Methodist Episcopal Church. Board of Education.

The Christian student online

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COLLEGE at JacksoDviBe. IDincNs. It is a great blesdng to mxf jrovg
woman to be for a year or moce in such an atmosphere as Ak CoIm
provides. Here is the tesdmoi^ of oiKie who sees the idiool dai^y— Dr. H. R
OneaL pastor of Grace Church, JacksonviBe:

1 hftte iMd thaaduA opportoutr to Aterm die .dMmder. cowfidim. %Mirk. mJ mmIi of Ae WmmWrnm^B
CoUeg*. h aiovdi a nn opportunljr. naid ibe venr bol of wmdhioM, lo ycmm <>fii iiiiin"a» mfmtlki^
The Proidnt. hii %n(e. end ibe imaAr en iMm in fhm <kfetio« to Ae wdhra el Ae pm^ Utik
•choknlup. cukure. coeolort. beekk— everylhbc ncaim lU muA canfdl «tt«te. 11» Culm m i
•B ek of tlvift and eotonirito pemckt ibe eolire kIiooL It ii a Ive iMtiMios.

The College has the regular Kteiafy cours«i» and abo die totd
in music, ait» and docution. For informatioii, catalogues* elc, wiile to


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audU0t, 1906

fio. 3


pul)H9beb ^uarterli?





ISO Rftb Avemie, New York


Subacription price.

25 Cent0 a l^ear

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ZTrudtees anb ^fficere of tbe Boar^ of education





The Rev. J. W. LINDSAY, D.D.. Boston, Mass.

The Rev. G. H. BRIDGMAN, D.D., Hamline. Minn.

Mr. H. C. M. INGRAHAM, New York.



The Rev. Bishop E. G. ANDREWS. New York.

The Rev. E. S. TIPPLE. D.D.. Madison. N. J.
Mr. DURBIN HORNE. Pittsburg. Pa.

Mr. ROBT. F. RAYMOND, New Bedford, Mass.

TERM TO expire: IN 1905

The Rev. Bishop CHARLES H. FOWLER, New York.

The Rev. W. P. KING. D.D.. Mount Vemon. la.

Pres. ABRAM W. HARRIS. LL.D., Port Deposit, Md.


President, The Rev. Bishop E. G. ANDREWS, 150 Fifth Ave., New York.
Becordlng: Secretary, The Rev. E. S. TIPPLE, Madison, N. J.
Treasurer, Mr. J. EDGAR LEAYCRAFT, 19 West 42d St, New York.
Cor. Secretary, The Rev. W. F. ANDERSON, 150 Fifth Ave., New York.


At Large, •
Chancellor JAMES ROSCOE DAY, Syracuse University.
District Name. Institution.

I. WILLIAM E. HUNTINGTON Boston University.

IL BRADFORD P. RAYMOND Wesleyan University.


IV. JOHN F. GOUCHER Woman's CoUege of Baltimore.

V. RICHARD T. STEVENSON Ohio Wesleyan University.

VL JOHN H. RACE Grant University.

VIL JAMES M. COX Philander Smith College.

VIIL HENRY A. BUCHTEL University of Denver.

IX. JOHN W. H ANCHER Iowa Wesleyan University.

X. THOMAS F. HOLG ATE Northwestern University.

XL EDWIN H. HUGHES De Pauw University.

XII. GEORGE H. BRIDGMAN Hamline University.

XIIL JOHN L. NUELSEN Nast Theological Seminary.

