Medical Society of the State of North Carolina. An.

Cyclopedia of automobile engineering; a general reference work on the construction, operation, and care of gasoline, steam, and electric automobiles, instruction in driving, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, motor boats aerial vehicles, self-propelled railway cars, etc online

. (page 8 of 27)
Online LibraryMedical Society of the State of North Carolina. AnCyclopedia of automobile engineering; a general reference work on the construction, operation, and care of gasoline, steam, and electric automobiles, instruction in driving, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, motor boats aerial vehicles, self-propelled railway cars, etc → online text (page 8 of 27)
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cut-off pedal 91 is pushed clear forward, and with shortened cut-off
when the pedal is released. A stop pin 82 is provided to fix the
shortest cut-off which the engine can use to advantage. This is
determined by trial. The cut-off should never be so short as to cause
the engine to vibrate.

The Engine. In Fig. 56, the simpling valves 12 and 14 are
shown in position for compound running. Steam passes from the
high-pressure to the low-pressure steam chest through valve 12.
WTien the engine is **simpledX by pushing the starting pedal 93,
valve 14 is open to allow high-pressure steam to get to 'the low-
pressure cylinder, and at the same time valve 12 moves to allow ex-
haust steam from the high-pressure cylinder to go directly into the
exhaust pipe. The passage from the high-pressure exhaust to the
low-pressure steam chest is closed at the same time.

If the engine should thump when compound, but run smoothly
when simple, the valve 14 is probably not seating properly and
should be inspected and ground if need be.



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84 STEAM AUTOMOBILES

The roller at the end of cut-oflF lever 60, Fig. 56, should follow
the shoe connected to cut-off pedal 91. The spring attached to lever
60 should be in tension.

Water Pumps. The connection between the discharge pipe of
pumps 22 and 23, Fig. 62, and the water regulator 25, contains a
small strainer which should be cleaned occasionally by disconnecting
the pipe 35 from the regulator. The function of the spring plunger
17 is to cushion the strokes of the pumps.

The ball check valves of the water pump should lift j^ inch.
To reseat these valves, remove the bronze balls, insert a steel ball
of the same size, and tap once or twice to reshape the seat.

Condenser Pumps and Air Pumps. The condenser pump 39,
Fig. 53, has mushroom check valves, which should be kept reason-
ably tight.

The air pump, like the condenser pump, runs all the time, but
the suction check valve is normally held o|)en by lever 56, Fig. 56.
When air pressure is retjuired, press pedal 94, Fig. 57, which operates
lever 56 to release the suction check as long as 94 is down.

The needle and outlet air valves are removed for cleaning by
slackening bolt 54. The needle valve is protected from dust by the
wire screen 55, Fig. 56.

Throttle Valve. The throtde valve is shown in Fig. 59 closed
but not seated steam tight. By withdrawing the portion 180 from
the bushing 173 the valve is opened. By turning the stem so that
the shoulder 181 seats against 173 the valve is closed steam tight.
With this construction the seat is not scoured by the steam and,
therefore, never leaks when closed. The stem has a steep-pitch
screw whereby it is advanced or >^athdrawn in the nut or sleeve 176.
This sleeve carries the frame 163 rigidly secured thereon, and the
frame, by its position, limits the wide-open position of the lever 177.

To adjust the throtde, the frame 1()3 and sleeve 176 (considered
as one piece) are turned by slackening 175 to such position that 177
does not quite touch the frame when the throttle is dosed. This
permits the maximum opening to be secured.

To grind the throtde, loosen the screw clamp on 163, and turn
163 to the right on 176 about a quarter of a turn. Tighten clamp
163, loosen 175, and move 177 to the right. This pushes the valve
Stem farther through 176, and the valve seats before the flange on



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 85

176 comes against its seat. Now turn 174 and 176 together, which
will rotate the valve against its seat By undoing 175 the stem can
be slipped down and pumice put on the valve seat to grind it. When



Fiff. 59. Throttle.

through grinding, clean the valve and slacken the stem back so that
176 will seat properiy when 175 is tightened up.

