Medical Society of the State of North Carolina. An.

Cyclopedia of automobile engineering; a general reference work on the construction, operation, and care of gasoline, steam, and electric automobiles, instruction in driving, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, motor boats aerial vehicles, self-propelled railway cars, etc online

. (page 9 of 27)
Online LibraryMedical Society of the State of North Carolina. AnCyclopedia of automobile engineering; a general reference work on the construction, operation, and care of gasoline, steam, and electric automobiles, instruction in driving, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, motor boats aerial vehicles, self-propelled railway cars, etc → online text (page 9 of 27)
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T Pipe to vaporizer gauge

U Vaporizer support post

V Sub-burner casing

W Sub-burner casing door

X Fuel tenk

Y Fuel tank filler cap
Z Fuel tank gauge

I909-J9J0

1 High-pressure cylinder

2 Low-pressure cylinder

3 Valve gear inspection plate

4 Water pump inspection plate

5 Feed water heater

6 Engine casing

7 Crank case inspection plate

8 High-pressure piston stufling-box

9 High-pressure valve stufling-box

10 Low-pressure valve stuffing-box

1 1 Low-pressure piston stuffing-box

12 Intercepting valve (simpling valve mechanism)

13 Relief cocks

14 Pass-over valve (simpling valve mechanism)

15 Air and condenser pump inspection plate

16 Fan pulley

17 Compression chamber

18 Suction from tank

1& Discharge from pumps to flow motor

20 Unions in water connections

21 Union connecting pipe 127 to hand water pump 99

22 Upper power pump

23 Lower power pump

24 Power pump frame



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 103



25 Water regulator

26 Pump block pin

27 Pump lever

28 Pump block

29 Water pump plunger

30 Screws attaching pump frame to engine

31 Power pump lock nuts

32 Power pump stuffing-boxes

33 Upper power pump suction pipe

34 Water regular by-pass pipe

35 Discharge pipe of lower power pump

36 Steam gauge and oil connection

37 Steam connection of water regulator

38 Water regulator adjusting worm

39 Condenser pumj>

40 Condenser pump suction end

41 Condenser pump discharge end

42 Pyrometer

43 Relief cock lever

44 Simpling valve lever

45 Emergency tank air valve ^

46 Steering gear casing

47 Lever operating automatic oiler

48 Piston head

49 Piston rings

50 Steam connection to high pressure steam chest

51 Engine air pump discharge connection

52 Cylinder ofler connection

53 Exhaust inlet to feed water deater

54 Exhaust outlet from feed water heater to condenser

55 Engine air pump strainer

56 Air pump regulating lever

57 Crank case stuffing-boxes

58 Valve crosshead

59 Piston rod

60 Reverse arm

61 Valve gearing levers

62 Crank-shaft

63 Crank-shaft lock ring

64 Universal joint, engine end driving shaft

65 Bolt holding universal joint to crank shaft

66 Crank-shaft lock washer

67 Engine air pump

68 Cook for draining crank case

69 Ball separator rings

70 Crank case oiler connection

71 Valve slides

72 Valve slide rollers

73 Valve stem



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104 STEAM AUTOMOBILES



74 Low pressure piston valve

75 Piston crosshead

76 Crosshead pin

77 Connecting rod

78 Valve slide frame

79 Air pump cable guide

80 Engine support

81 Screws holding valve slide frame in engine frame

82 Cut-off pedal adjusting pin

83 Water line from flow motor to feed water heater

84 Counterbalance

85 Water drain from feed water heater

86 Main bearing

87 Water tank strainer casting

88 . Condenser

*89 Condenser overflow

90 Condenser exhaust pipe

91 Pedal regulating cut-off

92 Engine

93 Pedal operating simpling valve

94 Pedal operating air pump valve

95 Pedal operating foot brake

96 Water tank

97 Water regulator washer

98 Generator

99 Hand water pump

100 Pipe from 19 to thennostat

101 Throttle wheel

102 Steering wheel

103 Emergency gear lever

104 Reverse lever

105 Brake lever

106 Brake cables

107 Brakes

108 Cylinder oiler pump

109 Crank cai^ oiler pump

110 Gear case

111 Blow-off valve

112 Driving shaft

113 Emergency gear rod

114 Universal joint (axle end of driving shaft)

115 Air line check valve

116 Rear axle inspection plate

117 Main driving gear

118 Oil valve to water regulator

119 Thermostat valve stem cap

120 Flow motor

121 By-pass pipe to tank

122 Thermostat casting



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 105



123 Flow motor inlet from pumps

124 Flow motor outlet

125 Flow motor stufl^g-box

126 Suction for hand water pump

127 Pipe to generator

128 Generator inlet

129 Discharge to engine

