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Melville Thurston Cook.

Applied economic botany based upon actual agricultural and gardening projects online

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Online LibraryMelville Thurston CookApplied economic botany based upon actual agricultural and gardening projects → online text (page 1 of 16)
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LIPPINCOTT'S
FARM LIFE TEXT SERIES

EDITED BY

KARY C. DAVIS, Ph.D. (Cornell)

Applied
Economic Botany



LIPPINCOTT'S

FARM MANUALS

Edited by K. C. DAVIS. Ph.D.

SECOND EDITION REVISED

PRODUCTIVE SWINE HUSBANDRY

By GEORGE E. DAY, B.S.A. $1.75 net.

THIRD EDITION REVISED AND ENLARGED

PRODUCTIVE POULTRY HUSBANDRY

By harry R. lewis, B.S. $2.00 net.

SECOND EDITION REVISED

PRODUCTIVE HORSE HUSBANDRY

By carl W. gay, B.S.A. $1.75 net.

. PRODUCTIVE ORCHARDING

By FRED C. SEARS, M.S. $1.75 net.

THIRD EDITION REVISED

PRODUCTIVE VEGETABLE GROWING

By JOHN W. LLOYD, M.S.A. $1.75 net.

SECOND EDITION REVISED AND ENLARGED

PRODUCTIVE FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS

By F. W. WOLL, Ph.D. $1.75 net.

SECOND EDITION

COMMON DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS
By R. a. CRAIG, D.V.M. $1.75 net.

SECOND EDITION

PRODUCTIVE FARM CROPS

By E. G. MONTGOMERY, M.A. $1.75 net.

SFCOND EDITION REVISED

PRODUCTIVE BEE KEEPING

By frank C. PELLETT $1.75 net.

PRODUCTIVE DAIRYING

By R. M. WASHBURN $1.75 net.

INJURIOUS INSECTS AND USEFUL BIRDS

By F. L. WASHBURN, M.A. $2.00 net.

PRODUCTIVE SHEEP HUSBANDRY

By WALTER C. COFFEY $2.50 net.




2 I



ffl "3



Farm Life Text Series

EDITED BY K. C. DAVIS, Ph.D. (Cornkll)



APPLIED
ECONOMIC BOTANY

BASED UPON ACTUAL

AGRICULTURAL AND GARDENING

PROJECTS



BY

MELVILLE THURSTON COOK, Ph.D.

RUTGERS COLLEGE, NEW BRUNSWICK, N. J.



14s ILLUSTRATIONS




PHILADELPHIA AND LONDON
J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY



COPYRIGHT, I919, BY J, B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY



Electrotyped and printed by J. B. LippincoU Company
The Washington Square Press, Philadelphia, U.S.A.



PREFACE

There are already so many text-books on botany that the
anthor has long hesitated to present another to the educational
public. The study of botany has developed very rapidly in the
past quarter of a century and as a result we have a gi-eat variety
of text-books representing an almost equally great variety of
methods of presenting the subject. Yet, we meet with a con-
tinuous series of complaints against the poorly adapted sec-
ondary text-books for teaching in secondary schools, technical
schools and colleges. The teacher in the secondary school says
that text-books are written by college professors who do not
understand the problems involved in secondary education ; the
teacher in the technical school complains because the students
from the secondary schools cannot correlate the botany with
related subjects; the college professors complain because of the
mechanical methods used in the secondary schools which dis-
courage rather than encourage further study of the subject by
those who enter college.

Having sei-ved for a time as a high-school teacher, the author
has some realization of the difficulties of the secondary schools.
As a college professor he has some appreciation of the keen dis-
appointment felt by those who conduct the Freshman entrance
examinations, and who try to teach botany to the college students
that come to college with ideas of botany obtained from their
training in the secondary schools. By experience, he has learned
that the results of the entrance examinations are fully as un-
satisfactory when the questions are prepared by the high-school
teachers as when prepared by himself.

The placing of the responsibility for this condition is a



c




vi PREFACE

problem not easily solved. But the writer is inclined to believe
that the secondary school is trying to do too much, trying to do
work beyond the pupils, trying to do work that should be left
for the college. We give the pupils compound microscopes,
which is much like giving them a complete set of surveying
instruments for use in the study of elementary arithmetic. We
try to teach facts when we should teach fundamental principles,
close observation and accuracy. We try to teach scientific names
when we should teach simple methods of experimental work.

