power plant was sometimes mounted on
a rigid under-frame attached directly to the axles, where its unsprung
weight had the natural result of pounding both running gear and
machinery to pieces in short order.

The first impulse toward the now accepted standard of design
came from France. Realizing the inconvenience of attempting to
work on a motor half buried in the body, the French builders
transferred it to the most accessible of all locations — in front of tha
dashboard;. and they located the transmission gear in the next most
accessible place, i, e., under the footboard. They suppprted the
power plant and the body on the same frame and springs, and trans-
mitted power to the rear wheels, first through two sprocket chains,
and later through a jointed shaft and bevel gears enclosed in the
rear axle. From that time dates the recognition of the automo-
bile's distinctive characteristics as a road locomotive rather than a
horseless carriage, and the mechanical appearance, though first
disliked, was soon conceded to be in keeping with the essential
characteristics of the vehicle.

CopuHoM, 39M>, hy Amtriean School of Corrotpondonet,


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Together with the "motor-front" type of design, the French
introduced the sliding-gear transmission. On account of the higher
degree of skill necessary to operate it, this transmission made slow
headway hi America at first, but its advantages have long since
been recognized as outweighing its drawbacks, except for women
operators and extreme amateurs.

With the front motor and the sliding gearset came the tonneau.
At first the tonneau was entered from the rear,- but improved frame
construction and lengthened wheel base soon made possible the
universal side entrance of today. Recently the tendency to enclose
the passengers has taken another step m the torpedo or gunboat
bodies now coming into vogue.

Side by side with the tonneau or touring car were developed
a class of small, inexpensive runabouts for two passengers. The
first had single-cylinder engines and planetary transmissions with
single-chain drive. These were followed by runabouts which were
miniatures of the larger cars, except that the motors had but two
horizontal opposed cylinders. These, in turn, are being succeeded
by four cylinder runabouts, but the transition process is not yet
complete, and the most recent examples of this class exhibit a wide
diversity in motor and transmission design.

A third class of cars has been developed, combining the limited
passenger capacity of the runabout with the power and speed of the
touring car. These roadsters carry normally two passengers, but
sometimes have supplementary seats for one or two more. Starting
with the same chassis as the touring car, many of them now have a
specially designed chassis considerably lighter than touring-car
construction requires.

For winter use various styles of closed bodies have been fitted
to touring cars, and from the heavy limousmes and landaulets ha^^
been evolved a new type of small, closed car for town use. From
the town car, in turn, the taxicab has developed by simple stand-
ardization of construction and the adoption of extra large tires and
heavy springs.

The automobile was once wholly a fair-weather vehicle. It
is still such where mere pleasure is concerned, but physicians and
other business and professional men now find in it an all-the-year
vehicle whose traveling ability greatly exceeds that of the horse, and


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which can be used in any conditions except deep snow. Side doors or
aprons for the front seats, wind shields for the dashboard, folding
cape cart hoods for the top, and storm curtains and aprons enable
the occupant to drive in any weather without personal discomfort
Easy riding is conferred by long and carefully proportioned springs,
and security on slippery roads by chains readily attached and de-
tached as desired. Tire troubles, once the motorist's bugbear,
are minimized by better construction and by the use of larger sizes
of tires, as well as by the quick detachable and demountable rims
now almost universally used in one form or another.

In its economic aspect the automobile has undergone as great
a change as mechanically. The early cars were short-lived because
their construction was unequal — good at some points, bad at others.
The busy owner of any but the smallest type of car needed a chauffeur
to keep it in order. The small, low-priced runabouts gave good
service according to their day and time, but wore out quite as rap-
idly as the larger cars.

Today any high-grade car, even of high power, requires so
little grooming other than ordinary cleaning that its owner may
dispense with the chauffeur. Roadside repairs are limited to tire
replacements, and such ordinary work as is needed in the garage
can be done by the handy man under the owner's instructions. Once
a year the car needs a good overhauling, but even this costs little
compared with what it used to, as many parts, e, jr., the transmis-
sion gears and bearings, and the engine and clutch bearings, may
last two or three years before renewal is necessary.

As much as this cannot be said of the cheaper cars. The most
striking feature of the automobile situation today is the great in-
crease in the number of cars whose prices range from $500 to $1,000
for runabouts and small roadsters, and from $1,250 to $1,800 for
small touring cars. The runabouts in this class are mostly of 10
horse-power to 15 horse-power, and the touring cars have four-
cylinder motors of from 3J-inch to 4J-inch bore. Many of these
are produced in response to a demand for an automobile at the
lowest possible price and are too cheaply built to last long; others,
while not in the high-grade class, may be called triumphs of monvn
facturing ingenuity when their prices are considered.