To Clean Pilot Light. If the flame is weak with valve F two
turns open, work valve F back and forth to loosen passible dirt.
If this is not sufficient the pilot light must be cleaned. To remove



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86 STEAM AUTOMOBILES

it, close valve D and see that the pilot flame is out. Unscrew union
on pipe MA, turn pilot light to the left and pull down; take apart,
noting identification marks on parts. Clean with small drill furnished
with tool-kit. After reassembling, blow out the dust through the
stuflBng-box at F, then replace the valve stem. In replacing cone
P see that the slotted part is underneath.

To Clean Vaporizer. The nozzle 0, Fig. 50, is cleaned by un-
screwing and poking out the dust on deposited carbon. Occasionally
run a drill through the orifices, using exactly the same size drill as
is marked on the nozzle. Do not ream the hole. If fire is still poor,
the vaporizer must be cleaned. Remove vaporizer door. Remove
the lower part by unscrewing the nut on pipe HA and take out the
vaporizer. Note position of end support and pipes for correct replace-
ment. Take out plug screws in the vaporizer and clean thoroughly
with large drill in tool-kit.

In replacing the screws and support see that copper gaskets
are under each. See that the end support pin enters support post
U. At the same time clean fuel strainer B and drain the water
from the water trap by unscrewing the plug in the bottom of
casting B.

Care of Flow Motor. If the flow motor is disturbed, e. g., to
regrind or replace the fuel valve 193, Fig. 48, care must be taken
not to disturb the adjustment. The fuel valve for the 20-H. P.
car diflFers from that for the 40-H. P. car, so the two must not be
mixed. ^

The fuel valve Is correctly adjusted when the valve is seated
Vit L fy inch before piston 191 reaches its end stop. This en-
sures the spring tension holding the fuel valve positively shut when
water* is not flowing through. To adjust this when the piston is
against its stop, first screw the stem 193 into 192 till the fuel valve
is against its seat. From this point screw it ^j inch more, or about
five turns, and clamp with nut 194.

The relief valve 197 is easily cleaned by slackening the adjacent
union.

If leakage is noted at 125, tighten the stuffing-box or repack.
Do not tighten hard or it will retard the movement of the piston.

Care of Thermostat and Pyrometer. Of the two thermostat
stuffing-boxes, Fig. 49, 212 is packed with water packing, and 213



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 87

with asbestos packing. They should not be screwed tighter than is
necessary to prevent leakage when well packed.

To adjust the thermostat remove cap 119, and pull out stem
201. Adjust the nuts 202 up to raise the temperature, and down
to reduce the temperature. The temperature should average 390
degrees centigrade; one complete turn of nuts 202 will change the
temperature about sixty degrees. If the pyrometer or temperature
indicator is known to be fairly accurate a thermometer is not neces-
sary, but the car must be run long enough to get a constant tempera-
ture. The temperature cannot be accurately set when the car is
standing.

The principle of the pyrometer is similar to that of the ther-
mostat 219 is the expanding element, and 218 a non-expanding
stem which communicates the movement of- the lower end of 219
to the indicator above. Occasionally the pyrometer should be
checked by putting a thermometer into the hole 199 and running
the car till the temperature becomes constant If correction is
required, it is made on the dial.

Water Regulator. In Fig. 60, 37 is the steam connection, and
36 the gauge connection. The by-pass valve 141 is opened by lever
140 when the steam pressure is sufficient to compress the spring.
Water then goes through the regulator and out at 34 instead of going
to the generator.

To adjust the by-passing pressure, turn the worm 38 to the left
to increase the pressure, and to the right to decrease it. The water
should by-pass at 550 pounds steam pressure.

To remove the diaphragm, take out the regulator by blowing
off the steam pressure and disconnecting at 34, 36, 37, and 145.
Be careful not to lose valve 141. Turn worm 38 to the right till
spring tension is entirely relieved, before removing screws from cover.
Count the turns given to worm 38. Mark the cover 133 and plate
97 for correct replacement, also see that 97 is replaced with its con-
cave side next to diaphragm.