In this little work the autlior has aimed at three things,
viz.: (1) A brief statement of the recognized facts and prin-
ciples concerning jjlants and plant growth usually given in text-
books for secondary schools. (2) A list of simple exercises and
suggestions for observations which the pupil can conduct with-
out great difficulty and which will demonstrate many of the
statements given in the book. ( 3 ) A list of questions which are
intended to be suggestive to the pupils and to encourage further
studies.

The title, " Applied Economic Botany," implies first, that
it is intended as a guide to experimental work in the study
of plants, such as should be carried on in any high school,
and second, that it is intended as a preliminary work to the
agricultural studies which are now recognized in many high
schools.

The author has endeavored to make the work so flexible
that it may be used in schools regardless of the amount of time
devoted to the subject, the available laboratory space and equip-
ment. The author has also been mindful of the fact that the
course in botany in the secondary school should meet the needs
of very different classes of pupils — those who study it as one
of the requirements of the curriculum and to whom it must be
primarily a cultural subject, those who study it as a prepara-
tion to agriculture and horticulture, and those who may use it



PREFACE vii

to fiillill one of the college entrance requirements. The same
course can and should serve all of these purposes in the same
manner that the courses in mathematics and Eng-lish literature
serve those who go direct from the secondary schools into the
trades, or business houses, or professions, or to college.

The manuscript has been submitted to both high-school
teachers and college professors for criticisms and suggestions
and manj changes have been made in an effort to meet the
requirements of both classes of teachers, although the general
plan of the work has not been changed.

Many of the illustrations in this book are purely diagram-
matic and are intended as guides and not completed work to be
copied by the pupil ; many others are from drawings made by
the author's students and are such as can be readily made by
most high-school pupils.

A text-book in botany is a guide, and it is neither neces-
sary nor desirable that the class should follow it in all details.
The teacher should select such exercises in this or other books
as may suit the purpose and should make such variations and
additions as may be desirable. Supplementary reading along
the lines of plant geography, and economic botany, observations
in field, forest and stream, and home studies in the growing of
plants should be encouraged. The success or failure of the
course in botany is more dependent on the teacher than on the
books, laboratories and equipment. A good teacher is more
necessari/ than hooJcs, lahoratories ayid equipment. The acquire-
ment of industry, enthusiasm, methods of work, self-reliance,
close ^.observation and accuracy on the part of the pupils are
much more desirable than much of the so-called knowledge that
consists of disconnected or questionable facts.

Mel. T. Cook.
Rutgers College,

New TJRtTNswicK, N. J.