These new, low-priced cars are not intended to require the


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services of ehauflfeurs. It cannot be said that in this particular
they are superior or even equal to the higher-powered, high-grade
cars, but they are certainly superior to the average car of like power
of a few years ago. They are less trappy and require far less watching
and tinkering. Most of their lubrication is automatic; the ignition
and carburetion seldom give trouble; the working parts are eflS-
ciently protected against dust and mud; and all parts from the ra-
diator to the brakes are better proportioned, less liable to break or
come loose, and far more durable than their prototypes. The
average $1,500 car today is as good as the $2,500 car of four or five
years ago, and, if not more durable, it is in many respects more con-
sistent and reliable in performance.


The easiest automobile to drive, and the simplest mechanically,
is the electric. If its range of action equalled its ease of running,
it would certainly be preferred to every other type of car. In fact,

Fig. 1. Columbus Electric Runabout.
Columbus Buggy Co,, ColunU>ua, Ohio.

however, its sphere is limited chiefly to local uses, where no greater
mileage than 20 to 30 miles per day is ordinarily required. It is
very popular in the city as the ecjuivalent of the horse-dmwn brougham
and park runabout. Physicians find it eminently suitable for mak-
ing local professional calls, and closed electric vehicles are preferred
for shopping, calling, and visits to the theater.

The open types of electric vehicles usually seat two passengers.


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They are made with stanhope, victoria, and piano-box iMHlies, and
contain usually 24 or 26 cells of battery — Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, and

Fig. 2. Columbus Electric Phaeton.

Fig. 4. It was formerly the practice to attach the motor rigidly to
the rear axle, but in present vehicles it is always hung from the frame,
or else attached rigidly thereto. In the latter case it drives the rear

Fig. 3. Baker Electric Runabout.
Baker Motor Vehicle Co., Clevdandt Ohio.

axle either through a single-reduction gearing and sprocket chain
or through a propeller shaft with universal joints, after the manner
of gasoline vehicles.


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The wheel base of these small cars is from 70 inches to 80 inches.
The wheels are usually 30 inches or 32 inches in diameter, and
the motor is rated at from 3 horse-power to 4 horse-power. The

Fig. 4. Baker Electric Roadster.

controller is usually of the series-parallel type, and gives four to six
forward speeds and one or two reverse speeds. The motor, differ-
ential, and wheel bearings are lubricated by oil wells, and usually
two sets of brakes are furnished. The body has a folding top for
stonny weather.

Ascending the scale of size, a few roadster models of longer

Fig. 5. Waverley Koadsler.
Waverley Co., Indianapolis, Ind.

wheel base and larger battery capacity than the runabouts just
mentioned may be found. According to size, these have from 24


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Fig. 6. Detroit Electric Coup6.
Anderson Carriage Co.* Detroit, Mich.

cells to 42 cells, and the larger ones bear a close resemblance to
gasoline touring roadsters. Mechanically they are enlarged edi-
tions of the smaller machines, Fig. 5.

The large class of enclosed electric vehicles begins with small

Fig. 7. Babcock Electric Town Car.
Babcock Electric Carriage Co., Buffalo, N. Y.


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coup& with 24 cells to 30 cells, and extends upward to heavy town
cars with 42-cell batteries. The small cars, Fig. 6, seat two passen-
gers and have inside control. Larger ones of brougham type seat
three, four, or five persons, and, like the coup^,. have inside control
so that the owner may do his own driving, Fig. 7. The large
town cars are similar to the limousines and landaulets in the gaso-
line field, and have the driver's seat in front of the closed portion of
the body.


Stanley. Of steam automobiles, there are at present only
three active manufacturers in the country. Of these, the Stanley
Motor Carriage Company builds light runabouts and one larger
car which may be called a touring car, though not intended for
heavy touring, Fig. 8 and Fig. 9. The boiler is located ahead of the

FiK. 8. Stanley Steamer Runal3out.
Stanley Motor Carriage Co., Newton^ Mans.

dashboard, and the engine is supported somewhat like the motor
of an electric vehicle, with the crank shaft geared to the rear axle,
and the forward or cylinder end of the motor spring-supported from
the body of the car. This relieves the axle and rear tires of a con-
siderable portion of the dead weight of the engine.