XIV. GEORGE F. BOVARD Univ. of Southern California.

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VoL Vn AUGUST, 1906 No. 3

Subscription price, 95 cents a year

Address all communications to William F. Anderson, £dltor, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York

Important Notice

Will pastors and Sunday school superintendents everywhere kindly send
the Children's Day Collections direct to the office, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York,
as promptly as possible? It greatly facilitates the work of the Board to have
these collections in hand instead of waiting for the reports of the conference

Does a College Edifcation Pay ?
'To be at home in all lands and all ages; to count nature a familiar
acquaintance, and art an intimate friend ; to gain a standard for the appreciation
of other men's work and the criticism of one's own; to carry the keys of the
world's library in one's pocket, and feel its resources behind one in whatever
task he undertakes; to make hosts of friends among the men of one's own age
who are to be leaders in all walks of life; to lose one's self in generous enthu-
siasms and cooperate with others for common ends; to learn manners from
students who are gentlemen, and form character under professors who are
Christians — ^these are the returns of a college for the best four years of one's
life."— President William DeWitt Hyde of Bowdoin College.

The Denominational College

A paper read before the Nebraska Schoolmasters' Club at its meeting May 11,
1906, by Chancellor D. W. C. Huntington, D.D., LL.D., Chancellor of
Nebraska Wesleyan University.

In order correctly to identify the denominational college, it will be necessary
to distinguish it from state colleges and universities on the one hand, and from
sectarian institutions on the other. While it has features common to both, it has
also distinctive characteristics of its own. In thirty-five of the states, universi-
ties have been founded by state appropriations, and are chiefly or wholly main-
tained by general taxation. The general management of these institutions is
vested in boards of state officers. In the larger number of instances, these
boards of regents are appointed by the governors of the respective states, with
the approval of the state Senates, and in several, the governor and the superin-
tendent of public instruction are themselves ex-officio members of the controlling
boards. In Michigan and Nebraska, these officers are elected by popular vote,
and the institutions are thus placed under state control. The denominational col-
lege, therefore, differs from the state institutions in the sources of its support,
and in the method of its controL

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68 The Christian Student

The denominational college differs also from sectarian colleges. I am
aware that the term "sectarian" is frequently applied to all denominational
schools, but this is evidently wanting in just discrimination. A sectarian college
I understand to be an institution in which, (i) It is required that all members of
the board shall be clergymen or members of a particular religious denomination.
(2) Or a college which, by charter or otherwise, requires that all members of the
teaching force shall also be members of the particular denomination maintaining
the institution. (3) Or a college in which the studies are so planned, and the
general order so regulated as to constitute the school an educational auxiliary
to the religious teachings of a given church. An institution having these features,
may be justly termed sectarian, inasmuch as it is of the church, by the church,
and for the church.

The denominational college differs from sectarian institutions, (i) In the
fact that the trustees are not necessarily and wholly selected from the clerg3|i
or the membership of any given religious denomination; (2) in that the pro-
fessors and instructors are not required to be members of any given church, or
of any church at all; (3) in that denominational colleges are not theological
schools, for in them no provision is made for teaching the distinctive creeds
or beliefs of the churches maintaining them. The curriculum of the denomina-
tional college is not essentially different from that of other institutions of like
grade. It may include in its required work the study of the English Bible, and
that, according to high authority, for educational reasons. It may include among
its electives such studies as New Testament Greek, G>mparative Religion, Chris-
tian Evidences, etc., which, while having a general educational value, provide
a chapter in the preliminary training of a class of young men who contemplate
the Christian ministry as their life work. Its leading object, however, is to make
men, not ministers, but to make men who can become ministers, if they shall
so elect, with honor to the cause, and with reasonable prospect of success.
If, as a matter of fact, the trustees of denominational colleges are, in larger part,
selected from religious denominations, this is only moderately denominational,
and not at all sectarian. It would be reasonable to suppose that trustees, having
in charge an educational institution, would, as far as practicable, avoid the
employment of a teaching force, the views of which upon any subject regarded
as of vital importance, were known to be widely at variance with those enter-
tained by the patrons of the school In the denominational college the religious
element in education has always received emphasis, and it would be quite in
keeping with the duties of a board of trust to select teachers who could them-
selves emphasize this factor without insincerity or self-suppression. If such
teachers could be most readily found among religious denominations, or even
in the denomination maintaining the institution, trustees would not merit the
charge of sectarianism by their employment If we were to speak from personal
observation, we should say that die average denominational college seeks the
best men for the work to be done which the funds at command will allow. In
fact the only basis for the right of this class of colleges to the title, "denomina-
tional," is the fact that they have been founded by representative men of different
religious organizations; that they are largely supported by the members and
adherents of those organizations, and that their management is in the hands
of men whose ideas of education include, in the broadest sense, the fundamental
facts of religion. If the recognition of the religious nature of man, and the
necessity of its education be sectarianism, the denominational coUege must j^ead
guilty to the charge from John Harvard to the present time. But it denies die