CONTENTS



Preface v

Introduction ix

Equipment and Methods xiii

PART I.— PLANT LIFE

CHAPTER

I. Seeds and Seedlings 3

II. Roots 18

III. Stems and Buds 31

IV. Leaves 45

V. The Flower 54

VI. Reproduction 74

VII. Fruits and Seeds 83

VIII. Anatomy op Stems, Roots, and Leaves 93

IX. Chemical Composition of the Plant 105

X. Plant Foods and Plant Growth Ill

XI. The Gymnosperms 121

XII. Ecological Relations 126

XIII. Forestry 134

XIV. Plant Diseases 139

XV. Plant Breeding 147

XVI. Weeds 150

XVII. Pteridophytes 158

XVIII. Bryophytbs 164

XIX. THALLOPHYTiES 169

XX. Bacteria 177

PART II.— MOST IMPORTANT FAMILIES OF ECONOMIC
PLANTS, WITH SPECIAL EXERCISES

XXI. Important Families of Plants 183

Mustard — Crucifer^e 185

Violet— VioLACE^ 189

Mallow — Malvaceae .• 191

Sterculia — Sterculiace^ 193

Flax — Linace.e 193

Rue — RuTACEiE 195

ix



X CONTENTS

Vine — Vitace^ 196

Soap Berry — Acerace^ 198

Pea — Legdminose^ 199

Rose — Rosacea 204

Saxifrage — Saxifragace^ 211

Gourd — Cucurbitace.e 211

Parsley — Umbellifer.e 215

Madder — Rubiace.e 215

Sunflower — Composit.^ 216

Heath — ^Vacciniace^ 217

Convolvulus — Contolvulace.'g 218

Nightshade — Solanace^ 219

Goosefoot — Chenopodiace^ 221

Buckwheat — Polygon ace^ 222

Nettle — Urticace^ 223

Walnut — Juglandace^ 225

Oak — Cupulifer^ 226

Willow — Salicace^ 227

Banana — Zingibreace^ 227

Lily — ^LiLiACEiE 228

Grass — Gramine^ 228

XXII. Special Exercises with Plant Families 234

Appendix — References 243



INTRODUCTION



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Botany is a science of the very greatest importance but
one which is frequently misunderstood and neglected in our
educational system. To many people, it means the learning of
scientific names of plants, but this is an incorrect idea. Botany
is neither the study of flowers nor the learning of scientific
names. Botany is the study of plants and plant life. It is of
great importance because plant life is absolutely necessary for
the existence of all animal life, including mankind. We are
dependent either directly or indirectly upon the plants for food,
clothing, building materials, fuel and many other necessaries.
We use plants, or animals which have fed on plants, for food.
Every article of food on the table, except the salt and water,
is derived from plants or from animals which are dependent
on plants for food. We use cotton and linen, and many other
vegetable fibres, for clothing and many other purjxtses; and
we also use wool and silk which are derived from animals that
have fed on plants. We use wood for building purposes, for
making furniture and parts of tools and implements, and for
the making of paper pulp. We use wood and coal and oil,
which are derived from plants, for fuel. And finally, we go
to the plants for about 90 per cent of the dl1^gs to relie\'e our
aches and pains and restore us to health.

^ When we once realize our absolute dependence on plant life,
we also begin to think something about the number of industries
that are dependent on plants. The farmers, the horticulturists,
the gardeners, the florists and the foresters are not the only
people who are dependent on plaaits for a livelihood. Practically
all manufacturing industries are dependent on plants in some
form; for fuel if for nothing else. Even the electric establish-
ments must use fuel to> run the niachiiierv for t]m u'eneration of



XU INTRODUCTION

_eLaetarrcrty. When we think of these things we wonder why it is
that man has not given more attention to this jjrimarv source
of life, health, wealth and happiness; why he has not given
more attention to increasing it. The answer lies in the fact that
nature is good to us ; nature has supplied man with the neces-
saries and more, and man has been satisfied. But with the in-
creasing population it will become more and more necessary for
man to study plants and plant life and to learn the secrets of
nature which \nll enable him to increase the production of val-
uable plants.

Plants have influenced the migTation of man. In the
account of his journeys of discovery and exploration he has
always given much attention to the character of the plant^life.
And most of the permanent settlements of importance have
depended on the character of the plant life and the possibilities
for agriculture. Big factories may have been located where
the water power was good, but they must also be accessible to
the raw materials to be used ; or they may have been located near
the gTeat beds of coal, oil or natural gas and in that case they
were dependent upon the plant products of past ages. How-
ever, the great migrations of the world have always been along
the lines of great plant growths, and the early settlements in
America and the rapid progTess of the American people, with
which you are familiar, are ample proofs of these statements.

But this is not all ; the great joy of life is in life itself. To
fully enjoy the life within us we must take pleasure in the life
around us. The joy of the country, of the forests and plains,
the mountains and valleys, of the parks and gardens, }i^not only
in their beauty but in the appreciation of the value of the plant
life which makes them beautiful.

Botany cannot be studied like most subjects ; it does not con-
sist in committing facts. It cannot be learned from books, for
there is no botany in books. Books contain a feiv plans and
methods for studv ; a fev records of observations and studies



/V



INTRODUCTION xiii

already made; a few facts already learned. The plans and
studies may be changed to-morrow ; the records of observations
and studies will be increased ; and many of the supposed facts
may prove to be errors and be supplanted by other statements.

^Q,_5ve must not study books ; we can use the books as guides,
but we must study the plants themselves. Louis Agassiz said,
''' Study Nature, not Books" ; and in studying botany, we should
stud^^ t4ieaiati«'©-


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Online LibraryMelville Thurston CookApplied economic botany based upon actual agricultural and gardening projects → online text (page 1 of 16)