When reassembling, tighten the cover screws evenly, a little at
a time, several times around. Turn 38 to the left about two-thirds
the number of turns given it on disassembling. Put valve 141 in
position and reconnect the regulator except at 34. Open blow-off
valve 111 and oil valve 118, Fig. 51, and pump oil around the dia-



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88



STEAM AUTOMOBILES



Fife. 60. Water Regulator.




RENEW OIL IN ENGIt

AND REAR AXLE C>

ONE THOUSA^

Fig. 61. Lubrication System.



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 89

phragm from the cylinder under oiler 108, Fig. 57, till the oil runs
from 111. Close valves 111 and 118.

Run the engine free to bring up steam pressure. If water dis-
charges at 34 with less than 550 pounds, turn worm 38 to the left
a turn at a time till the by-pass opens at 550 pounds. If water leaks
slowly from 34 with lower steam pressure, valve 141 must be reground
with fine pumice.

Rear Axle. The rear axle is ball bearing and is lubricated
either with steam cylinder oil or with heavy gear case oil. About
e\'ery thousand miles unscrew the bottom plug in the axle case
and see whether the oil comes out, and whether the oil is clean.
If so, fill the casing through the plug on the side near the bottom until
it runs out from side plug. Occasionally wash out the casing with
kerosene and fill with new oil.

The rear wheels are removed by slackening two clamp bolts,
one above and one below at each end of the axle. The wheel shaft
and bearing may then be drawn from the casing. To remove the
wheel from the shaft, unscrew hub cap and lock nuts.

Brakes. Both foot and hand brakes act on the rear wheel
drums and are compensated by steel cables. Adjustments are made
by the turn buckles at the back ends of the brake shoes.

Condenser. Ordinarily steam does not escape into thie air from the
condenser, but there is a relief valve in the top which opens under inter-
nal pressure when the condenser has more steam than it can take care of.

To clean the condenser, remove the exhaust chamber or top
header and the bottom header by undoing the nuts on the through
bolts, thereby leaving the tubes exposed for cleaning without remov-
ing the condenser from the car.

Lubrication. Following are the makers' instructions regard-
ing lubrication:

To insure a long life to the crank shaft and valve gearing it
is necessary that it be properly lubricated. Fig. 61, and at least every
five hundred miles the drain cock 68, Fig. 55, in the bottom of the
crank case, should be opened and any water that has collected there
drained out. This should be done when the engine is cold, as then the
water will settle and is easily drained out. At this time the operator
should make sure that there is suflScient oil in the crank case to lubri-
cate thoroughly and if there is not, put in enough.



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90 STEAM AUTOMOBILES

Once a month dean out the oil in the crank case and fill with
new. To do this, put a pint or so of kerosene in the crank case



Fig. 62. Engine-^Left-Side View, Wliite — 1907-1908.

and run the engine at moderate speed for five minutes and then
open the drain cock and let it all run out. Fill with two quarts of
clean oil.



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 91

A good grade of motor grease should l>e used in the grease cups
and grease gun.

Care should be used to prevent dirt or grit mixing with either
oil or grease.

Examine all oil connections for clogging or leaks.

The lubrication of the engine is principally automatic, the oiler
being driven from the engine by a ratchet. Oilers are also provided
with hand plungers Nos. 108 and 109, Fig. 57, and should be given
a few strokes when starting.

Should the steam gauge needle vibrate, pump oil around the
pipe line. Open valves 118 and 111, Fig. 49 and Fig. 51, and pump
with cylinder hand oiler 108 until oil runs from valve 111. Always
close valve 118 when through.

These directions are for running under ordinary conditions.
WTien the conditions become unusual, as in heavy mud or long,
dusty trips, the operator must use his judgment about increasing
the lubrication of the exposed parts.

Flush the water tank daily and clean thoroughly once a week.