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The Christian Student 69

correctness of me indictment, and would place over its doors what was said of
Browning t^ one of his reviewers — ^"We believe in soul, and are very sure of
God.** There are approximately two hundred and fifty colleges of this class in
the country, and they include nearly one half of the entire number of our college

Assuming that we have correctly identified the denominational college, we
raise the question of its, usefulness and necessity. Is this class of colleges as
greatly needed as any other class? Is it needed as a part of our educational
system, or have other institutions arisen which render this class unnecessary?
In considering these questions, we remark:

1. That the denominational college is not an opponent or rival of any other
class of colleges. It makes no war upon state education; it offers no challenges
to sectarian or private schools. It seeks to increase the general interest in
education, to elevate its standards, and improve the tone of educational work.
It stands for that for which the American college is everywhere supposed to
stand— the education of every man's children, and the highest culture which our
young people can be induced to secure. It readily adopts whatever it regards
as best in other institutions, and encourages the general purpose of others, even
where it cannot approve their systems in all their details. While it emphasizes
the moral and religious in education, it claims no monopoly of college Chris-
tianity; it holds no patent on godliness. It is glad to acknowledge excellence
wherever it exists, and counts every man a fellow-worker who seeks to fit
American youth to meet the demands of the country and the time.

2. The history of American colleges is at least complimentary to denomina-
tional institutions. Our first college was founded by a Christian minister; its
first endowment consisted of half his fortune; his books were the beginning of
its library. Cambridge was selected as its location because of its importance
as a religious center. Here the "Cambridge Platform" was adopted; here was
set up the first printing press in America; from this place the first Protestant
missionaries were sent to the heathen ; here the first American Bible was printed.
If Harvard had not been emphatically religious it could not have been at all;
had it not at that time been denominational it would not have been religious.
For fifty years following. Harvard was the only college in the land, and for
more than a hundred and fifty years from the founding of Harvard, there were
no other than denominational colleges in the country. The ideas of the men
who founded and for many years conducted these institutions were well
expressed in one of the early college rules, which ran thus— "Let every student
be plainly instructed and earnestly pressed to consider well, that the chief
end of his life and studies is to know God and Jesus Christ, which is eternal
life, and therefore to lay Christ as the only foundation of sound knowledge
and learning." Whether Harvard has been kept true to its foundation principles
is a question which does not enter into this discussion ; the only point upon which
we insist is that the American college began its history with the avowed purpose
of combining higher learning with Christian culture, a purpose which still
remains the fundamental object of the denominational college. On the first
college seal in America stood the words — "In gloriam Christi," and on a later
one — "Christo et Ecclesise." These mottoes embody the faith of which our
colleges were bom — ^mottoes which would now fitly emblazon a common seal for
all the denominational colleges in the nation.

From the founding of Harvard in 1636 to the opening of the Northwest
Territory in 1787, higher education in this country was conducted 1^ what were

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7o " The Christiaii Student

practically denominational colleges. It is true that many of these institutions
received, at different times, aid from state funds, but they did not pass into
state control. The state assisted the colleges as they were, not as state institu-
tions. It is also true that the relations of these colleges to the denomina-
tions which they represented was not precisely the same in all cases, but that
which had been the fundamental aim of the college from the first, namely,
religious, moral, and mental culture, remained through this period of a century
and a half. The state was sympathetic with this Chrfstian view of education;
the quasi-political embarrassments which have since arisen had not become
perplexing. The college was treated as a Christian institution; in the most
extensive revivals of religion of that period, the colleges were centers of
influence, and home missionaries in the New West regarded the college as
essential to their Christian work.