130 Pipe from thermostat to flow motor discharge

131 Feed water heater drain inlet

132 Water regulator main casting

133 Water regulator cover

134 Diaphragms

135 Plug

136 Diaphragm shifting pad

137 Plunger

138 Spring

139 Lock nut for plunger adjustment

140 Lever

141 Valve

142 Spring adjusting nut

143 Spring adjusting pad

144 Valve seat

145 Connection to pump discharge

146 Pinion driving shaft

147 Emergency gear shaft

148 Sliding spur gear on pinion shaft

149 Spur gear

150 Internal spur gear (149)

151 External spur gear (149)

152 Large spur gear on emergency shaft

153 Small spur gear on emergency shaft

154 Driving pinion

155 Pinion shaft rear bearing

156 Rear axle bearing

157 Pinion shaft front bearing

158 Oil cup

159 Roller bearing

160 Shifting lever groove

161 Shifting lever groove

162 Exhaust inlet

163 Flow motor inlet from thermostat

164 Fan

165 Differential gear casing

166 Connection to condenser pump

167 Air and condenser pump plunger

168 Top of condenser

169 Bottom of condenser

170 Condenser side frame

171 Rear axle clamp bolt



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106 SrEAM AUTOMOBILES



172 Throttle casting

173 Nickel seat

174 Throttle stem

175 Union nut

176 Throttle sleeve

177 Throttle lever

178 Stuffing-box nut

179 Stuffing-box gland

180 Projection on valve stem

181 Valve stem seat

182 Connection to engine

183 Connection to generator

184 Passage through throttle seat

185 Brake drum

186 Foot brake band

187 Emergency brake band

188 Foot brake spring

189 Foot brake turn buckle

190 Hand brake turn buckle

191 Flow motor piston

192 Piston rod

193 Valve stem

194 Valve stem lock nut

195 Grade water groove

196 High pressure piston valve

197 By-pass valve

198 Flow motor piston spring

199 Thermometer well

200 Water inlet of thermosUt

201 Thermostat valve stem

202 Valve stem adjusting nut

203 Valve stem seat

204 Water outlet

205 Bell crank

206 Bell crank spring

207 Element of thermostat

208 Union nut holding pyrometer in thermostat casting

209 Air and vaporizer pressure gauge

210 Steam pressure gauge

21 1 Steam line to thermostat

21 2 Valve stem stuffing box

213 Thermostat element stuffing-box

214 Steam line from thermostat

215 Thread securing thermostat element in casting

216 Steam entrance to thermostat casting

217 Steam outlet from thermostat casting

218 Inside element of pyrometer

219 Outside element of pyrometer

220 Metal cap extension on inside element



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STEAM AUTOMOBILES 107



A Supply pipe from fuel tank

AA Hand air pump

AB Main fuel shut-off valve

AB2 Emergency fuel tank shut-off valve

AC Flow. motor stuflKng-box

AD Pipe from power air pump

B Fuel strainer casting ^^

C Fuel strainer plug C^

CA to CD Graded fuel valve stem T

CB Flow to motor fuel valve plug :>

D Main sub-burner valve

E Tee connecting tank X2 into fuel line A

F Sub-burner adjusting valve

G Warming up valve "^

H Pipe to main burner valve

HA Pipe connecting valve G with vaporizer X

I Pipe to warming up valve '\

J Main burner valve *

K Fuel pipe to flow motor *w

L Flow motor fuel valve

M Pipe from flow motor fuel valve to vaporiKor

MA Sub-burner supply pipe s

N Vaporizer

NA Vaporizer discharge pipe

O Vaporizer nozzle

P Sub-burner cap

Q Burner

R Burner induction tube

S Induction tube shutter

T Pipe to vaporizer gauge

U Vaporizer support post

V Sub-burner casing

W Sub-burner casing door *

X Fuel tank

X2 Emergency fuel tank

Y Fuel tank cap

Y2 Emergency fuel tank cap

Z Fuel tank trycocks



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

PART I



INTRODUCTION



Much wonderment is frequently expressed at the comparatively
slow development of the motor-driven vehicle for commercial usage
in this country, and this is increased when it becomes known that
the actual advent of the business automobile took place not very
long after that of its rival — the pleasure car — which has since
monopolized the center of the stage. But the underlying reasons
are neither numerous nor complex. Reliability is naturally the
chief essential in commercial service and this was possessed in no great
degree by tfie early models of the present day commercial vehicles
— ^probaby less so than was the case with the pleasure car. Huge
sums of money are tied up in horse-drawn equipment and the aver-
age business man naturally hesitates to change — ^in fact, it is but a
repetition of the history of the horse and the trolley car. It is only
a question of a few years when the power wagon will have displaced
its predecessor quite as generally as has electric traction the horse
car in street-railway service.