To Drain Water from Car. Raise the steam pressure and run
the engine long enough to warm it thoroughly.

Disconnect the unions at, the suction side of both water pumps
22 and 23, Fig. 47 and Fig. 53.

Disconnect pipe 127 at union 21, Fig. 47.

Disconnect pipe 130 at flow motor and thermostat and remove,
Fig. 47.

Disconnect the condenser pipe line at 40, Fig. 53, and open pet
cock at bottom of condenser.

Run the engine idle until the steam pressure is down to two or
three hundred pounds and give hand water pump 99 a few strokes, also
pump plenty of oil into the cylinders by means of lever 108, Fig. 57.

With the engine still running, open the blow-off valve which
connects to the top of the generator located back of the water tank
and reached through a hole in the running board shield by the tool
box, then open blow-off valve 111, Fig. 49 and Fig. 51.

If the car is to be laid up for a long time it is well to remove
balls from all checks.

To Drain by Air Pressure. The car can best be drained by means
of air if air pressure is available.



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02 STEAM AUTOMOBILES



Fig. 63. Kngiue— Right-Side View. Wliite— 1907-190S.

Open the drip cock at the bottom of the condenser and discon-
nect condenser Hne at union 40. Remove the plug from the lK)ttom
of the water tank. Blow air through condenser line by applying
at 40, Fig. 53.

Remove hose 18, Fig. T)."), ?!id apply air at union where LS con-
nects to pumps. Open blow-off valve 111 and water may all be
forced through.



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 03



Fig. 64. Engine— Back-End View, White— 1907-1908.

To Get Good Results. Care should be taken that all parts are
well lubricated, the stuffing boxes packed, and all joints tight.

When the stuffing boxes begin to leak, it is advisable to take
them up at once before the steam has a chance to wear a groove
in the packing. WTien repacking remove all old packing then
replace with new and watch for leaks until it becomes thoroughly



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04 STEAM AUTOMOBILRS

settled. After once getting settled without the steam wearing a
passage through it, the box will not have to be repacked for a long
time. Don't keep valve stem stuffing boxes too tight as there is
only exhaust steam against them.

Use rOO-\V Mineral or D IVIobiloil.



Fig. 65. Crank of Engine, White— 1907-1908.

Keep the air pressure from 50 to 60 pounds — always above 50
pounds.

Do not crowd the car when starting. Give the engine time to
warm up.

Do not try to run 70 miles per hour.

Do not try to make fast time on bad roads.

Do not overload the car; it is designed for five or seven pas-
sengers only.



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STE.VM AUTOMOBILES 05



Fig. 66. Ohaasia^SldeView. White— 1907-1908.



Fig. 67. Chassis— Top View, White— 1907-1908.



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96 STEAM AUTOMOBILES

Always close the throttle before applying brakes or reversing
the engine.

Always make it a practice to disengage the engine from running
gear by means of lever 103 before leaving the driver's seat.

1907^ WHITE CARS VS. 1909-10 MODELS

The 1907 to 1908 White cars were substantially similar to the
present models as regards the essential features of the generator,
burner, flow motor, thermostat, and water regulator. They use
only one fuel (gasoline), but otherwise the instructions for firing up are
identical. Slight changes appear in the form of the flow motor and
the arrangement of the piping, but these in no way affect the manage-
ment and adjustment. The engine is shown complete in end and
side views in Fig. 62, Fig. 63, and Fig. 64. The burner nozzle of the
later cars has three orifices, whereas that of the earlier cars has but one.
The form of the air shutter on the mixing tube is also slightly changed.
The chief difference between the earlier and later models relates to
the engine itself, which in the former has the Stephenson link motion,
illustrated in Fig. 65. As this tj'pe of valve gear has already been
fully described no further explanation is necessary. The chassis
arrangement is shown in Fig. GO and Fig. 67.



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THE GLIDE SCOUT

The Bartholomew Co^ Peoria, III.