Lane. The Lane cars. Fig. 10, are of the heavy type for four
or five passengers. The boiler is in front, and the engine behind
it under the footboard, with sprocket-chain drive to the rear


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Fig. 9. Stanley Touring Steamer.

Pig. 10. Lane Touring Steamer.
Lane Motor Vehicle Co., Poughkeepaie, N. Y.

Fig. 11. White Steamer.
WhUe Co., Cleveland, Ohio,


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White. The well-known White steam cars are made in two
chassis models of 20 horse-power and 40 horse-power respectively,
Fig. 11 and Fig. 12. The flash generator is under the front seat,
and the engine is under the hood in front. The smaller car is made

Fig. 12. White Touriiig Steam3r.

in touring, runabout, and limousine bodies. The wheels are 32
inches in diameter with 4-inch tires, and the wheel base is 110 inches.
The larger car is made in touring, roadster, and toy tonneau bodies,
also with seven passenger limousine and Pullman bodies. It is a
large and heavy car of 122-inch wheel base with 36-inch wheels.


To understand clearly the present classification of gasoline
automobile types, let us begin with what may be called the conven-

Fig. 13. Puiiman Touring Car.
York Motor Car Co., York, Pa.


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tional or standard type of touring car of medium power and price,
Fig. 13 and Fig. 14. The cheaper and smaller types of cars' are,
with some few exceptions, developed from the standard type by
reduction of size and simplification of parts. On the other hand,
the cars of higher power and price show greater refinement and
attention to detail. By bearing in mind precisely what the standard

Fig. \A. Hajmes Touring Car.
Haynea Automobite Co., Kokomo, Jnd.

type is and what it will do, the beginner may estimate with reasonable
accuracy what he may expect for his money in purchasing a cheaper
or more expensive car.

The standard type of medium-power car will have substantially
the following specifications:

Motor, 4 cylinders cast in pairs. Bore, 4^ inches. Stroke, 4} inches.
Rated horse-power, 3D. Crank case, aluminum, supported from upper half;
lower half of crank case forms a removable oil pan. Valves located on opposite
sides of the cylinders.

Ignition by magneto, either of high-tension type or low-tension with
step-up coil.

Cooling by water circulation with centrifugal pump.

Clutch, conical, leather-faced (or may be disk type, either metal to metal
running in oil, or dry plates faced with woven asbestos).

TransmiBtion, sliding-gear type, 3 forward speeds and reverse, with
selective lever. Gear box located just behind clutch. Flexible joint between
clutch and gears.

Final Drive through jointed propeller shaft and bevel gears. Rear
axle floating or semi-floating type.


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Running Gear, wheel base 108 inches for tonneau, 102 inches for road-
ster; wheels 34-inch diameter with 4-inch tires.

Springs, front, semi-elliptic; rear, three-quarter elliptic.

Brakei, emergency brakes acting on rear wheels ; foot brakes acting either
on rear wheels or on drum behind gear box.

Body, five-passenger tonneau, or roadster (three or four passengers).
Other types: close coupled tonneau (four passengers), and landaulet or
limousine geared low for town use.

Price, from $1,500 to $2,000 without wind shield. Magneto possibly
an extra, but probably regular equipment. Weight of car 2,000 to 2,500
pounds without tools, water, or gasoline.

A car conforming to the above specifications cannot at this
present writing (January, 1910) be thoroughly well built for much
less than $2,000.


Let us now inquire by what means serviceable 30-horse-power
cars may be built at prices ranging from $1,500 to $1,250. In order
to reduce the cost of the motor which is the most expensive single
part of the car, the bore is reduced to 4 inches, with probably 4-inch

Fig. 15. Franklin Touring Car.
H. H. Franklin Mfg. Co., Syractue, N. Y.

or 4^inch stroke. In the car above described, the valves are located
on opposite sides to gain flexibility at low speeds, since the spark
plug is surrounded by fresh gas even when running closely throttled.
The cheaper car has one or both of the valves opening directly into
the cylinder head. This gives higher maximum power, but at some
sacrifice of flexibility and quiet running. In many cases, however,


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the valves are located together on one side, right or left, according
to convenience. This eliminates one of the crank shafts, but requires

Fig. 16. CadUlac Touring Car.
Cadillac Motor Car Co,, Detroit, Mich.

the same bore as when the valves are opposite, or else higher speed
with the smaller bore.

The cylinders, instead of being cast in pairs, may be cast en
bloc, i, e., all four in one casting.

The crank case may be of cast iron instead of aluminum, espe-
cially if the car is to sell below $1,500. In some cases the upper half
is cast in one piece with all four cylinders, thus effecting a great saving
of machine work with but a moderate increase in weight.