It is important to know the reasons for the revolution that is now
in active progress, as well as to become familiar with the prevailing
practice in America and abroad, in the construction, operation, and
maintenance of that large and varied class of automobiles which is
employed exclusively for bu'siness purpases. Regardless of type,
class, or method of propulsion these are commonly referred to as
commercial vehicles. This classification embraces not alone motor
delivery wagons and trucks for the transportation of merchandise,
but likewise taxicabs, omnibuses, sight-seeing vehicles, motor road
trains, farm tractors, emergency repair or tower wagons for street-
railway service, and also special municipal service vehicles — am-
bulances, patrol wagons, fire engines, street sprinkling and garbage
removal wagons and the like. In fact, it may be said that any auto-

Copyright, mOt hy ilfiMrKOfi School of Corr$9pond9nC9*



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mobile not devoted to pleasure b a commercial vehicle, and as
was naturally expected, the first commercial vehicles were merely
pleasure cars transformed to suit the needs of the occasion. To a
certain extent, this still continues to be the case.

Standard Design. Whedier it be electric-, steam-, or gasoline-
driven, the general design of tfie motive power as well as that of
its transmission to the driving wheek b practically the same in the
commercial vehicle as it b in die pleasure car. All of die component
parts of the latter — bearings, frames, axles, steering gear, and com-
pensating mechanbm — have their counterparts in every industrial
vehicle. In other words, the chassis in either case b composed of
similar members. For the sake of brevity in the present treatise,
it is assumed at the start that the reader has become familiar with
motor-car engineering in so far as it relates to pleasure-car construc-
tion; that he understands from previous study and actual handling
of machines, the theory of the operation of the internal combustion
engine; that he is conversant with the dbtinguishing characteristics
of the several types of en^nes as well as their advantages and
limitations; and that he is acquainted with the types of transmission
systems ordinarily employed on pleasure cars — in brief, that he
understands any reference to component parts, their functions and
their relation to one another, without the necessity of explana-
tion.

In common with the pleasure car, the commercial vehicle b
capable of traveling at various speeds wherever road conditions
will permit it to go. . Both comprise in a single entity, a wheeled
vehicle suitable for transportation purposes, fitted with an inde-
pendent, self-contained power-plant. To this extent, they both
present the same engineering problems in so far as they relate to the
construction of the motor, its control, and the transmission of its
power to the road wheels, the design of the running gear, and the
control of the vehicle itself. Divergence in practice b encountered
with the consideration of the purposes for which each vehicle is
designed. The pleasure car is not intended to be a particulariy
efficient vehicle. Its carrying capacity bears but a comparatively
insignificant ratio to its total weight, and the car is not usually designed
to work under the same severe and continued conditions of service
which are the first requirement of the commercial vehicle. It must



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be capable of high speed with its maximum load of passengers and
must combine reliability with endurance to a sufficient extent to meet
the demands of its owner on pleasure bent. A little consideration
of these factors may throw some light on the difficulty which was
encountered in previous years in convincing the enthusiastic motorist
that automobiles would be a paying investment in his business.

Requirements in Commercial Field. Reliability is naturally
the prime essential in the business vehicle; then come efficiency,
economy, and endurance. The combination of these three qualities
make it so superior to horse traction as to admit of no comparison
in the results obtainable. The accomplishment of the first-named
has naturally been the outcome of years of experience in the develop-
ment of the pleasure car and the application to the commercial vehicle,
of the lessons thus learned. Until this was achieved, it was naturally
difficult for the motor vehicle to compete with its time-tried, though
slow and inefficient, predecessor. Efficiency means the maximum
weight of the useful load transported, in proportion to the weight
of the vehicle itself; this element also involves economy, as the
vehicle and its load must be moved at a speed greater than is
possible with horses. To meet these difficult requirements, it is
necessary, first, to provide a self-propelled vehicle in which the
nicest possible proportion of vehicle weight to maximum useful
load capacity is realized; second, to employ a motor of sufficient
power and suitable speed reduction through its transmission to the
road wheels that will enable the machine to ascend the steepest
grades with full load, and yet not overburden the machine with
superfluous weight or power for safe and reasonable spef^s on the
level; and third, to proportion every part so as to insure the longest
life to the vehicle, and the greatest economy in its use. It is not the
province of the present treatise to discuss these problems and their
solution from die engineer's viewpoint, but to consider the machmes
as they are at present built in this country for the benefit of the user.
This term is intended to apply to the driver and the traffic depart-
ment head, quite as much as the merchant who looks upon the
adoption of the power wagon solely in the light of an investment.