THE GLIDE SPECIAL •'POBTT-FIVE** TOUBINO CAR

Th€ Bartholomew Co^ Peoria, III,



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GLOSSARY

♦INDEX TO NUMBERS AND LETTERS OF THE WHITE CARS

J9074908

1 High*pres8ure cylinder

2 Low-pressure cylinder

3 Fan shaft casing

4 Feed water heater stud

5 Feed water heater

6 Engine casing

7 Crank case

8 High-pressure piston stuffing-box

9 High-pressure valve stuffing-box

10 Low-pressure valve stuffing-box

11 Low-pressure piston «stuffing-box

12 Valve opening exhaust from high-pressure cylinder

13 Valve closing high-pressure exhaust from low-pressure steam chest

14 Valve admitting steam from high-pressure to low-pressure steam chest

15 Engine girt

16 Engine sprocket

17 Compression chamber

18 Suction from tank

19 Discharge pipe from pump to feed water heater

20 Unions in water connections

21 Grease cup

22 Upper power pump

23 Lower power pump

24 Power pump frame

25 Water regulator

26 Pump lever pin

27 Pump lever

28 Pump block

29 Pump plunger

30 Screws attaching pump frame to engine

31 Power pump lock nuts

32 Power pump stuffing-boxes

33 Upper power pump suction pipe

34 Water regulator by-pass pipe

35 Discharge pipe of lower power pump

36 Steam gauge and oil connection of water regulator

37 Steam connection of water regulator

38 Water regulator adjusting worm



*To enable the student to pick out and identify the puts of the White cars, the«
are Usted in full with reference numbers corresponding to the ilHistratioos.



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98 STEAM AUTOMOBILES

39 Condenser pump

40 Condenser pump suctioa end.

41 Condenser pump discharge end

42 Fan shaft sprocket

43 l^an shaft casing support

44 Simpling valve rocking lever

45 Simpling valve rocking lever shaft

46 Simpling valve rocking lever (spring side)

47 Simpling valve lever spring

48 Simpling valve lever connecting rod

49 Simpling valve bell crank

50 Main steam connection to high pressure steam chest

51 Engine air pump discharge connections

52 Cylinder oiler connection

53 Engine ^ pump yoke

54 Engine air pump yoke bolt

55 Engine air pump strainer

56 Air pump regulating lever

57 Air regulating lever bell crank

58 Air pump suction check chamber

59 Bell crank connecting to reverse arm
60 ' Reverse arm

61 'Connecting rod reverse arm to bell crank

62 Simpling valve cap

63 Discharge from feed water heater to flow motor

64 Engine universal joint

65 Bolts holding universal joint to crank shaft

66 Feed water strainer casting

67 Engine air pump

68 Plug for draining crank case

69 Fan shaft pulley

70 Crank case oiler connection

71 Feed water heater drip to condenser

72 Upper power pump suction check casting

73 Valve stem bearings

74 Link yoke

75 Crosshead

76 Crosshead pins

77 Connecting rod

78 Connecting rod cap

79 Valve links

. 80 Eccentric rods

81 Eccentric rod cap

82 Air and condenser pump eccehtric rod

83 Water pump eccentric rod

84 Counterbalance low pressure

85 Counterbalance high pressure
, 86 Main hearing

87 Main t-u*ust bearing



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STEAM AUTOMOBn.ES 99



88


'Condenser


89


Condenser overflow


90


Exhaust pipe


91


Fan bracket


92


Engine


93


Pedal operating simpling valve


94


Pedal operating air pump valve


95


Pedal operating foot brake


96


Water tank


97


Water regulator washer


98


Generator


99


Hand water pump


100


Pipe from 63 to thermostat


101


Throttle wheel


102


Steering wheel


103


Emergency gear lever


104


Reverse lever


105


Brake lever


106


Brake cables


107


Brakes


108


Cylinder oiler


109


Crank case oiler


110


Gear case


111


Blow-off valve


112


Driving shaft


113


Emergency gear rod


114


Universal joint (rear)


115


Air line check valve


116


Fan shaft chain idler


117


Universal joint (front)