Fig. 17. Stoddard-Dayton Touring Car.
Dayton Motor Car Co,, Cleveland, Ohio,

The ignition is probably by magneto, but a cheaper and there-
fore less reliable magneto is used. The radiator is cheaper and is
likely to need replacement sooner.


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The clutch is probably of the cone type without cork inserts.

The transmission is similar to the one above mentioned, but

of cheaper materials. The bearings, instead of being high-grade

Fig. 18. Maxwell Touring Car — Detachable Tonneau.
MaxvoeU' Briscoe Motor Co., Tarrutovmt N. Y.

roller or annular ball bearings, are likewise cheaper, and may be
plain bushed. The rear axle is more cheaply constructed and the
differential may be accessible only by disconnecting the axle from
the wheels and taking it all apart. The above remarks regarding
the transmission bearings apply to the rear axle also.

The running gear will be about the same as above, but with
possibly shorter springs and slightly smaller wheels. The axle

Pig. 19. Reo 35-H. P. Touring Car.
Reo Motor Car Co., Lansing, Mich.

may not be provided with a torsion frame, or if one is used it may
not be hung to the best advantage. Throughout the car, money will
be saved on materials, construction, and fittings in proportion to the
lower price of the car.


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Such cars as these are worth their price to one who does not
purchase them with- the idea that they will last as long or be as free
from trouble as the higher-priced cars. In a sense, they are good
cars for the beginner to "break in" on, since whatever damage they
may suffer from abuse is less expensive than it would be if the car
cost twice as much.

Some of the representative cars coming under thb classification
are shown in Figs. 15 to 19 inclusive.

Small High-Qrade Care. By reducing dimensions without re-
ducing price, the quality of the product can be improv^. There are
a few cars of small power and high grade, having motors of
about 3J-inch to 3|-inch bore, whose construction is in every way
up to the standard of the larger ones. These small machines coot
about $1,509. and if the purchaser desired reliability and consistent

Fi?. 20. Ford Touring Car.
Ford Motor Co., Detroit, Mich.

performance rather than speed they are very satisfactory. They
are easily handled by ladies, and are especially suited for town
cars and for local suburban use. These cars, like the low-priced
class just mentioned, are furnished with roadster and small tonneau
bodies, and occasionally with closed bodies also. They have three-
speed transmission and in mechanism, generally, are reduced dupli-
cates of the larger cars.

Cars for $130 or Less, (Figs. 20 to 26 inclusive.) When a
selling price is $1,200 and under, it is no longer possible, at this date,
to furnish a four-cylinder car with three-speed transmission. The
motor also must be reduced; and accordingly motors are found of


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3J-inch and 3i-inch bore, with usually 4Hnch or 4-inch stroke.
The cylinders are cast in one unit and sometimes integral with the

Fig. 21. Hudson Koadster.
Hudson Motor Car Co,, Detroit, Mich.

upper half of the crank case. The valves, as a rule, are together on
one side, to save the expense and complication of overhead valves
in a small engine. Transmission is of the planetary tvpe giving
two speeds ahead and one reverse, by clutch and friction bands.
The fan is omitted from behind the radiator, the flywheel spokes
l)eing formed to act as fan blades, and gravity (thermo-siphon)

Fig. 22. Paige-Detroit Koadster.
Paige-Detroit Motor Car Co., Detroit, Mich.

circulation is used or else a small gear pump is built into the engine.
The springs, instead of being semi-elliptic, are in some cases front
and rear cross springs, the axles being held parallel by radius rods.


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Cars of the type just described have achieved a great popularity
with owners who expect to use a car only one or two seasons and thai

Fig. 28. Maxwell Runabout.
MaxweU-Bri8eo€ Motor Co., Tarrytown, N. Y.

dispose of it. They are light in build, very simple in mechanism,
and are sold at a low price. Necessarily they do not contain the
materials or workmanship of higher-priced cars, and they are rushed
through the factory at a rate which precludes the possibility of much

Fig. 24. Reo Runabout.
Reo Motor Car Co., Lansing, Mich.

individual attention being bestowed on any given car. The pur-
chaser must expect to watch for minor faults in ignition, carburetion.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 25 26 27

Online LibraryMedical Society of the State of North Carolina. AnCyclopedia of automobile engineering; a general reference work on the construction, operation, and care of gasoline, steam, and electric automobiles, instruction in driving, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, motor boats aerial vehicles, self-propelled railway cars, etc → online text (page 23 of 27)