The keynote to the successful commercial vehicle is reliability
and economy in operation. It must compete with all other forms
of transportation— carrying merchandise or passengers quicker and



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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES



cheaper per ton mile or per passenger mile than the horse-drawn
vehicle, and either cheaper or quicker, or with greater convenience
in many cases than the railroads, this phase of the problem naturally
only involving short hauls. When it is borne in mind how easily
anything in the form of a pleasure automobile has been marketed
during the past five to eight years, it will be apparent why manu-
facturers generally were loth to attempt the sojution of the commercial
vehicle problem. To put it bluntly, "There was no money in it,"
and the task was a thankless one. Not that the possibilities were
unthought of. The pioneer automobile builders realized the great
promise of the future for the motor delivery wagon, truck, and bus,
quite as fully at the outset, as their confreres do today. In fact,
in this country the first general use of the electric vehicle — the cab —
was for purely commercial purposes. Not a few electric and steam
vehicles were built for business purposes during the period from
1897 to 1902 — a time which the modem motorist regards as the
dark ages. There were also a small number of gasoline-driven
commercial cars constructed during the period in question, and
some of them have been rendering service steadily ever since. It is
needless to add that they represent a bright exception, as the in-
ternal-combustion engine for vehicle use was then in the primary
stages of its development and the patience required to perfect it
called for more persistent effort than many were capable of.

Imperfect Service Brings Reaction. As is inevitable when any-
thing is placed on the market in a crude state, a reiaction will follow
its adoption as soon as its shortcomings make themselves apparent.
Inventors and manufacturer's naturally could not afford to perfect
the commercial machine at their own expense. As was the case
with the pleasure vehicle, the buyer had to bear the burden of ex-
perimental expense. Early commercial vehicles, as a consequence,
fell shorter of materializing their purchasers' expectations than did
the pleasure cars, for the former were intended to show a definite
return on the credit side of the balance sheet, while in the latter
case, expense was only a thing to be reckoned with when it exceeded
the purse of the car's owner. Over-light construction was the chief
structural defect of the first steam vehicles in this country, while it
did not take long to demonstrate that steam, in the manner then em-
ployed, was not the long-sought power for conunercial use. As a



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result, the fire-tube boiler type of steam car disappeared almost
completely. Excessive weight in proportion to load capacity, marked
inefficiency and excessive depreciation of the batteries, these were
some of the discouraging features encountered in the attempt to
electricity through' the medium of the storage battery. The almost
utilize entire absence of the factor of reliability in service settled the
score of the gasoline-driven machine. Add to the above the fact
that repairs and replacements were an unduly large proportion of
the expense in every case, and that the vehicles were frequentiy out
of service, and it will be easy to understand why merchants generally
did not enthuse over the conmiercial motor vehicle.

Reliable Qasoline Car Solves Difficulty. It was really not until
the gasoline-driven pleasure car had arrived at a point where it could
be depended upon to give satisfaction in the hands of the ordinary
driver, that interest in its conmiercial possibilities reawakened.
Attempts to utilize the electric vehicle had been continued in the
interim, and, in the aggregate, quite a number of these machines
were turned out, many of them still being in active service. But
the number of manufacturers devoting attention to this branch was
very small, and it has only been in comparatively recent years that
any decided progress has been made. Strange as it may seem,
successful builders of gasoline pleasiure cars have not been respon-
sible, as a whole, for the development of the commercial vehicle.
\Vhen attention was again turned to this field after the period of in-
action, a new group of manufacturers came into existence. Then,
with the lessening need of experimental work on the pleasure car,
builders of the latter again took up the conmiercial side seriously,
so that it is safe to say that today, there is scarcely an automobile
manufacturer in the country that is not either actually producing
commercial vehicles or contemplates doing so in the immediate
future.