118


Oil valve to water regulator


119


Thermostat valve stem cap


120


Flow motor


121


By-pass pipe to tank


122


Thermostat casting


123


Flow motor inlet


124


Flow motor outlet


125


Stuffing-box


126


Upper blow-off valve


127


Pipe to generator


128


Generator inlet


129


Discharge to engine


130


Pipe from thermostat to motor discharge


131


Connection to feed water heater


132


Main casting


133


Water regulator cover


134


E^aphragms


135


Plug


136


Diaphragm shifting pad



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137


Plunger


138


Spring


139


Lock nut for plunger adjustment


140


Lever


141


Valve


142


Spring adiusting nut


143


Spring adjusting pad


144


Valve seat


145


Connection to pump discharge


146


Pinion driving shaft


147


Emergency gear shaft


148


Driving spur gear


149


Spur gear


150


Internal spur gear 149


151


External spur gear 149


152


Large spur gear on emergency shaft


153


Small spur gear on emergency shaft


154


Driving pinion


155


Pinion shaft rear bearing


156


Rear axle bearing


157


Pinion shaft front bearing


158


OUcup


159


Roller bearing


160


Shifting lever groove


161


Shifting lever groove


162


Exhaust inlet


163


Throttle bracket


164


Fan


165


Fan pulley


166


Connection to condenser pump


167


Drip cock


168


Top of condenser


169


Bottom of condenser


170


Condenser side frame


171


Hood support bracket


172


Throttle casting


173


Nickel seat


174


Throttle stem


175


Union nut


176


Throttle sleeve


177


Throttle lever


178


Stuffing-box nut


179


Stuffing-box i^and


180


Projection on valve stem


181


Valve seat


182


Connection to engine


183


Connection to generator


184


Passage through throttle aeat


185


Brake drum



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186 Foot brake band

187 Emergency brake band

188 Foot brake spring

189 Foot brake turn buckle

190 Emergency brake turn buckle

191 Piston

192 Piston rod

193 Valve stem

194 Valve stem lock nut

195 Groove

1 96 Plug for draining

197 By-pass valve

198 Flow motor piston spring

199 Thermostat casting

200 Water inlet

201 Valve stem

202 Valve stem adjusting nut

203 Valve stem seat

204 Water outlet

205 Bell crank

206 Bell crank spring

207 Element of thermostat

208 Union nut holding pyrometer in thermostat casting

209 Vaporizer pressure gauge

210 Steam-pressure gauge '

21 1 Air-pressure gauge

212 Valve stem stuffing-box

213 Valve end thermostat element stuffing-box

214 Pjrrometer end thermostat element stuffing-box

215 Thread securing thermostat element in casting

216 Steam entrance to thermostat casting

217 Steam outlets from thermostat casting

218 Outside element of pyrometer

219 Inside element of pyrometer

220 Metal cap extension on inside element
A Supply pipe from fuel tank

AA Hand air pump

AB Main fuel shut-off valve

AC Flow motor stuffing-box

AD Pipe from power air pump

B Fuel strainer casting

C Fuel strainer plug
CA to CD Graduation valve stem

CB Plug

D Main sub-burner valve

E Sub-burner flush valve

F Sub-burner adjusting valve

G Warming up valve

H Pipe to main burner valve



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HA Pipe connecting valve G with vaporizer N

I Pipe to warming up valve

J Main burner valve

K Fuel pipe to flow motor

L Flow motor fuel valve

M Pipe from flow motor fuel valve to vaporizer

MA Sub-burner supply pipe.

N Vaporizer

NA Vaporizer discharge pipe

Vaporizer nozzle
P Sub-burner cap
Q Burner

R Burner induction tube

S Induction tube shutter



Online LibraryMedical Society of the State of North Carolina. AnCyclopedia of automobile engineering; a general reference work on the construction, operation, and care of gasoline, steam, and electric automobiles, instruction in driving, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, motor boats aerial vehicles, self-propelled railway cars, etc → online text (page 8 of 27)