During this time a great amount of valuable work was accomplished for the
cause of education. Twenty-four colleges had been founded— a great work
considering the means available in the country in those years. The standards
of college education were raised; the number of subjects included in the
curriculum was increased; at the opening of the Revolution, New England
alone could, with just pride, make mention of her two thousand college gradu-
ates, and Massachusetts could boast that there was not in the colony a person
twelve years old who was unable to read and write. During this period, the
coimtry passed through two wars besides meeting the constant hostility of the
Indian tribes. These struggles taxed the resources of the people to the utmost,
and subjected their patriotism to the severest tests. Under these protracted
strains the colleges proved the bulwarks of national loyalty. Edmund Burke
attributed what he termed ''the intractable spirit of the Americans" to their
college education, and a distinguished French Baron who visited this country
in an early day, said, "If you would find the true Americans, you must look
for them in their college halls." It was in these colleges that the national and
the college spirit were -joined together, never to be put asunder. In the period
immediately following the Revolution a wave of French infidelity strudc the
country. Its type was that of the scoffer ; it was connected with ideas of liberty
and self-government, at that time too enthusiastically proclaimed; it had behind
it the influence of clubs and societies, as well as the fascinations of French wit
and sarcasm. The peculiarly friendly relations of the two countries at that
time gave to it an open road to all classes of society. For the twenty years of
its high tide, the morals of the country sank to the lowest level in its history.
This wave of demoralization was first turned back by the great revivals of
religion with which the eighteenth century closed and the nineteenth begaa
These revivals were prominently college revivals. I have but to mention the
name of Timothy Dwight to recall to your thought the revolution at Yale by
which a student body was turned from five Christians and two hundred and
twenty-five avowed infidels to a Christian company, fifteen per cent of whom
became ministers of the gospel Similar movements took place in many of die
colleges of the country. Three students in Williams College initiated the
modem missionary movement which has gone into every land the world around,
and out of a college revival in the little town of Andover, Massachusetts, four
years later, came the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions,
^d still later The American Home Missionary Society. Of it was bom the first
weekly religious newspaper in the world, and on the same spot the first
organization was effected which pledged its members wholly to abstain from the
use of intoxicating drinks.

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The Christian Student 71

These facts are stated to show that, for at least a hundred and fifty years,
our colleges maintained the distinctive features of our denominational colleges —
the union of religious, moral, and. literary training. They were not the mere
machinery of church organizations, though they were in closest alliance with
Christianity. Their culture was Christian culture; they "writ God large."
Their relation to the state was that of beneficiaries, rather than that of secular
institutions; their relations to the church that of the general to the specific.

Further, the ordinance which was passed by Continental Congress in 1787
for the government of the Northwest Territory contained the following declara-
tion: "Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government
and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever
be encouraged." This article expresses with all possible distinctness the views
of those representative men, as to the objects of schools and education. They
were the advancement of religion, morality, and knowledge. The ordinance of
which this article was a part was not a mere resolution which might easily be
rescinded at the will of the body; it was of the nature of a compact, entered into
between the general government and the states which had previously claimed
this territory under royal charters, but had now ceded their rights to the
United States. This stipulation, defining the objects of education, and pledging
perpetual encouragement to schools, stood side by side with that which forever
prohibited slavery and involuntary servitude within the territory. It was with
the views expressed in this article, written upon its banners, that the college
entered upon its work in what is now the state of Ohio. And it should be noted
that though our national fathers are on record as opposed to the union of
church and state, they are nowhere upon record as in favor of the exclusion of
moral and religious culture from any institution whatever. We therefore offer
no apology for claiming the denominational college as the historic and the
typical American college.