Generally speaking, this second stage in the development of
the motor-driven industrial vehicle, which is now in full swing, had
its inception about 1905. Since then, the number of manufacturers
devoting attention to the gasoline type has increased so rapidly that
the makers of electric and steam cars combined, form but an insig-
nificant fraction of the total. In fact, there is but one American
manufacturer doing any considerable business in steam-powered



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6 COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

commercial vehicles. In England, the latter have met with con-
siderable success, particularly for heavy haulage purposes, but there
has been little attempt made to introduce them here and the few that
have actually been tried have been unsuccessful. Electric vehicles
still hold their own and are being produced in larger numbers than
ever, but there has been no increase in the number of makers turning
them out There are now possibly a dozen, all told, building electric
delivery wagons and trucks, and the prospect of any further increase
in this direction appears remote. As compared with this showing
of the present output of the two types that originally monopolized
the commercial field to a very large extent, there are now half a hun-
dred or more well-established manufacturers of gasoline conmiercial
vehicles and additions to the ranks are frequent.

Classification. In order to make the subject as clear as possible,
and facilitate reference on the part of the reader, industrial motor
vehicles as a whole have been classified, first, by their motive power,
and second, by the uses for which they are intended. Thus there
are, in the order of their relative importance today:

Gaaoline-Miriven vehicles

Motive Power I ^^^^^"^ ^^^*^^^ ,

Gas-electric vehicles

Steam vehicles

Delivery wagons

Trucks, vansi and similar freight carriers

Passenger vehicles — stages, buses, taxicabs, sight-
seeing cars, etc.

TvTv* f V h* 1 / ^^""C^P*^ vehicles — patrol wagons, ambulances, fire
ypes o e ic es ^ apparatus, garbage removal wagons, street

sprinklers, etc.

Special types — railway tower wagons, emergency re-
pair wagons, vacuum cleaning outfits, farm
tractors, road trains, etc.

This classification has been made advisedly, for though kerosene
and alcohol are being experimented with as fueb for the mtemal
combustion engine, and particularly for conunercial purposes, by
far the great majority of types marketed at present are driven by
gasoline fuel.

Each of the foregoing principal divisions is susceptible of further
subdivision, but this is neither necessary nor desirable. Commer-



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cial motor vehicles are now built for almost every conceivable pmpose
involving the haulage of freight or the transportation of passengers,
including many special uses, such as hauling huge reels of telephone
cable and drawing the cable through the underground conduits,
transporting safes and pianos and hoisting them, delivering coal
with special dumping wagons, and the Uke. They differ only in the
special equipment with which they are provided for the service in
view and as their construction otherwise is the same, it would only
lead to confusion to attempt to consider them separately.

ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Though no longer a predominant feature of th^ commercial
vehicle situation in this country, as the electric machine was the first
type to score any considerable success in the commercial field, it is
appropriate that it should be taken up first. It has been freely pre-
dicted in the past that the electric vehicle would disappear entirely
with the development of the gasoline-driven machine, and there are
still those who are of the same opinion today. In view of the startling
evolution of the automobile industry as a whole in the past few years,
it would be folly to attempt to predict what the ensuing decade may
bring forth, but it seems safe to say that the electric will continue
to fill the r6le in which it has proven so successful, for some time to
come. It has a field all its own, and, up to the present, other types
have not been able to invade the field to any extent, this being quite
as true of the pleasure car as of its conmiercial confrere.

Advantages* One of its chief advantages from the purely com-
mercial point of view, is its great simplicity, which to a very large
extent solves the labor question that has proved such a deterrent to
, the adoption of the gasoline vehicle for conmiercial service. As the
duties of the driver of an electric vehicle do not extend beyond its
actual starting, stopping, and guidance while under way, anyone
who has been accustomed to the use of horses can master its operation
in the course of a few hours. This also appears to be equally true
of men who have never driven any type of vehicle previous to their
taking the wheel or steering tiller of an electric. Apart from the actual
mechanical control of the vehicle, the driver's only other care is to
keep informed as to the state of charge of the battery by watching
the voltmeter, in order to prevent running the car with the batteries



Online LibraryMedical Society of the State of North Carolina. AnCyclopedia of automobile engineering; a general reference work on the construction, operation, and care of gasoline, steam, and electric automobiles, instruction in driving, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, motor boats aerial vehicles, self-propelled railway cars, etc → online text (page 9 of 27)