There is another respect m which denominational colleges stand well in the
facts of history. They have had their full share in the work of making great
men. Their graduates have attained eminence not only in educational circles,
and in the church, but have been equally prominent in the services which they
have rendered, and the honors which they have received from their country.
Of the Presidents of the United States, fourteen were college graduates, and
two others received a measure of co|lege training, and of these sixteen, denomina-
tional colleges educated twelve, not claiming in this number the graduates of
Harvard since 1810. Of the Vice-Presidents, fifteen have been graduates, eight
from denominational colleges. Of the eight distinguished jurists who have filled
the office of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, six have
been graduates, and all from denominational colleges. We are not disposed to
boast of denominational achievements, but we think the class of colleges under
review may at least claim congratulations when they can read among the names
of their illustrious dead such as Webster, Longfellow, John S. C Abbott, Calvin
E. Stowe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, John A. Dix, Henry Ward Beecher, William
Raney Harper, John Hay, and many others of similar distinction. And it is
with no less satisfaction that these institutions can point to a much longer list
of living men who are helping to make the history of our own time, in which
stand such names as Vice-President Charles W. Fairbanks, David J. Brewer,
Newel Dwight Hillis, Elihu Root, Leslie M. Shaw, A. J. Beveridge, Joseph W.
Folk, William Jennings Bryan, Elmer J. Burkett, and 1^ no means least, the
honored Chancellor of the State University of Nebraska. Some three years

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72 The Christian Student

ago, about two bundred letters were addressed to prominent citizens of this
commonwealth, asking information concerning their educational advantages.
The parties addressed were selected with reference to their prominence in the
state, as men of recognized abilities, who had risen above a local fame. A
hundred and twenty replies were received, and of those reporting themselves as
college graduates, seventeen were from state institutions, and seventy-four from
denominatioBal colleges. «

2. It is not enough, however, to say that the denominational college has been
useful; it can be fajrly maintained that, in our educational work, it is a necessity.

That man is a moral being, as truly as he is a mental or a physical being,
is a. trite proposition, but it is a proposition, the full meaning of which time even
has not exhausted. The basis of religiousness is in the human constitution.
Just how man came 1^ hb moral make-up need not enter into this discussion.
Enough for our contention that he has it; so far as we can read his history, he
has always had it, and there is not a shadow of evidence that he will or can
ever outgrow it Time deepens rather than obliterates it Even those who claim
immunity from all religious faiths and proclivities, generally reveal the empti-
ness of their boast in their zeal for their own views of religion. Right, wrong,
ought, and ought not, are ideas which appear with dawning intelligence. No
man can fix the date of his first idea of God, or make sure of the day of his first
prayer. Man will worship; if not God, then gods. His temples, altars, priestly
castes, and sacrificial rites are everywhere in his history. Even his pilgrimages,
and savage immolations are but the expressions of his religious nature, untaufi^t
or misdirected. Religion has been the mightiest force in his history. It has
braved more dangers, marshaled more armies, overthrown more kingdoms than
any other factor in history. The intenseness of this religious nature interprets
alike the fires of persecution and the heroism of martyrdom. This religiousness
may take the road to superstitions and fanaticisms, or if rightly directed, it may
lead to loving self-sacrifice for the good of the race. Its proper education is the
determining fact in the case.

Nor does the necessity for its education cease at the point at which fetish
worship, and graven images, and totem poles are abandoned. As well assert
that men need no instruction in chemistry and astronomy because alchemy and
astrology have passed away. Civilization neither destroys the religious nature,
nor renders its culture less important With the passing away of the more
revoking forms of religious expression, subtle refinements, scarcely less
dangerous may take their place. Under a universal law, the religious nature
uneducated degenerates. It may sink into an unconsciousness of God, and betake
itself to the refrigerating atmosphere of a general scepticism; it may content
itself with formalities and religious commonplaces, devoid of both light and
life; it may make broad its phylacteries, and in self-deception, fast and tithe
and repeat its prayers to win compliments from heaven; it may evaporate its

Online LibraryMethodist Episcopal Church. Board of EducationThe Christian student → online text (page 33 of 41)